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Mon, 08 Mar 2021 09:45:11 +0200Mon, 08 Mar 2021 09:45:11 +0200De Rham and Cech-de Rham Cohomologies of Smooth Foliated Manifolds
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1635
In order to classify smooth foliated manifolds, which are smooth maifolds equipped with a smooth foliation, we introduce the de Rham cohomologies of smooth foliated manifolds. These cohomologies are build in a similar way as the de Rham cohomologies of smooth manifolds. We develop some tools to compute these cohomologies. For example we proof a Mayer Vietoris theorem for foliated de Rham cohomology and show that these cohomologys are invariant under integrable homotopy. A generalization of a known Künneth formula, which relates the cohomologies of a product foliation with its factors, is discussed. In particular, this envolves a splitting theory of sequences between Frechet spaces and a theory of projective spectrums. We also prove, that the foliated de Rham cohomology is isomorphic to the Cech-de Rham cohomology and the Cech cohomology of leafwise constant functions of an underlying so called good cover.Thorben Schlierkampdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1635Tue, 03 Aug 2021 09:45:11 +0200On particles, fibers and suspension flows
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1506
This work studies typical mathematical challenges occurring in the modeling and simulation of manufacturing processes of paper or industrial textiles. In particular, we consider three topics: approximate models for the motion of small inertial particles in an incompressible Newtonian fluid, effective macroscopic approximations for a dilute particle suspension contained in a bounded domain accounting for a non-uniform particle distribution and particle inertia, and possibilities for a reduction of computational cost in the simulations of slender elastic fibers moving in a turbulent fluid flow.
We consider the full particle-fluid interface problem given in terms of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled to momentum equations of a small rigid body. By choosing an appropriate asymptotic scaling for the particle-fluid density ratio and using an asymptotic expansion for the solution components, we derive approximations of the original interface problem. The approximate systems differ according to the chosen scaling of the density ratio in their physical behavior allowing the characterization of different inertial regimes.
We extend the asymptotic approach to the case of many particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. Under specific assumptions for the combination of particle size and particle number, we derive asymptotic approximations of this system. The approximate systems describe the particle motion which allows to use a mean field approach in order to formulate the continuity equation for the particle probability density function. The coupling of the latter with the approximation for the fluid momentum equation then reveals a macroscopic suspension description which accounts for non-uniform particle distributions in space and for small particle inertia.
A slender fiber in a turbulent air flow can be modeled as a stochastic inextensible one-dimensionally parametrized Kirchhoff beam, i.e., by a stochastic partial differential algebraic equation. Its simulations involve the solution of large non-linear systems of equations by Newton's method. In order to decrease the computational time, we explore different methods for the estimation of the solution. Additionally, we apply smoothing techniques to the Wiener Process in order to regularize the stochastic force driving the fiber, exploring their respective impact on the solution and performance. We also explore the applicability of the Wiener chaos expansion as a solution technique for the simulation of the fiber dynamics.Alexander Vibedoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1506Tue, 12 Jan 2021 16:53:39 +0100Stochastic Particle Systems and Optimization - Branching Processes, Mean Field Games and Impulse Control
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1491
This thesis addresses three different topics from the fields of mathematical finance, applied probability and stochastic optimal control. Correspondingly, it is subdivided into three independent main chapters each of which approaches a mathematical problem with a suitable notion of a stochastic particle system.
In Chapter 1, we extend the branching diffusion Monte Carlo method of Henry-Labordère et. al. (2019) to the case of parabolic PDEs with mixed local-nonlocal analytic nonlinearities. We investigate branching diffusion representations of classical solutions, and we provide sufficient conditions under which the branching diffusion representation solves the PDE in the viscosity sense. Our theoretical setup directly leads to a Monte Carlo algorithm, whose applicability is showcased in two stylized high-dimensional examples. As our main application, we demonstrate how our methodology can be used to value financial positions with defaultable, systemically important counterparties.
In Chapter 2, we formulate and analyze a mathematical framework for continuous-time mean field games with finitely many states and common noise, including a rigorous probabilistic construction of the state process. The key insight is that we can circumvent the master equation and reduce the mean field equilibrium to a system of forward-backward systems of (random) ordinary differential equations by conditioning on common noise events. We state and prove a corresponding existence theorem, and we illustrate our results in three stylized application examples. In the absence of common noise, our setup reduces to that of Gomes, Mohr and Souza (2013) and Cecchin and Fischer (2020).
In Chapter 3, we present a heuristic approach to tackle stochastic impulse control problems in discrete time. Based on the work of Bensoussan (2008) we reformulate the classical Bellman equation of stochastic optimal control in terms of a discrete-time QVI, and we prove a corresponding verification theorem. Taking the resulting optimal impulse control as a starting point, we devise a self-learning algorithm that estimates the continuation and intervention region of such a problem. Its key features are that it explores the state space of the underlying problem by itself and successively learns the behavior of the optimally controlled state process. For illustration, we apply our algorithm to a classical example problem, and we give an outlook on open questions to be addressed in future research.Daniel Hoffmanndoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1491Tue, 17 Nov 2020 13:25:51 +0100On robust small area estimation
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1480
Tobias Schochdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1480Tue, 17 Nov 2020 13:24:55 +0100New Concise Extended Formulations for Circular Structures in Optimization Problems
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1478
Many NP-hard optimization problems that originate from classical graph theory, such as the maximum stable set problem and the maximum clique problem, have been extensively studied over the past decades and involve the choice of a subset of edges or vertices. There usually exist combinatorial methods that can be applied to solve them directly in the graph.
The most simple method is to enumerate feasible solutions and select the best. It is not surprising that this method is very slow oftentimes, so the task is to cleverly discard fruitless search space during the search. An alternative method to solve graph problems is to formulate integer linear programs, such that their solution yields an optimal solution to the original optimization problem in the graph. In order to solve integer linear programs, one can start with relaxing the integer constraints and then try to find inequalities for cutting off fractional extreme points. In the best case, it would be possible to describe the convex hull of the feasible region of the integer linear program with a set of inequalities. In general, giving a complete description of this convex hull is out of reach, even if it has a polynomial number of facets. Thus, one tries to strengthen the (weak) relaxation of the integer linear program best possible via strong inequalities that are valid for the convex hull of feasible integer points.
Many classes of valid inequalities are of exponential size. For instance, a graph can have exponentially many odd cycles in general and therefore the number of odd cycle inequalities for the maximum stable set problem is exponential. It is sometimes possible to check in polynomial time if some given point violates any of the exponentially many inequalities. This is indeed the case for the odd cycle inequalities for the maximum stable set problem. If a polynomial time separation algorithm is known, there exists a formulation of polynomial size that contains a given point if and only if it does not violate one of the (potentially exponentially many) inequalities. This thesis can be divided into two parts. The first part is the main part and it contains various new results. We present new extended formulations for several optimization problems, i.e. the maximum stable set problem, the nonconvex quadratic program with box
constraints and the p-median problem. In the second part we modify a very fast algorithm for finding a maximum clique in very large sparse graphs. We suggest and compare three alternative versions of this algorithm to the original version and compare their strengths and weaknesses.Bernd Perscheiddoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1478Tue, 13 Oct 2020 10:38:38 +0200Robust Training of Artificial Neural Networks via p-Quasinorms
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1435
Data used for the purpose of machine learning are often erroneous. In this thesis, p-quasinorms (p<1) are employed as loss functions in order to increase the robustness of training algorithms for artificial neural networks. Numerical issues arising from these loss functions are addressed via enhanced optimization algorithms (proximal point methods; Frank-Wolfe methods) based on the (non-monotonic) Armijo-rule. Numerical experiments comprising 1100 test problems confirm the effectiveness of the approach. Depending on the parametrization, an average reduction of the absolute residuals of up to 64.6% is achieved (aggregated over 100 test problems).Stefan Geisendoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1435Thu, 06 Aug 2020 08:45:16 +0200On port-Hamiltonian modeling and structure-preserving model reduction
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1449
In this thesis we study structure-preserving model reduction methods for the efficient and reliable approximation of dynamical systems. A major focus is the approximation of a nonlinear flow problem on networks, which can, e.g., be used to describe gas network systems. Our proposed approximation framework guarantees so-called port-Hamiltonian structure and is general enough to be realizable by projection-based model order reduction combined with complexity reduction. We divide the discussion of the flow problem into two parts, one concerned with the linear damped wave equation and the other one with the general nonlinear flow problem on networks.
The study around the linear damped wave equation relies on a Galerkin framework, which allows for convenient network generalizations. Notable contributions of this part are the profound analysis of the algebraic setting after space-discretization in relation to the infinite dimensional setting and its implications for model reduction. In particular, this includes the discussion of differential-algebraic structures associated to the network-character of our problem and the derivation of compatibility conditions related to fundamental physical properties. Amongst the different model reduction techniques, we consider the moment matching method to be a particularly well-suited choice in our framework.
The Galerkin framework is then appropriately extended to our general nonlinear flow problem. Crucial supplementary concepts are required for the analysis, such as the partial Legendre transform and a more careful discussion of the underlying energy-based modeling. The preservation of the port-Hamiltonian structure after the model-order- and complexity-reduction-step represents a major focus of this work. Similar as in the analysis of the model order reduction, compatibility conditions play a crucial role in the analysis of our complexity reduction, which relies on a quadrature-type ansatz. Furthermore, energy-stable time-discretization schemes are derived for our port-Hamiltonian approximations, as structure-preserving methods from literature are not applicable due to our rather unconventional parametrization of the solution.
Apart from the port-Hamiltonian approximation of the flow problem, another topic of this thesis is the derivation of a new extension of moment matching methods from linear systems to quadratic-bilinear systems. Most system-theoretic reduction methods for nonlinear systems rely on multivariate frequency representations. Our approach instead uses univariate frequency representations tailored towards user-defined families of inputs. Then moment matching corresponds to a one-dimensional interpolation problem rather than to a multi-dimensional interpolation as for the multivariate approaches, i.e., it involves fewer interpolation frequencies to be chosen. The notion of signal-generator-driven systems, variational expansions of the resulting autonomous systems as well as the derivation of convenient tensor-structured approximation conditions are the main ingredients of this part. Notably, our approach allows for the incorporation of general input relations in the state equations, not only affine-linear ones as in existing system-theoretic methods.Björn Liljegren-Sailerdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1449Wed, 05 Aug 2020 14:37:38 +0200Nonlocal models with truncated interaction kernels - analysis, finite element methods and shape optimization
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1225
Nonlocal operators are used in a wide variety of models and applications due to many natural phenomena being driven by nonlocal dynamics. Nonlocal operators are integral operators allowing for interactions between two distinct points in space. The nonlocal models investigated in this thesis involve kernels that are assumed to have a finite range of nonlocal interactions. Kernels of this type are used in nonlocal elasticity and convection-diffusion models as well as finance and image analysis. Also within the mathematical theory they arouse great interest, as they are asymptotically related to fractional and classical differential equations.
The results in this thesis can be grouped according to the following three aspects: modeling and analysis, discretization and optimization.
Mathematical models demonstrate their true usefulness when put into numerical practice. For computational purposes, it is important that the support of the kernel is clearly determined. Therefore nonlocal interactions are typically assumed to occur within an Euclidean ball of finite radius. In this thesis we consider more general interaction sets including norm induced balls as special cases and extend established results about well-posedness and asymptotic limits.
The discretization of integral equations is a challenging endeavor. Especially kernels which are truncated by Euclidean balls require carefully designed quadrature rules for the implementation of efficient finite element codes. In this thesis we investigate the computational benefits of polyhedral interaction sets as well as geometrically approximated interaction sets. In addition to that we outline the computational advantages of sufficiently structured problem settings.
Shape optimization methods have been proven useful for identifying interfaces in models governed by partial differential equations. Here we consider a class of shape optimization problems constrained by nonlocal equations which involve interface-dependent kernels. We derive the shape derivative associated to the nonlocal system model and solve the problem by established numerical techniques.Christian Vollmanndoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1225Tue, 27 Aug 2019 14:06:24 +0200Cardinality-Constrained Discrete Optimization for Regression
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1209
We consider a linear regression model for which we assume that some of the observed variables are irrelevant for the prediction. Including the wrong variables in the statistical model can either lead to the problem of having too little information to properly estimate the statistic of interest, or having too much information and consequently describing fictitious connections. This thesis considers discrete optimization to conduct a variable selection. In light of this, the subset selection regression method is analyzed. The approach gained a lot of interest in recent years due to its promising predictive performance. A major challenge associated with the subset selection regression is the computational difficulty. In this thesis, we propose several improvements for the efficiency of the method. Novel bounds on the coefficients of the subset selection regression are developed, which help to tighten the relaxation of the associated mixed-integer program, which relies on a Big-M formulation. Moreover, a novel mixed-integer linear formulation for the subset selection regression based on a bilevel optimization reformulation is proposed. Finally, it is shown that the perspective formulation of the subset selection regression is equivalent to a state-of-the-art binary formulation. We use this insight to develop novel bounds for the subset selection regression problem, which show to be highly effective in combination with the proposed linear formulation.
In the second part of this thesis, we examine the statistical conception of the subset selection regression and conclude that it is misaligned with its intention. The subset selection regression uses the training error to decide on which variables to select. The approach conducts the validation on the training data, which oftentimes is not a good estimate of the prediction error. Hence, it requires a predetermined cardinality bound. Instead, we propose to select variables with respect to the cross-validation value. The process is formulated as a mixed-integer program with the sparsity becoming subject of the optimization. Usually, a cross-validation is used to select the best model out of a few options. With the proposed program the best model out of all possible models is selected. Since the cross-validation is a much better estimate of the prediction error, the model can select the best sparsity itself.
The thesis is concluded with an extensive simulation study which provides evidence that discrete optimization can be used to produce highly valuable predictive models with the cross-validation subset selection regression almost always producing the best results.Dennis Kreberdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1209Tue, 20 Aug 2019 09:02:53 +0200Optimization in Tensor Spaces for Data Science and Scientific Computing
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1107
In this thesis, we consider the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems with an underlying low-rank tensor structure. Due to the exponentially increasing computational complexity in the number of dimensions—the so-called curse of dimensionality—they present a considerable computational challenge and become infeasible even for moderate problem sizes.
Multilinear algebra and tensor numerical methods have a wide range of applications in the fields of data science and scientific computing. Due to the typically large problem sizes in practical settings, efficient methods, which exploit low-rank structures, are essential. In this thesis, we consider an application each in both of these fields.
Tensor completion, or imputation of unknown values in partially known multiway data is an important problem, which appears in statistics, mathematical imaging science and data science. Under the assumption of redundancy in the underlying data, this is a well-defined problem and methods of mathematical optimization can be applied to it.
Due to the fact that tensors of fixed rank form a Riemannian submanifold of the ambient high-dimensional tensor space, Riemannian optimization is a natural framework for these problems, which is both mathematically rigorous and computationally efficient.
We present a novel Riemannian trust-region scheme, which compares favourably with the state of the art on selected application cases and outperforms known methods on some test problems.
Optimization problems governed by partial differential equations form an area of scientific computing which has applications in a variety of areas, ranging from physics to financial mathematics. Due to the inherent high dimensionality of optimization problems arising from discretized differential equations, these problems present computational challenges, especially in the case of three or more dimensions. An even more challenging class of optimization problems has operators of integral instead of differential type in the constraint. These operators are nonlocal, and therefore lead to large, dense discrete systems of equations. We present a novel solution method, based on separation of spatial dimensions and provably low-rank approximation of the nonlocal operator. Our approach allows the solution of multidimensional problems with a complexity which is only slightly larger than linear in the univariate grid size; this improves the state of the art for a particular test problem problem by at least two orders of magnitude.Gennadij Heideldoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1107Tue, 16 Apr 2019 08:27:22 +0200Copositivity in Infinite Dimension
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1074
Many combinatorial optimization problems on finite graphs can be formulated as conic convex programs, e.g. the stable set problem, the maximum clique problem or the maximum cut problem. Especially NP-hard problems can be written as copositive programs. In this case the complexity is moved entirely into the copositivity constraint.
Copositive programming is a quite new topic in optimization. It deals with optimization over the so-called copositive cone, a superset of the positive semidefinite cone, where the quadratic form x^T Ax has to be nonnegative for only the nonnegative vectors x. Its dual cone is the cone of completely positive matrices, which includes all matrices that can be decomposed as a sum of nonnegative symmetric vector-vector-products.
The related optimization problems are linear programs with matrix variables and cone constraints.
However, some optimization problems can be formulated as combinatorial problems on infinite graphs. For example, the kissing number problem can be formulated as a stable set problem on a circle.
In this thesis we will discuss how the theory of copositive optimization can be lifted up to infinite dimension. For some special cases we will give applications in combinatorial optimization.Claudia Adamsdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1074Thu, 14 Mar 2019 11:52:05 +0100Optimal Control of Partial Integro-Differential Equations and Analysis of the Gaussian Kernel
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/914
An important field of applied mathematics is the simulation of complex financial, mechanical, chemical, physical or medical processes with mathematical models. In addition to the pure modeling of the processes, the simultaneous optimization of an objective function by changing the model parameters is often the actual goal. Models in fields such as finance, biology or medicine benefit from this optimization step.
While many processes can be modeled using an ordinary differential equation (ODE), partial differential equations (PDEs) are needed to optimize heat conduction and flow characteristics, spreading of tumor cells in tissue as well as option prices. A partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) is a parital differential equation involving an integral operator, e.g., the convolution of the unknown function with a given kernel function. PIDEs occur for example in models that simulate adhesive forces between cells or option prices with jumps.
In each of the two parts of this thesis, a certain PIDE is the main object of interest. In the first part, we study a semilinear PIDE-constrained optimal control problem with the aim to derive necessary optimality conditions. In the second, we analyze a linear PIDE that includes the convolution of the unknown function with the Gaussian kernel.Lukas Aaron Zimmerdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/914Tue, 27 Nov 2018 09:01:28 +0100The Nonlocal Spatial Ramsey Model with Endogenous Productivity Growth
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/918
The economic growth theory analyses which factors affect economic growth and tries to analyze how it can last. A popular neoclassical growth model is the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, which aims to determine how much of its income a nation or an economy should save in order to maximize its welfare. In this thesis, we present and analyze an extended capital accumulation equation of a spatial version of the Ramsey model, balancing diffusive and agglomerative effects. We model the capital mobility in space via a nonlocal diffusion operator which allows for jumps of the capital stock from one location to an other. Moreover, this operator smooths out heterogeneities in the factor distributions slower, which generated a more realistic behavior of capital flows. In addition to that, we introduce an endogenous productivity-production operator which depends on time and on the capital distribution in space. This operator models the technological progress of the economy. The resulting mathematical model is an optimal control problem under a semilinear parabolic integro-differential equation with initial and volume constraints, which are a nonlocal analog to local boundary conditions, and box-constraints on the state and the control variables. In this thesis, we consider this problem on a bounded and unbounded spatial domain, in both cases with a finite time horizon. We derive existence results of weak solutions for the capital accumulation equations in both settings and we proof the existence of a Ramsey equilibrium in the unbounded case. Moreover, we solve the optimal control problem numerically and discuss the results in the economic context.Laura Viktoria Somorowskydoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/918Tue, 25 Sep 2018 09:44:03 +0200A Method for Completely Positive and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/879
A matrix A is called completely positive if there exists an entrywise nonnegative matrix B such that A = BB^T. These matrices can be used to obtain convex reformulations of for example nonconvex quadratic or combinatorial problems. One of the main problems with completely positive matrices is checking whether a given matrix is completely positive. This is known to be NP-hard in general. rnrnFor a given matrix completely positive matrix A, it is nontrivial to find a cp-factorization A=BB^T with nonnegative B since this factorization would provide a certificate for the matrix to be completely positive. But this factorization is not only important for the membership to the completely positive cone, it can also be used to recover the solution of the underlying quadratic or combinatorial problem. In addition, it is not a priori known how many columns are necessary to generate a cp-factorization for the given matrix. The minimal possible number of columns is called the cp-rank of A and so far it is still an open question how to derive the cp-rank for a given matrix. Some facts on completely positive matrices and the cp-rank will be given in Chapter 2. Moreover, in Chapter 6, we will see a factorization algorithm, which, for a given completely positive matrix A and a suitable starting point, computes the nonnegative factorization A=BB^T. The algorithm therefore returns a certificate for the matrix to be completely positive. As introduced in Chapter 3, the fundamental idea of the factorization algorithm is to start from an initial square factorization which is not necessarily entrywise nonnegative, and extend this factorization to a matrix for which the number of columns is greater than or equal to the cp-rank of A. Then it is the goal to transform this generated factorization into a cp-factorization. This problem can be formulated as a nonconvex feasibility problem, as shown in Section 4.1, and solved by a method which is based on alternating projections, as proven in Chapter 6. On the topic of alternating projections, a survey will be given in Chapter 5. Here we will see how to apply this technique to several types of sets like subspaces, convex sets, manifolds and semialgebraic sets. Furthermore, we will see some known facts on the convergence rate for alternating projections between these types of sets. Considering more than two sets yields the so called cyclic projections approach. Here some known facts for subspaces and convex sets will be shown. Moreover, we will see a new convergence result on cyclic projections among a sequence of manifolds in Section 5.4. In the context of cp-factorizations, a local convergence result for the introduced algorithm will be given. This result is based on the known convergence for alternating projections between semialgebraic sets. To obtain cp-facrorizations with this first method, it is necessary to solve a second order cone problem in every projection step, which is very costly. Therefore, in Section 6.2, we will see an additional heuristic extension, which improves the numerical performance of the algorithm. Extensive numerical tests in Chapter 7 will show that the factorization method is very fast in most instances. In addition, we will see how to derive a certificate for the matrix to be an element of the interior of the completely positive cone. As a further application, this method can be extended to find a symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization, where we consider an additional low-rank constraint. Here again, the method to derive factorizations for completely positive matrices can be used, albeit with some further adjustments, introduced in Section 8.1. Moreover, we will see that even for the general case of deriving a nonnegative matrix factorization for a given rectangular matrix A, the key aspects of the completely positive factorization approach can be used. To this end, it becomes necessary to extend the idea of finding a completely positive factorization such that it can be used for rectangular matrices. This yields an applicable algorithm for nonnegative matrix factorization in Section 8.2. Numerical results for this approach will suggest that the presented algorithms and techniques to obtain completely positive matrix factorizations can be extended to general nonnegative factorization problems.Patrick Hermann Groetznerdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/879Tue, 04 Sep 2018 09:59:32 +0200Dynamics of the Taylor Shift on Spaces of Holomorphic Functions
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/867
We will consider discrete dynamical systems (X,T) which consist of a state space X and a linear operator T acting on X. Given a state x in X at time zero, its state at time n is determined by the n-th iteration T^n(x). We are interested in the long-term behaviour of this system, that means we want to know how the sequence (T^n (x))_(n in N) behaves for increasing n and x in X. In the first chapter, we will sum up the relevant definitions and results of linear dynamics. In particular, in topological dynamics the notions of hypercyclic, frequently hypercyclic and mixing operators will be presented. In the setting of measurable dynamics, the most important definitions will be those of weakly and strongly mixing operators. If U is an open set in the (extended) complex plane containing 0, we can define the Taylor shift operator on the space H(U) of functions f holomorphic in U as Tf(z) = (f(z)- f(0))/z if z is not equal to 0 and otherwise Tf(0) = f'(0). In the second chapter, we will start examining the Taylor shift on H(U) endowed with the topology of locally uniform convergence. Depending on the choice of U, we will study whether or not the Taylor shift is weakly or strongly mixing in the Gaussian sense. Next, we will consider Banach spaces of functions holomorphic on the unit disc D. The first section of this chapter will sum up the basic properties of Bergman and Hardy spaces in order to analyse the dynamical behaviour of the Taylor shift on these Banach spaces in the next part. In the third section, we study the space of Cauchy transforms of complex Borel measures on the unit circle first endowed with the quotient norm of the total variation and then with a weak-* topology. While the Taylor shift is not even hypercyclic in the first case, we show that it is mixing for the latter case. In Chapter 4, we will first introduce Bergman spaces A^p(U) for general open sets and provide approximation results which will be needed in the next chapter where we examine the Taylor shift on these spaces on its dynamical properties. In particular, for 1<=p<2 we will find sufficient conditions for the Taylor shift to be weakly mixing or strongly mixing in the Gaussian sense. For p>=2, we consider specific Cauchy transforms in order to determine open sets U such that the Taylor shift is mixing on A^p(U). In both sections, we will illustrate the results with appropriate examples. Finally, we apply our results to universal Taylor series. The results of Chapter 5 about the Taylor shift allow us to consider the behaviour of the partial sums of the Taylor expansion of functions in general Bergman spaces outside its disc of convergence.Maike Thelendoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/867Tue, 28 Aug 2018 09:03:26 +0200Extension Operators with Optimal Continuity Estimates
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/866
Given a compact set K in R^d, the theory of extension operators examines the question, under which conditions on K, the linear and continuous restriction operators r_n:E^n(R^d)→E^n(K),f↦(∂^α f|_K)_{|α|≤n}, n in N_0 and r:E(R^d)→E(K),f↦(∂^α f|_K)_{α in N_0^d}, have a linear and continuous right inverse. This inverse is called extension operator and this problem is known as Whitney's extension problem, named after Hassler Whitney. In this context, E^n(K) respectively E(K) denote spaces of Whitney jets of order n respectively of infinite order. With E^n(R^d) and E(R^d), we denote the spaces of n-times respectively infinitely often continuously partially differentiable functions on R^d. Whitney already solved the question for finite order completely. He showed that it is always possible to construct a linear and continuous right inverse E_n for r_n. This work is concerned with the question of how the existence of a linear and continuous right inverse of r, fulfilling certain continuity estimates, can be characterized by properties of K. On E(K), we introduce a full real scale of generalized Whitney seminorms (|·|_{s,K})_{s≥0}, where |·|_{s,K} coincides with the classical Whitney seminorms for s in N_0. We equip also E(R^d) with a family (|·|_{s,L})_{s≥0} of those seminorms, where L shall be a a compact set with K in L-°. This family of seminorms on E(R^d) suffices to characterize the continuity properties of an extension operator E, since we can without loss of generality assume that E(E(K)) in D^s(L).
In Chapter 2, we introduce basic concepts and summarize the classical results of Whitney and Stein.
In Chapter 3, we modify the classical construction of Whitney's operators E_n and show that |E_n(·)|_{s,L}≤C|·|_{s,K} for s in[n,n+1).
In Chapter 4, we generalize a result of Frerick, Jordá and Wengenroth and show that LMI(1) for K implies the existence of an extension operator E without loss of derivatives, i.e. we have it fulfils |E(·)|_{s,L}≤C|·|_{s,K} for all s≥0. We show that a large class of self similar sets, which includes the Cantor set and the Sierpinski triangle, admits an extensions operator without loss of derivatives.
In Chapter 5 we generalize a result of Frerick, Jordá and Wengenroth and show that WLMI(r) for r≥1 implies the existence of a tame linear extension operator E having a homogeneous loss of derivatives, such that |E(·)|_{s,L}≤C|·|_{(r+ε)s,K} for all s≥0 and all ε>0.
In the last chapter we characterize the existence of an extension operator having an arbitrary loss of derivatives by the existence of measures on K.Arne Jakobsdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/866Tue, 28 Aug 2018 09:02:20 +0200Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Wine Fermentation
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/860
Industrial companies mainly aim for increasing their profit. That is why they intend to reduce production costs without sacrificing the quality. Furthermore, in the context of the 2020 energy targets, energy efficiency plays a crucial role. Mathematical modeling, simulation and optimization tools can contribute to the achievement of these industrial and environmental goals. For the process of white wine fermentation, there exists a huge potential for saving energy. In this thesis mathematical modeling, simulation and optimization tools are customized to the needs of this biochemical process and applied to it. Two different models are derived that represent the process as it can be observed in real experiments. One model takes the growth, division and death behavior of the single yeast cell into account. This is modeled by a partial integro-differential equation and additional multiple ordinary integro-differential equations showing the development of the other substrates involved. The other model, described by ordinary differential equations, represents the growth and death behavior of the yeast concentration and development of the other substrates involved. The more detailed model is investigated analytically and numerically. Thereby existence and uniqueness of solutions are studied and the process is simulated. These investigations initiate a discussion regarding the value of the additional benefit of this model compared to the simpler one. For optimization, the process is described by the less detailed model. The process is identified by a parameter and state estimation problem. The energy and quality targets are formulated in the objective function of an optimal control or model predictive control problem controlling the fermentation temperature. This means that cooling during the process of wine fermentation is controlled. Parameter and state estimation with nonlinear economic model predictive control is applied in two experiments. For the first experiment, the optimization problems are solved by multiple shooting with a backward differentiation formula method for the discretization of the problem and a sequential quadratic programming method with a line search strategy and a Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno update for the solution of the constrained nonlinear optimization problems. Different rounding strategies are applied to the resulting post-fermentation control profile. Furthermore, a quality assurance test is performed. The outcomes of this experiment are remarkable energy savings and tasty wine. For the next experiment, some modifications are made, and the optimization problems are solved by using direct transcription via orthogonal collocation on finite elements for the discretization and an interior-point filter line-search method for the solution of the constrained nonlinear optimization problems. The second experiment verifies the results of the first experiment. This means that by the use of this novel control strategy energy conservation is ensured and production costs are reduced. From now on tasty white wine can be produced at a lower price and with a clearer conscience at the same time.Christina Schenkdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/860Wed, 08 Aug 2018 06:59:20 +0200Quadratic Optimization: Copositive Modelling, Algorithms and Aspects of Duality
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/852
Quadratische Optimierungsprobleme (QP) haben ein breites Anwendungsgebiet, wie beispielsweise kombinatorische Probleme einschließlich des maximalen Cliquenroblems. Motzkin und Straus [25] zeigten die Äquivalenz zwischen dem maximalen Cliquenproblem und dem standard quadratischen Problem. Auch mathematische Statistik ist ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet von (QP), sowie eine Vielzahl von ökonomischen Modellen basieren auf (QP), z.B. das quadratische Rucksackproblem. In [5] Bomze et al. haben das standard quadratische Optimierungsproblem (StQP) in ein Copositive-Problem umformuliert. Im Folgenden wurden Algorithmen zur Lösung dieses copositiviten Problems von Bomze und de Klerk in [6] und Dür und Bundfuss in [9] entwickelt. Während die Implementierung dieser Algorithmen einige vielversprechende numerische Ergebnisse hervorbrachten, konnten die Autoren nur die copositive Neuformulierung des (StQP)s lösen. In [11] präsentierte Burer eine vollständig positive Umformulierung für allgemeine (QP)s, sogar mit binären Nebenbedingungen. Leider konnte er keine Methode zur Lösung für ein solches vollständig positives Problem präsentieren, noch wurde eine copositive Formulierung vorgeschlagen, auf die man die oben erwähnten Algorithmen modifizieren und anwenden könnte, um diese zu lösen. Diese Arbeit wird einen neuen endlichen Algorithmus zur Lösung eines standard quadratischen Optimierungsproblems aufstellen. Desweiteren werden in dieser Thesis copositve Darstellungen für ungleichungsbeschränkte sowie gleichungsbeschränkte quadratische Optimierungsprobleme vorgestellt. Für den ersten Ansatz wurde eine vollständig positive Umformulierung des (QP) entwickelt. Die copositive Umformulierung konnte durch Betrachtung des dualen Problems des vollständig positiven Problems erhalten werden. Ein direkterer Ansatz wurde gemacht, indem das Lagrange-Duale eines äquivalenten quadratischen Optimierungsproblems betrachtet wurde, das durch eine semidefinite quadratische Nebenbedingung beschränkt wurde. In diesem Zusammenhang werden Bedingungen für starke Dualität vorgeschlagen.Duy Van Nguyendoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/852Tue, 12 Jun 2018 14:01:30 +0200Applications of the Adjoint Method in Stochastic Financial Modelling
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/834
This thesis is divided into three main parts: The description of the calibration problem, the numerical solution of this problem and the connection to optimal stochastic control problems. Fitting model prices to given market prices leads to an abstract least squares formulation as calibration problem. The corresponding option price can be computed by solving a stochastic differential equation via the Monte-Carlo method which seems to be preferred by most practitioners. Due to the fact that the Monte-Carlo method is expensive in terms of computational effort and requires memory, more sophisticated stochastic predictor-corrector schemes are established in this thesis. The numerical advantage of these predictor-corrector schemes ispresented and discussed. The adjoint method is applied to the calibration. The theoretical advantage of the adjoint method is discussed in detail. It is shown that the computational effort of gradient calculation via the adjoint method is independent of the number of calibration parameters. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results and summarize the computational advantage of the adjoint method. Furthermore, provides the connection to optimal stochastic control problems is proven in this thesis.Bastian Peter Großdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/834Fri, 09 Feb 2018 12:07:17 +0100Numerical modelling of the flight behaviour of bats to estimate the collision risk with wind turbines
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/832
In this thesis, we present a new approach for estimating the effects of wind turbines for a local bat population. We build an individual based model (IBM) which simulates the movement behaviour of every single bat of the population with its own preferences, foraging behaviour and other species characteristics. This behaviour is normalized by a Monte-Carlo simulation which gives us the average behaviour of the population. The result is an occurrence map of the considered habitat which tells us how often the bat and therefore the considered bat population frequent every region of this habitat. Hence, it is possible to estimate the crossing rate of the position of an existing or potential wind turbine. We compare this individual based approach with a partial differential equation based method. This second approach produces a lower computational effort but, unfortunately, we lose information about the movement trajectories at the same time. Additionally, the PDE based model only gives us a density profile. Hence, we lose the information how often each bat crosses special points in the habitat in one night. In a next step we predict the average number of fatalities for each wind turbine in the habitat, depending on the type of the wind turbine and the behaviour of the considered bat species. This gives us the extra mortality caused by the wind turbines for the local population. This value is used for a population model and finally we can calculate whether the population still grows or if there already is a decline in population size which leads to the extinction of the population. Using the combination of all these models, we are able to evaluate the conflict of wind turbines and bats and to predict the result of this conflict. Furthermore, it is possible to find better positions for wind turbines such that the local bat population has a better chance to survive. Since bats tend to move in swarm formations under certain circumstances, we introduce swarm simulation using partial integro-differential equations. Thereby, we have a closer look at existence and uniqueness properties of solutions.Christina Müllerdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/832Fri, 09 Feb 2018 12:02:53 +0100Optimierung der Materialausrichtung von orthotropen Materialien in Schalenkonstruktionen
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/763
In dieser Arbeit untersuchen wir das Optimierungsproblem der optimalen Materialausrichtung orthotroper Materialien in der Hülle von dreidimensionalen Schalenkonstruktionen. Ziel der Optimierung ist dabei die Minimierung der Gesamtnachgiebigkeit der Konstruktion, was der Suche nach einem möglichst steifen Design entspricht. Sowohl die mathematischen als auch die mechanischen Grundlagen werden in kompakter Form zusammengetragen und basierend darauf werden sowohl gradientenbasierte als auch auf mechanischen Prinzipien beruhende, neue Erweiterungen punktweise formulierter Optimierungsverfahren entwickelt und implementiert. Die vorgestellten Verfahren werden anhand des Beispiels des Modells einer Flugzeugtragfläche mit praxisrelevanter Problemgröße getestet und verglichen. Schließlich werden die untersuchten Methoden in ihrer Koppelung mit einem Verfahren zur Topologieoptimierung, basierend auf dem topologischen Gradienten untersucht.Heinz Zorndoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/763Thu, 04 May 2017 09:50:43 +0200On the Accuracy of Loader's Algorithm for the Binomial Density and Algorithms for Rectangle Probabilities for Markov Increments
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/758
The main achievement of this thesis is an analysis of the accuracy of computations with Loader's algorithm for the binomial density. This analysis in later progress of work could be used for a theorem about the numerical accuracy of algorithms that compute rectangle probabilities for scan statistics of a multinomially distributed random variable. An example that shall illustrate the practical use of probabilities for scan statistics is the following, which arises in epidemiology: Let n patients arrive at a clinic in d = 365 days, each of the patients with probability 1/d at each of these d days and all patients independently from each other. The knowledge of the probability, that there exist 3 adjacent days, in which together more than k patients arrive, helps deciding, after observing data, if there is a cluster which we would not suspect to have occurred randomly but for which we suspect there must be a reason. Formally, this epidemiological example can be described by a multinomial model. As multinomially distributed random variables are examples of Markov increments, which is a fact already used implicitly by Corrado (2011) to compute the distribution function of the multinomial maximum, we can use a generalized version of Corrado's Algorithm to compute the probability described in our example. To compute its result, the algorithm for rectangle probabilities for Markov increments always uses transition probabilities of the corresponding Markov Chain. In the multinomial case, the transition probabilities of the corresponding Markov Chain are binomial probabilities. Therefore, we start an analysis of accuracy of Loader's algorithm for the binomial density, which for example the statistical software R uses. With the help of accuracy bounds for the binomial density we would be able to derive accuracy bounds for the computation of rectangle probabilities for scan statistics of multinomially distributed random variables. To figure out how sharp derived accuracy bounds are, in examples these can be compared to rigorous upper bounds and rigorous lower bounds which we obtain by interval-arithmetical computations.Jannis Dimitriadisdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/758Thu, 30 Mar 2017 10:47:32 +0200Efficient PDE Constrained Shape Optimization in Shape Spaces
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/740
Shape optimization is of interest in many fields of application. In particular, shape optimization problems arise frequently in technological processes which are modelled by partial differential equations (PDEs). In a lot of practical circumstances, the shape under investigation is parametrized by a finite number of parameters, which, on the one hand, allows the application of standard optimization approaches, but, on the other hand, unnecessarily limits the space of reachable shapes. Shape calculus presents a way to circumvent this dilemma. However, so far shape optimization based on shape calculus is mainly performed using gradient descent methods. One reason for this is the lack of symmetry of second order shape derivatives or shape Hessians. A major difference between shape optimization and the standard PDE constrained optimization framework is the lack of a linear space structure on shape spaces. If one cannot use a linear space structure, then the next best structure is a Riemannian manifold structure, in which one works with Riemannian shape Hessians. They possess the often sought property of symmetry, characterize well-posedness of optimization problems and define sufficient optimality conditions. In general, shape Hessians are used to accelerate gradient-based shape optimization methods. This thesis deals with shape optimization problems constrained by PDEs and embeds these problems in the framework of optimization on Riemannian manifolds to provide efficient techniques for PDE constrained shape optimization problems on shape spaces. A Lagrange-Newton and a quasi-Newton technique in shape spaces for PDE constrained shape optimization problems are formulated. These techniques are based on the Hadamard-form of shape derivatives, i.e., on the form of integrals over the surface of the shape under investigation. It is often a very tedious, not to say painful, process to derive such surface expressions. Along the way, volume formulations in the form of integrals over the entire domain appear as an intermediate step. This thesis couples volume integral formulations of shape derivatives with optimization strategies on shape spaces in order to establish efficient shape algorithms reducing analytical effort and programming work. In this context, a novel shape space is proposed.Kathrin Welkerdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/740Mon, 16 Jan 2017 12:05:41 +0100The optimal Berry-Esseen constant in the binomial case
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/732
The present work considers the normal approximation of the binomial distribution and yields estimations of the supremum distance of the distribution functions of the binomial- and the corresponding standardized normal distribution. The type of the estimations correspond to the classical Berry-Esseen theorem, in the special case that all random variables are identically Bernoulli distributed. In this case we state the optimal constant for the Berry-Esseen theorem. In the proof of these estimations several inequalities regarding the density as well as the distribution function of the binomial distribution are presented. Furthermore in the estimations mentioned above the distribution function is replaced by the probability of arbitrary, not only unlimited intervals and in this new situation we also present an upper bound.Jona Schulzdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/732Thu, 08 Sep 2016 16:23:37 +0200Matching Problems with Additional Resource Constraints
https://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/720
Matching problems with additional resource constraints are generalizations of the classical matching problem. The focus of this work is on matching problems with two types of additional resource constraints: The couple constrained matching problem and the level constrained matching problem. The first one is a matching problem which has imposed a set of additional equality constraints. Each constraint demands that for a given pair of edges either both edges are in the matching or none of them is in the matching. The second one is a matching problem which has imposed a single equality constraint. This constraint demands that an exact number of edges in the matching are so-called on-level edges. In a bipartite graph with fixed indices of the nodes, these are the edges with end-nodes that have the same index. As a central result concerning the couple constrained matching problem we prove that this problem is NP-hard, even on bipartite cycle graphs. Concerning the complexity of the level constrained perfect matching problem we show that it is polynomially equivalent to three other combinatorial optimization problems from the literature. For different combinations of fixed and variable parameters of one of these problems, the restricted perfect matching problem, we investigate their effect on the complexity of the problem. Further, the complexity of the assignment problem with an additional equality constraint is investigated. In a central part of this work we bring couple constraints into connection with a level constraint. We introduce the couple and level constrained matching problem with on-level couples, which is a matching problem with a special case of couple constraints together with a level constraint imposed on it. We prove that the decision version of this problem is NP-complete. This shows that the level constraint can be sufficient for making a polynomially solvable problem NP-hard when being imposed on that problem. This work also deals with the polyhedral structure of resource constrained matching problems. For the polytope corresponding to the relaxation of the level constrained perfect matching problem we develop a characterization of its non-integral vertices. We prove that for any given non-integral vertex of the polytope a corresponding inequality which separates this vertex from the convex hull of integral points can be found in polynomial time. Regarding the calculation of solutions of resource constrained matching problems, two new algorithms are presented. We develop a polynomial approximation algorithm for the level constrained matching problem on level graphs, which returns solutions whose size is at most one less than the size of an optimal solution. We then describe the Objective Branching Algorithm, a new algorithm for exactly solving the perfect matching problem with an additional equality constraint. The algorithm makes use of the fact that the weighted perfect matching problem without an additional side constraint is polynomially solvable. In the Appendix, experimental results of an implementation of the Objective Branching Algorithm are listed.Dirk Johannes Thomasdoctoralthesishttps://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/720Wed, 29 Jun 2016 10:00:53 +0200