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The classic Capital Asset Pricing Model and the portfolio theory suggest that investors hold the market portfolio to diversify idiosyncratic risks. The theory predicts that expected return of assets is positive and that reacts linearly on the overall market. However, in reality, we observe that investors often do not have perfectly diversified portfolios. Empirical studies find that new factors influence the deviation from the theoretical optimal investment. In the first part of this work (Chapter 2) we study such an example, namely the influence of maximum daily returns on subsequent returns. Here we follow ideas of Bali et al. (2011). The goal is to find cross-sectional relations between extremely positive returns and expected average returns. We take account a larger number of markets worldwide. Bali et al. (2011) report with respect to the U.S. market a robust negative relation between MAX (the maximum daily return) and the expected return in the subsequent time. We extent substantially their database to a number of other countries, and also take more recent data into account (until end of 2009). From that we conclude that the relation between MAX and expected returns is not consistent in all countries. Moreover, we test the robustness of the results of Bali et al. (2011) in two time-periods using the same data from CRSP. The results show that the effect of extremely positive returns is not stable over time. Indeed we find a negative cross-sectional relation between the extremely positive returns and the average returns for the first half of the time series, however, we do not find significant effects for the second half. The main results of this chapter serve as a basis for an unpublished working paper Yuan and Rieger (2014b). While in Chapter 2 we have studied factors that prevent optimal diversification, we consider in Chapter 3 and 4 situations where the optimal structure of diversification was previously unknown, namely diversification of options (or structured financial products). Financial derivatives are important additional investment form with respect to diversification. Not only common call and put options, but also structured products enable investors to pursue a multitude of investment strategies to improve the risk-return profile. Since derivatives become more and more important, diversification of portfolios with dimension of derivatives is of particularly practical relevance. We investigate the optimal diversification strategies in connection with underlying stocks for classical rational investors with constant relative risk aversion (CRRA). In particular, we apply Monte Carlo method based on the Black-Scholes model and the Heston model for stochastic volatility to model the stock market processes and the pricing of the derivatives. Afterwards, we compare the benchmark portfolio which consists of derivatives on single assets with derivatives on the index of these assets. First we compute the utility improvement of an investment in the risk-free assets and plain-vanilla options for CRRA investors in various scenarios. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to several kinds of structured products, in particular capital protected notes (CPNs), discount certificates (DCs) and bonus certificates (BCs). We find that the decision of an investor between these two diversification strategies leads to remarkable differences. The difference in the utility improvement is influenced by risk-preferences of investors, stock prices and the properties of the derivatives in the portfolio. The results will be presented in Chapter 3 and are the basis for a yet unpublished working paper Yuan and Rieger (2014a). To check furthermore whether underlyings of structured products influence decisions of investors, we discuss explicitly the utility gain of a stock-based product and an index-based product for an investor whose preferences are described by cumulative prospect theory (CPT) (Chapter 4, compare to Yuan (2014)). The goal is that to investigate the dependence of structured products on their underlying where we put emphasis on the difference between index-products and single-stock-products, in particular with respect to loss-aversion and mental accounting. We consider capital protected notes and discount certificates as examples, and model the stock prices and the index of these stocks via Monte Carlo simulations in the Black-Scholes framework. The results point out that market conditions, particularly the expected returns and volatility of the stocks play a crucial role in determining the preferences of investors for stock-based CPNs and index-based CPNs. A median CPT investor prefers the index-based CPNs if the expected return is higher and the volatility is lower, while he prefers the stock-based CPNs in the other situation. We also show that index-based DCs are robustly more attractive as compared to stock-based DCs for CPT investors.

Matching problems with additional resource constraints are generalizations of the classical matching problem. The focus of this work is on matching problems with two types of additional resource constraints: The couple constrained matching problem and the level constrained matching problem. The first one is a matching problem which has imposed a set of additional equality constraints. Each constraint demands that for a given pair of edges either both edges are in the matching or none of them is in the matching. The second one is a matching problem which has imposed a single equality constraint. This constraint demands that an exact number of edges in the matching are so-called on-level edges. In a bipartite graph with fixed indices of the nodes, these are the edges with end-nodes that have the same index. As a central result concerning the couple constrained matching problem we prove that this problem is NP-hard, even on bipartite cycle graphs. Concerning the complexity of the level constrained perfect matching problem we show that it is polynomially equivalent to three other combinatorial optimization problems from the literature. For different combinations of fixed and variable parameters of one of these problems, the restricted perfect matching problem, we investigate their effect on the complexity of the problem. Further, the complexity of the assignment problem with an additional equality constraint is investigated. In a central part of this work we bring couple constraints into connection with a level constraint. We introduce the couple and level constrained matching problem with on-level couples, which is a matching problem with a special case of couple constraints together with a level constraint imposed on it. We prove that the decision version of this problem is NP-complete. This shows that the level constraint can be sufficient for making a polynomially solvable problem NP-hard when being imposed on that problem. This work also deals with the polyhedral structure of resource constrained matching problems. For the polytope corresponding to the relaxation of the level constrained perfect matching problem we develop a characterization of its non-integral vertices. We prove that for any given non-integral vertex of the polytope a corresponding inequality which separates this vertex from the convex hull of integral points can be found in polynomial time. Regarding the calculation of solutions of resource constrained matching problems, two new algorithms are presented. We develop a polynomial approximation algorithm for the level constrained matching problem on level graphs, which returns solutions whose size is at most one less than the size of an optimal solution. We then describe the Objective Branching Algorithm, a new algorithm for exactly solving the perfect matching problem with an additional equality constraint. The algorithm makes use of the fact that the weighted perfect matching problem without an additional side constraint is polynomially solvable. In the Appendix, experimental results of an implementation of the Objective Branching Algorithm are listed.

Service innovation has increasingly gained acknowledgement to contribute to economic growth and well-being. Despite this increased relevance in practice, service innovation is a developing research field. To advance literature on service innovation, this work analyzes with a qualitative study how firms manage service innovation activities in their organization differently. In addition, it evaluates the influence of top management commitment and corporate service innovativeness on service innovation capabilities of a firm and their implications for firm-level performance by conducting a quantitative study. Accordingly, the main overall research questions of this dissertation are: 1.) How and why do firms manage service innovation activities in their organization differently? 2.) What influence do top management commitment and corporate service innovativeness have on service innovation capabilities of a firm and what are the implications for firm-level performance? To respond to the first research question the way firms manage service innovation activities in their organization is investigated and by whom and how service innovations are developed. Moreover, it is examined why firms implement their service innovation activities differently. To achieve this a qualitative empirical study is conducted which included 22 semi-structured interviews with 15 firms in the sectors of construction, financial services, IT services, and logistics. Addressing the second research question, the aim is to improve the understanding about factors that enhance firm-level performance through service innovations. Deploying a dynamic capabilities perspective, a quantitative study is performed which underlines the importance of service innovation capabilities. More specifically, a theoretical framework is developed that proposes a positive relationship of top management commitment and corporate service innovativeness with service innovation capabilities and a positive relationship between service innovation capabilities and the firm-level performance indicators market performance, competitive advantage, and efficiency. A survey with double respondents from 87 companies from the sectors construction, financial services, IT services, and logistics was conducted to test the proposed theoretical framework by applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

The Role of Dopamine and Acetylcholine as Modulators of Selective Attention and Response Speed
(2015)

The principles of top-down and bottom-up processing are essential to cognitive psychology. At their broadest, most general definition, they denote that processing can be driven either by the salience of the stimulus input or by individual goals and strategies. Selective top-down attention, specifically, consists in the deliberate prioritizing of stimuli that are deemed goal-relevant, while selective bottom-up attention relies on the automatic allocation of attention to salient stimuli (Connor, Egeth, & Yantis, 2004; Schneider, Schote, Meyer, & Frings, 2014). Variations within neurotransmitter systems can modulate cognitive performance in a domain-specific fashion (Greenwood, Fossella, & Parasuraman, 2005). Noudoost and Moore (2011a) proposed that the influence of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system on selective top-down attention might be greater than the influence of this system on selective bottom-up attention; likewise, they assumed that the cholinergic neurotransmitter system might be more important for selective bottom-up than top-down attention. To test this hypothesis, naturally occurring variations within the two neurotransmitter systems were assessed. Five polymorphisms were selected; two of the dopaminergic system (the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and the DAT1 polymorphism) and three of the cholinergic system (the CHRNA4 rs1044396 polymorphism, the CHRNA5 rs3841324 polymorphism, and the CHRNA5 rs16969968 polymorphism). It was tested whether these polymorphisms modulated the performance in tasks of selective top-down attention (a Stroop task and a Negative priming task) and in a task of selective bottom-up attention (a Posner-Cuing task). Indeed, the dopaminergic polymorphisms influenced selective top-down attention, but exerted no effects on bottom-up attention. This aligned with the hypothesis proposed by Noudoost and Moore (2011a). In contrast, the cholinergic polymorphisms were not found to modulate selective bottom-up attention. The three cholinergic polymorphisms, however, affected the general response speed in the Stroop task, Negative priming task, and Posner-Cuing task (irrespective of attentional processing). In sum, the findings of this study provide strong indications that the dopaminergic system modulates selective top-down attention, while the cholinergic system is highly relevant for the general speed of information processing.

Climate change and habitat fragmentation modify the natural habitat of many wetland biota and lead to new compositions of biodiversity in these ecosystems. While the direct effects of climate are often well known, indirect effects due to biotic interactions remain poorly understood. The water meadow grasshopper, Chorthippus montanus, is a univoltine habitat specialist, which is adapted to permanently moist habitats. Land use change and drainage led to highly fragmented populations of this generally flightless species. In large parts of the Palaearctic Ch. montanus occurs sympatrically with its widespread congener, the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. Due to their close relationship and their similar songs, hybridization is likely to occur in syntopic populations. Such a species pair of a habitat specialist and a habitat generalist represents an ideal model system to examine the role of ongoing climate change and an accumulation of extreme climatic events on the life history strategies, population dynamics and inter-specific interactions. In Chapter I a laboratory experiment was conducted to identify the impact of environmental factors on intra-specific life-history traits of Ch. montanus. Like other Orthoptera species, Ch. montanus follows a converse temperature size rule. In line with the dimorphic niche hypothesis, which states that sexual size dimorphism evolved in response to the different sexual reproductive roles, both sexes showed different responses to increasing density at lower temperatures. Males attained smaller body sizes at high densities, whereas females had a prolonged development time. This is the first evidence for a sex-specific phenotypic plasticity in Ch. montanus. Females benefit from the prolonged development as their reproductive success depends on the size and number of egg clutches they may produce. By contrast, the reproductive success of males depends on the chance to fertilize virgin females, which increases with faster development. This may become a disadvantage for Ch. montanus as an intraspecific phenology shift may increase hybridization risk with the sibling species. Despite the widespread assumption that hybridization between two sympatric species is rare due to complete reproductive barriers, the genetic analyses of 16 populations (Chapter II) provided evidence for wide prevalence of hybridization between both species in the wild. As no complete admixture was found in the examined population, it is assumed that hybridization only occurs in ecotones between wetlands and drier parts. Reproductive barriers (habitat isolation, behavior, phenology) seem to prevent the genetic swamping of Ch. montanus populations. Although a behavioral experiment showed that mate choice presents an important reproductive barrier between both species, the experiment also revealed that reproductive barriers could be altered by environmental change (e.g. increasing heterospecific frequency). Chapter III analyzes the impact of extreme climatic events on population dynamics and interspecific hybridization. A mark-recapture analysis combined with weather records over five years provides evidence that the embryonic development in Ch. montanus is vulnerable to extreme climatic events. Strong population declines in Ch. montanus lead to a disequilibrium between Ch. montanus and Ch. parallelus populations and increases the risk of hybridization. The highest hybridization risk was found in the first weeks of a season, when both species had an overlapping phenology. Furthermore, hybrids were generally localized at the edge of the Ch. montanus distribution with higher heterospecific encounter probabilities. The hybridization rate reached up to 19.6%. The genetic analyses in Chapter II and III show that hybridization differentially affects specialists and generalists. While generalists may benefit from hybridization by an increasing genetic diversity, such a positive correlation was not found for Ch. montanus. The results underline the importance of reproductive barriers for the co-existence of these sympatric species. However, climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances alter reproductive barriers and promote hybridization, which may threaten small populations by genetic displacement. As anthropogenic hybridization is recognized as a major threat to biodiversity, it should be considered in environmental law and policy. In Chapter IV the role of hybrids and hybridization in three levels of law and the historical backgrounds of hybrids becoming a part of legal instruments is analyzed. Due to legal uncertainties and the complexity of this topic a legal assessment of hybrids is challenging and argues for species-specific approaches. Nonetheless, existing legal norms provide a suitable basis, but need to be specified. Finally, this chapter discusses different opportunities for the management of hybrids and hybridization in a conservation perspective and their necessity.

Financing of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Europe - Financing Patterns and 'Crowdfunding'
(2015)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role for the innovativeness, economic growth and competitiveness of Europe. One of the most pressing problems of SMEs is access to finance to ensure their survival and growth. This dissertation uses both quantitative and qualitative exploratory research methods and increases with its holistic approach the transparency in SME financing. The results of a cluster analysis including 12,726 SMEs in 28 European countries reveal that SME financing in Europe is not homogenous but that different financing patterns exist which differ according to the number of financing instruments used and the combinations thereof. Furthermore, the SME financing types can be profiled according to their firm-, product-, industry- and country-specific characteristics. The results of this analysis provide some support for prior findings that smaller, younger and innovative SMEs suffer from a financing gap which cannot be closed with traditional financing instruments. One alternative to close this financing gap is crowdfunding. Even though crowdfunding has shown tremendous growth rates over the past few years, little is known about the determinants of this financing alternative. This dissertation systematically analyses the existing scientific literature on crowdfunding as an alternative in SME financing and reveals existing research gaps. Afterwards, the focus is on the role of investor communication as a way to reduce information asymmetries of the crowd in equity-based crowdfunding. The results of 24 interviews with market participants in equity-based crowdfunding reveal that crowd investors seem to replace personal contacts with alternative ways of communicating, which can be characterized as pseudo-personal (i.e., by using presentation videos, social media and investor relations channels). In addition, it was found that third party endorsements (e.g., other crowd investors, professional investors, customers and platforms) reduce the information asymmetries of crowd investors and hence, increase the likelihood of their investment.

Death is perceived as a severe threat to the self. Although it is certain that everyone has to die, people usually don't think about the finiteness of their life. Everything reminding of death is ignored, rationalized and death-related thoughts and fears are pushed out of mind (TMT; Pyszczynski et al., 1999). However, people differ in their ability to regulate negative affect and to access their self-system (Kuhl, 2001). As death is assumed to arouse existential fears, the ability to regulate such fears is particularly important, higher self-access could be relevant in defending central personal values. This thesis aimed at showing existential fears under mortality salience and effects of self-regulation of affect under mortality salience. In two studies (Chapter 2) implicit negative affect under mortality salience was demonstrated. An additional study (Chapter 3) shows the effects of self-regulation on implicit negative affect, whereas four studies in Chapter 4 displayed differences in self-access under mortality salience depending on people- ability of self-regulating negative affect.

The last decades of stress research have yielded substantial advancements highlighting the importance of the phenomenon for basic psychological functions as well as physical health and well-being. Progress in stress research heavily relies on the availability of suitable and well validated laboratory stressors. Appropriate laboratory stressors need to be able to reliably provoke a response in the relevant parameters and be applicable in different research settings or experimental designs. This thesis focuses on the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) as a stress induction technique. Three published experiments are presented that show how the advantages of the CPT can be used to test stress effects on memory processes and how some of its disadvantages can be met by a simple modification that retains its feasibility and validity. The first experiment applies the CPT in a substantial sample to investigate the consolidation effects of post-learning sympathetic arousal. Stressed participants with high increases in heart rate during the CPT showed enhanced memory performance one day after learning compared to both the warm water control group and low heart rate responders. This finding suggests that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the CPT induced heart rate response is a predictor for this effect. Moreover, the CPT proved to be an appropriate stressor to test hypothesis about endogenous adrenergic effects on memory processes. The second experiment addresses known practical limitations of the standard dominant hand CPT protocol. A bilateral feet CPT modification is presented, the elicited neuroendocrine stress response assessed and validated against the standard CPT in a within-subjects design. The bilateral feet CPT elicited a substantial neuroendocrine stress response. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure responses, all stress parameters were enhanced compared to the standard CPT. This shows that the bilateral feet CPT is a valid alternative to the standard CPT. The third experiment further validates the bilateral feet CPT and its corresponding control procedure by employing it in a typical application scenario. Specifically, the bilateral feet CPT was used to modulate retrieval of event files in a distractor-response binding paradigm that required lateralized bimanual responses. Again, the bilateral feet CPT induced significant increases in heart rate, blood pressure and cortisol, no such increases could be observed in the warm water control condition. Moreover, stressed participants showed diminished retrieval compared to controls. These results provide further evidence for the feasibility and validity of the bilateral feet CPT and its warm water control procedure. Together the experiments presented here highlight the usefulness of the CPT as a tool in psychophysiological stress research. It is especially well suited to test hypothesis concerning stress effects on memory processes and its applicability can be further increased by the bilateral feet modification.

Part-time entrepreneurship has become increasingly popular and is a rather new field of research. Two important research topics are addressed in this dissertation: (a) the impact of culture on part-time and full-time entrepreneurship and (b) the motivational aspects of the transition from part-time to full-time entrepreneurship. Specifically, this dissertation advances prior research by highlighting the direct and indirect differential impact of macro-level societal culture on part-time and full-time entrepreneurship. Gender egalitarianism, uncertainty avoidance and future orientation have a significantly stronger impact on full-time than on part-time entrepreneurship. Furthermore the moderating impact of societal culture on micro-level relationships for both forms of entrepreneurship is explored. The age-old and well-established relationship between education and entrepreneurial activity is moderated by different forms of collectivism for part-time and full-time entrepreneurship. Regarding the motivation of part-time entrepreneurs to transition to full-time entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial motives of self-realization and independence are significantly positively associated with the transition, whereas the entrepreneurial motives of income supplementation and recognition are significantly negatively associated with the transition. This dissertation advances academic research by indicating conceptual differences between part-time and full-time entrepreneurship in a multi country setting and by showing that both forms of entrepreneurship are impacted through different cultural mechanisms. Based on the findings, policy makers can identify the direct and indirect impact of societal culture on part-time and full-time entrepreneurship. As a result, policy makers can better target support and transition programs to foster entrepreneurial activity.

In recent years, the study of dynamical systems has developed into a central research area in mathematics. Actually, in combination with keywords such as "chaos" or "butterfly effect", parts of this theory have been incorporated in other scientific fields, e.g. in physics, biology, meteorology and economics. In general, a discrete dynamical system is given by a set X and a self-map f of X. The set X can be interpreted as the state space of the system and the function f describes the temporal development of the system. If the system is in state x âˆˆ X at time zero, its state at time n âˆˆ N is denoted by f^n(x), where f^n stands for the n-th iterate of the map f. Typically, one is interested in the long-time behaviour of the dynamical system, i.e. in the behaviour of the sequence (f^n(x)) for an arbitrary initial state x âˆˆ X as the time n increases. On the one hand, it is possible that there exist certain states x âˆˆ X such that the system behaves stably, which means that f^n(x) approaches a state of equilibrium for nâ†’âˆž. On the other hand, it might be the case that the system runs unstably for some initial states x âˆˆ X so that the sequence (f^n(x)) somehow shows chaotic behaviour. In case of a non-linear entire function f, the complex plane always decomposes into two disjoint parts, the Fatou set F_f of f and the Julia set J_f of f. These two sets are defined in such a way that the sequence of iterates (f^n) behaves quite "wildly" or "chaotically" on J_f whereas, on the other hand, the behaviour of (f^n) on F_f is rather "nice" and well-understood. However, this nice behaviour of the iterates on the Fatou set can "change dramatically" if we compose the iterates from the left with just one other suitable holomorphic function, i.e. if we consider sequences of the form (gâˆ˜f^n) on D, where D is an open subset of F_f with f(D)âŠ‚ D and g is holomorphic on D. The general aim of this work is to study the long-time behaviour of such modified sequences. In particular, we will prove the existence of holomorphic functions g on D having the property that the behaviour of the sequence of compositions (gâˆ˜f^n) on the set D becomes quite similarly chaotic as the behaviour of the sequence (f^n) on the Julia set of f. With this approach, we immerse ourselves into the theory of universal families and hypercyclic operators, which itself has developed into an own branch of research. In general, for topological spaces X, Y and a family {T_i: i âˆˆ I} of continuous functions T_i:Xâ†’Y, an element x âˆˆ X is called universal for the family {T_i: i âˆˆ I} if the set {T_i(x): i âˆˆ I} is dense in Y. In case that X is a topological vector space and T is a continuous linear operator on X, a vector x âˆˆ X is called hypercyclic for T if it is universal for the family {T^n: n âˆˆ N}. Thus, roughly speaking, universality and hypercyclicity can be described via the following two aspects: There exists a single object which allows us, via simple analytical operations, to approximate every element of a whole class of objects. In the above situation, i.e. for a non-linear entire function f and an open subset D of F_f with f(D)âŠ‚ D, we endow the space H(D) of holomorphic functions on D with the topology of locally uniform convergence and we consider the map C_f:H(D)â†’H(D), C_f(g):=gâˆ˜f|_D, which is called the composition operator with symbol f. The transform C_f is a continuous linear operator on the Fréchet space H(D). In order to show that the above-mentioned "nice" behaviour of the sequence of iterates (f^n) on the set D âŠ‚ F_f can "change dramatically" if we compose the iterates from the left with another suitable holomorphic function, our aim consists in finding functions g âˆˆ H(D) which are hypercyclic for C_f. Indeed, for each hypercyclic function g for C_f, the set of compositions {gâˆ˜f^n|_D: n âˆˆ N} is dense in H(D) so that the sequence of compositions (gâˆ˜f^n|_D) is kind of "maximally divergent" " meaning that each function in H(D) can be approximated locally uniformly on D via subsequences of (gâˆ˜f^n|_D). This kind of behaviour stands in sharp contrast to the fact that the sequence of iterates (f^n) itself converges, behaves like a rotation or shows some "wandering behaviour" on each component of F_f. To put it in a nutshell, this work combines the theory of non-linear complex dynamics in the complex plane with the theory of dynamics of continuous linear operators on spaces of holomorphic functions. As far as the author knows, this approach has not been investigated before.