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Bioaccumulation and estrogenic effects of DDT, Arochlor 1254 and their 1:1 mixture on zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio).

Bioakkumulation und östrogenische Effekte von DDT, Arochlor 1254 und ihre 1:1 Mischung auf Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio).

  • Until today the effects of many chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. DDT, PCBs) against the specific organisms are still a subject of controversial discussions. It was also the case for potential endocrine effects to influence the spermatogenesis correlated with possible changes of the population's vitality. To clear this situation, three questions could be at the centre of attention: 1) Do the chemicals cause a special harmful effect on the male reproductive tract? 2) Could some particular chemical mixtures act to bind and activate the human estrogen receptor (hER)? 3) Are the life stages of an organism specially sensitive to the effects of chemicals and therefore be established as Screening-Test-System? the connected effects of DDT and Arochlor 1254 as single substance and in 1:1 mixture according to their estrogenic effectiveness on zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) were therefore investigated. the concentrations of the pesticides and their mixture ranged between 0.05-µg/l and 500-µg/l and separated by a factor of 10. It was turned out that the test concentrations of 500-µg/l were too toxic to zebrafish in all the cases. The experiment was followed up with four concentrations of DDT, A54 as well as their 1:1 mixture anew each separated by a factor of 10 and ranging between 0.05-µg/l and 50-µg/l. The bioaccumulation test within 8 days showed that the zebrafish accumulated the chemicals, but no equilibrum was reached and the concentration 0.05-µg/l was established as No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). Putting up on these analyses, the investigation of the life cycle (LC) starting with fertilized eggs demonstrated a reduction in the rate of hatchability, reproduction and length of fish emerged. These reductions involved the duration of the life cycle stages (LCS) which consequently lasted longer than expected. Exposure time and level of the tested chemicals accelerated the occurrence of these effects which were more significant when the chemical mixtures were used too. To establish whether the parameter assessed were correlated to the male reproductive tract, the quality, quantity and life span of sperm were assessed using the methods of Leong (1988) and Shapiro et al (1994). The sperm degeneration observed, led us to investigate the spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of the testes. This last experiment showed a significant reduction of the late stage of spermatogenesis and the heterophagic vacuoles which play an important role in the spermatid maturation. It could therefore be concluded that, DDT and A54 could act synergically and cause disorders of the male reproductive tract of male zebrafish and influence also their growth.

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Author:Jules Richard Kemadjou Njiwa
Advisor:Paul Müller, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult.
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of completion:2004/06/08
Publishing institution:Universität Trier
Granting institution:Universität Trier, Fachbereich 6
Date of final exam:2002/02/06
Release Date:2004/06/08
Tag:Ecotoxicology; Fish; Gas Chromatography; Reproduction; Xenobiotics
GND Keyword:Bioakkumulation; DDT; Fertilitätsstörung; Polychlorierte Biphenyle; Zebrabärbling
Institutes:Fachbereich 6 / Raum- und Umweltwissenschaften
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 55 Geowissenschaften, Geologie / 550 Geowissenschaften

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