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Strukturelle Qualitätsaspekte der formalen Tourismus-bildung in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern (Afrikas) anhand des Fallbeispiels Namibia

Structural quality aspects of tertiary tourism education in developing and emerging Sub-Saharan African countries - Case Study Namibia

  • Diese Untersuchungen beinhalten eine Diskussion von Hintergründen, Konzepten und Herausforderungen der aktuellen Qualitätsdiskussion im tertiären Tourismusbildungs-system des südlichen Afrikas. Dabei werden Fragen wie: "Welche Aspekte haben in diesen Ländern zu einer verstärkten Fokussierung auf Qualität geführt?", "Inwieweit lassen sich Erkenntnisse zu Qualitätsentwicklungen aus westlichen Industrienationen auf afrikanische Länder wie z.B. Namibia übertragen?", als auch "Welche Qualitätskriterien werden in der tertiären namibischen Tourismusbildungsinstitutionen als wichtig erachtet?" diskutiert. In diesen Untersuchungen wird diskursiv aufgezeigt, dass sich in vielen Ländern des südlichen Afrikas aufgrund rechtlicher Rahmenbedingungen in der tertiären Tourismus-bildung unterschiedliche Qualitätsansätze etablieren konnten. Eine fundierte Analyse der stark wachsenden Tourismusdestination Namibia als ausgewählte Fallstudie dient dabei als Basis zur Erarbeitung eines spezifischen Qualitätsinstruments. Neben einer Analyse der bestehende Situation versuchen diese vorliegenden Untersuchungen, einen konstruktiven Beitrag zur Qualtätsentwicklung in der namibischen tertiären Tourismusbildung zu liefern. So steht denn auch als Ziel die Erarbeitung eines namibiaspezifischen Qualitätsinstrumentes im Mittelpunkt des Interesses. Zu dessen Entwicklung wird als zentrale Methode eine angepasste Form des Delphi-Verfahrens angewendet, bei welchem eine breite Anzahl relevanter Stakeholder der namibischen tertiären Tourismusbildung eingebunden ist.
  • These studies support and specify the current discussions about quality aspects in the tertiary tourism education in southern Africa. In specific, the paper discusses questions like: 'Which aspects have led to an increased quality focus in the tourism education?' 'To what extend can evidences and experiences on quality development from western nations be transmitted to African countries such as Namibia?' as well as 'What kind of quality criteria are considered important in Namibia by their stake- and shareholders?" The study is divided into the following three modules: i. Analytical background of the growing importance of the quality-discussion in tertiary tourism education in Sub-Saharan African countries. ii. Synoptic comparison of existing quality approaches in the tourism education. Empirical development of a specific quality instrument for the tertiary Namibian tourism education. A sound analysis of the fast-growing tourist destination Namibia as a selected case study serves as a basis for the elaboration of a quality instrument for the national tertiary tourism education. But before the paper turns toward the specific situation of Namibia, it appeared necessary to discuss and understand the differences and commonalities of the existing quality approaches in the tourism education worldwide. This comparison of selected quality instruments in mainly (western) industrial countries confirms the possibility of identifying a specific set of quality indicators which all fulfil the criteria of general validation. These findings are then in a next stage used as a basis for the development of a Namibia specific quality approach. With the help of an adapted version of the Delphi-technic, a wide range of national stake- and shareholders of the Namibian tertiary tourism education is included to accept, adopt and possibly further develop these generally valid indicators. The result finally consists of 44 Namibia-specific quality indicators, which can be assigned to the four main quality dimensions 'institution', 'program', 'teaching & learning', and 'quality management'. With regards to its practical implication, this quality instrument can serve as a reference for the internal evaluation where it can be used as a valuable self-evaluation tool to guide processes and outcomes of a tourism education program or course evaluation. Furthermore, it is also possible to use it as an external quality assessment instrument. Thereby, and in order to further increase the practical value of the investigation, the results of the empirical studies are transformed into a specific external quality certification tool for tertiary Namibian tourism educational institutions. The present external quality system which currently ensures the quality control of tertiary education programs in Namibia by means of an accreditation program offers potential for further improvement and requires a quite high intensity in resources due to its focus on program/course level. Because of the stronger accuracy of the newly developed quality instrument as well as because of the increasing pressure of an ever-growing workload based on a high increase in programs, this paper recommends to stand in for a shift away from an individual program accreditation towards an institutional accreditation. Here, the newly developed approach can serve as a valuable quality instrument to not only support a stronger self-responsibility in terms of quality by the individual institutions but also takes the present situation in Namibia into consideration, whereby the current coexistence between both external quality-accreditation options as well as individual internal quality assurance approaches are supported by governmental acts. As an overall conclusion, these studies show that the debate about quality issues in tertiary tourism education in Sub-Sharan African countries cannot be contemplated as an isolated phenomenon. Quality is always connected to a specific culture and can therefore change in its conception as well as its value. For most people, quality nevertheless remains a challenge, something to be achieved, rather than a problem, something to be questioned.

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Author:Patric Arn
Advisor:Andreas Kagermeier
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of completion:2015/11/24
Publishing institution:Universität Trier
Granting institution:Universität Trier, Fachbereich 6
Date of final exam:2015/01/01
Release Date:2015/11/24
Tag:Namibia; Tourism; education; quality
GND Keyword:Bildung; Namibia; Qualität; Tourismus
Institutes:Fachbereich 6 / Raum- und Umweltwissenschaften
Dewey Decimal Classification:9 Geschichte und Geografie / 91 Geografie, Reisen / 910 Geografie, Reisen

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