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Representation and Integrability Theorems for Cauchy Transforms of Functions and Measures

  • Even though proper research on Cauchy transforms has been done, there are still a lot of open questions. For example, in the case of representation theorems, i.e. the question when a function can be represented as a Cauchy transform, there is 'still no completely satisfactory answer' ([9], p. 84). There are characterizations for measures on the circle as presented in the monograph [7] and for general compactly supported measures on the complex plane as presented in [27]. However, there seems to exist no systematic treatise of the Cauchy transform as an operator on $L_p$ spaces and weighted $L_p$ spaces on the real axis. This is the point where this thesis draws on and we are interested in developing several characterizations for the representability of a function by Cauchy transforms of $L_p$ functions. Moreover, we will attack the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms of functions and measures, a topic which is only partly explored (see [43]). We will develop different approaches involving Fourier transforms and potential theory and investigate into sufficient conditions and characterizations. For our purposes, we shall need some notation and the concept of Hardy spaces which will be part of the preliminary Chapter 1. Moreover, we introduce Fourier transforms and their complex analogue, namely Fourier-Laplace transforms. This will be of extraordinary usage due to the close connection of Cauchy and Fourier(-Laplace) transforms. In the second chapter we shall begin our research with a discussion of the Cauchy transformation on the classical (unweighted) $L_p$ spaces. Therefore, we start with the boundary behavior of Cauchy transforms including an adapted version of the Sokhotski-Plemelj formula. This result will turn out helpful for the determination of the image of the Cauchy transformation under $L_p(\R)$ for $p\in(1,\infty).$ The cases $p=1$ and $p=\infty$ are playing special roles here which justifies a treatise in separate sections. For $p=1$ we will involve the real Hardy space $H_{1}(\R)$ whereas the case $p=\infty$ shall be attacked by an approach incorporating intersections of Hardy spaces and certain subspaces of $L_{\infty}(\R).$ The third chapter prepares ourselves for the study of the Cauchy transformation on subspaces of $L_{p}(\R).$ We shall give a short overview of the basic facts about Cauchy transforms of measures and then proceed to Cauchy transforms of functions with support in a closed set $X\subset\R.$ Our goal is to build up the main theory on which we can fall back in the subsequent chapters. The fourth chapter deals with Cauchy transforms of functions and measures supported by an unbounded interval which is not the entire real axis. For convenience we restrict ourselves to the interval $[0,\infty).$ Bringing once again the Fourier-Laplace transform into play, we deduce complex characterizations for the Cauchy transforms of functions in $L_{2}(0,\infty).$ Moreover, we analyze the behavior of Cauchy transform on several half-planes and shall use these results for a fairly general geometric characterization. In the second section of this chapter, we focus on Cauchy transforms of measures with support in $[0,\infty).$ In this context, we shall derive a reconstruction formula for these Cauchy transforms holding under pretty general conditions as well as results on the behaviur on the left half-plane. We close this chapter by rather technical real-type conditions and characterizations for Cauchy transforms of functions in $L_p(0,\infty)$ basing on an approach in [82]. The most common case of Cauchy transforms, those of compactly supported functions or measures, is the subject of Chapter 5. After complex and geometric characterizations originating from similar ideas as in the fourth chapter, we adapt a functional-analytic approach in [27] to special measures, namely those with densities to a given complex measure $\mu.$ The chapter is closed with a study of the Cauchy transformation on weighted $L_p$ spaces. Here, we choose an ansatz through the finite Hilbert transform on $(-1,1).$ The sixth chapter is devoted to the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms. Since this topic has no comprehensive treatise in literature yet, we start with an introduction of weighted Bergman spaces and general results on the interaction of the Cauchy transformation in these spaces. Afterwards, we combine the theory of Zen spaces with Cauchy transforms by using once again their connection with Fourier transforms. Here, we shall encounter general Paley-Wiener theorems of the recent past. Lastly, we attack the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms by means of potential theory. Therefore, we derive a Fourier integral formula for the logarithmic energy in one and multiple dimensions and give applications to Fourier and hence Cauchy transforms. Two appendices are annexed to this thesis. The first one covers important definitions and results from measure theory with a special focus on complex measures. The second appendix contains Cauchy transforms of frequently used measures and functions with detailed calculations.

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Author:Tobias Thomaser
Referee:Jürgen Müller, Leonhard Frerick, Thomas Kalmes
Advisor:Jürgen Müller, Leonhard Frerick
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of completion:2023/06/06
Publishing institution:Universität Trier
Granting institution:Universität Trier, Fachbereich 4
Date of final exam:2023/04/21
Release Date:2023/06/15
Tag:Analysis; Bergman space; Cauchy transforms; Hardy space; Potential theory
GND Keyword:Cauchy-Transformierte; Funktionentheorie; Integrierbarkeit
Number of pages:149 Blätter
First page:2
Last page:149
Institutes:Fachbereich 4
Licence (German):License LogoCC BY-NC-ND: Creative-Commons-Lizenz 4.0 International

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