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The main aim of "Her Idoll Selfe"? Shaping Identity in Early Modern Women- Self-Writings is to offer fresh readings of as yet little-read early modern women- texts. I look at a variety of texts that are either explicitly concerned with the constitution of the writer- self, such as the autobiographies by Lady Grace Mildmay and Martha Moulsworth, or in which the preoccupation with the self is of a more indirect nature, as in the mothers" advice books by Elizabeth Grymeston, Dorothy Leigh, Elizabeth Richardson or the anonymous M. R., or even in women- poetry, drama and religious verse. I situate the texts in the context of early modern discourses of femininity and subjectivity to pursue the question in how far it was possible for early modern women to achieve a sense of agency in spite of their culturally marginal position. In that, my readings aim to contribute to the ongoing critical process of decentring the early modern period. At the same time, I draw on contemporary theory as a methodological tool that can open up further dimensions of the texts, especially in places where the texts provide clues and parallels that lend themselves to a theoretical approach. Conversely, the texts themselves shed interesting light on feminist and poststructuralist theory and can serve as testing grounds for the current critical fascination with fragmentation and hybridity. Having outlined the theoretical and methodological framework of my study, I then analyse the women- writings with reference to a matrix of paradigmatic dimensions that encompass their most prominently recurring themes: the notion of writing the self, relationships between self and other, demarcations of private and public, the women- notorious preoccupation with self-loss and death, as well as the recurrent theme of the "golden meane". I suggest that this motif can provide the vital cue to early modern women- constitution of self. The idea of a precarious "golden meane" links in with to parallel discourses of moderation and balance at the time, but reinterprets them in a manner that can present a workable and innovative paradigm of subjectivity. Instead of subscribing to a model of decentred selfhood, early modern women- presentations of self suggest that a concluding but contested compromise is a workable strategy to achieve a form of selfhood that can responsibly be lived with.

Mankind has dramatically influenced the nitrogen (N) fluxes between soil, vegetation, water and atmosphere " the global N cycle. Increasing intensification of agricultural land use, caused by the growing demand for agricultural products, has had major impacts on ecosystems worldwide. Particularly nitrogenous gases such as ammonia (NH3) have increased mainly due to industrial livestock farming. Countries with high N deposition rates require a variety of deposition measurements and effective N monitoring networks to assess N loads. Due to high costs, current "conventional"-deposition measurement stations are not widespread and therefore provide only a patchy picture of the real extent of the prevailing N deposition status over large areas. One tool that allows quantification of the exposure and the effects of atmospheric N impacts on an ecosystem is the use of bioindicators. Due to their specific physiology and ecology, especially lichens and mosses are suitable to reflect the atmospheric N input at ecosystem level. The present doctoral project began by investigating the general ability of epiphytic lichens to qualify and quantify N deposition by analysing both lichens and total N and δ15N along a gradient of different N emission sources and severity. The results showed that this was a viable monitoring method, and a grid-based monitoring system with nitrophytic lichens was set up in the western part of Germany. Finally, a critical appraisal of three different monitoring techniques (lichens, mosses and tree bark) was carried out to compare them with national relevant N deposition assessment programmes. In total 1057 lichen samples, 348 tree bark samples, 153 moss samples and 24 deposition water samples, were analysed in this dissertation at different investigation scales in Germany.The study identified species-specific ability and tolerance of various epiphytic lichens to accumulate N. Samples of tree bark were also collected and N accumulation ability was detected in connection with the increased intensity of agriculture, and according to the presence of reduced N compounds (NHx) in the atmosphere. Nitrophytic lichens (Xanthoria parietina, Physcia spp.) have the strongest correlations with high agriculture-related N deposition. In addition, the main N sources were revealed with the help of δ15N values along a gradient of altitude and areas affected by different types of land use (NH3 density classes, livestock units and various deposition types). Furthermore, in the first nationwide survey of Germany to compare lichens, mosses and tree bark samples as biomonitors for N deposition, it was revealed that lichens are clearly the most meaningful monitor organisms in highly N affected regions. Additionally, the study shows that dealing with different biomonitors is a difficult task due to their variety of N responses. The specific receptor surfaces of the indicators and therefore their different strategies of N uptake are responsible for the tissue N concentration of each organism group. It was also shown that the δ15N values depend on their N origin and the specific N transformations in each organism system, so that a direct comparison between atmosphere and ecosystems is not possible.In conclusion, biomonitors, and especially epiphytic lichens may serve as possible alternatives to get a spatially representative picture of the N deposition conditions. Furthermore, bioindication with lichens is a cost-efficient alternative to physico-chemical measurements to comprehensively assess different prevailing N doses and sources of N pools on a regional scale. They can at least support on-site deposition instruments by qualification and quantification of N deposition.

Time series archives of remotely sensed data offer many possibilities to observe and analyse dynamic environmental processes at the Earth- surface. Based on these hypertemporal archives, which offer continuous observations of vegetation indices, typically at repetition rates from one to two weeks, sets of phenological parameters or metrics can be derived. Examples of such parameters are the beginning and end of the annual growing period, as well as its length. Even though these parameters do not correspond exactly to conventional observations of phenological events, they nevertheless provide indications of the dynamic processes occurring in the biosphere. The development of robust algorithms for the derivation of phenological metrics can be challenging. Currently, such algorithms are most commonly based on digital filters or the Fourier analysis of time series. Polynomial spline models offer a useful alternative to existing methods. The possibilities of using spline models in the analytical description of time series are numerous, and their specific mathematical properties may help to avoid known problems occurring with the more common methods for deriving phenological metrics. Based on a selection of different polynomial spline models suitable for the analysis of remotely sensed time series of vegetation indices, a method to derive various phenological parameters from such time series was developed and implemented in this work. Using an example data set from an intensively used agricultural area showing highly dynamic variations in vegetation phenology, the newly developed method was verified by a comparison of the results of the spline based approach to the results of two alternative, well established methods.

The subject of this thesis is a homological approach to the splitting theory of PLS-spaces, i.e. to the question for which topologically exact short sequences 0->X->Y->Z->0 of PLS-spaces X,Y,Z the right-hand map admits a right inverse. We show that the category (PLS) of PLS-spaces and continuous linear maps is an additive category in which every morphism admits a kernel and a cokernel, i.e. it is pre-abelian. However, we also show that it is neither quasi-abelian nor semi-abelian. As a foundation for our homological constructions we show the more general result that every pre-abelian category admits a largest exact structure in the sense of Quillen. In the pre-abelian category (PLS) this exact structure consists precisely of the topologically exact short sequences of PLS-spaces. Using a construction of Ext-functors due to Yoneda, we show that one can define for each PLS-space A and every natural number k the k-th abelian-group valued covariant and contravariant Ext-functors acting on the category (PLS) of PLS-spaces, which induce for every topologically exact short sequence of PLS-spaces a long exact sequence of abelian groups and group morphisms. These functors are studied in detail and we establish a connection between the Ext-functors of PLS-spaces and the Ext-functors for LS-spaces. Through this connection we arrive at an analogue of a result for Fréchet spaces which connects the first derived functor of the projective limit with the first Ext-functor and also gives sufficient conditions for the vanishing of the higher Ext-functors. Finally, we show that Ext^k(E,F) = 0 for a k greater or equal than 1, whenever E is a closed subspace and F is a Hausdorff-quotient of the space of distributions, which generalizes a result of Wengenroth that is itself a generalization of results due to Domanski and Vogt.

The goal of this thesis is to transfer the logarithmic barrier approach, which led to very efficient interior-point methods for convex optimization problems in recent years, to convex semi-infinite programming problems. Based on a reformulation of the constraints into a nondifferentiable form this can be directly done for convex semi- infinite programming problems with nonempty compact sets of optimal solutions. But, by means of an involved max-term this reformulation leads to nondifferentiable barrier problems which can be solved with an extension of a bundle method of Kiwiel. This extension allows to deal with inexact objective values and subgradient information which occur due to the inexact evaluation of the maxima. Nevertheless we are able to prove similar convergence results as for the logarithmic barrier approach in the finite optimization. In the further course of the thesis the logarithmic barrier approach is coupled with the proximal point regularization technique in order to solve ill-posed convex semi-infinite programming problems too. Moreover this coupled algorithm generates sequences converging to an optimal solution of the given semi-infinite problem whereas the pure logarithmic barrier only produces sequences whose accumulation points are such optimal solutions. If there are certain additional conditions fulfilled we are further able to prove convergence rate results up to linear convergence of the iterates. Finally, besides hints for the implementation of the methods we present numerous numerical results for model examples as well as applications in finance and digital filter design.

A matrix A is called completely positive if there exists an entrywise nonnegative matrix B such that A = BB^T. These matrices can be used to obtain convex reformulations of for example nonconvex quadratic or combinatorial problems. One of the main problems with completely positive matrices is checking whether a given matrix is completely positive. This is known to be NP-hard in general. rnrnFor a given matrix completely positive matrix A, it is nontrivial to find a cp-factorization A=BB^T with nonnegative B since this factorization would provide a certificate for the matrix to be completely positive. But this factorization is not only important for the membership to the completely positive cone, it can also be used to recover the solution of the underlying quadratic or combinatorial problem.rnrnIn addition, it is not a priori known how many columns are necessary to generate a cp-factorization for the given matrix. The minimal possible number of columns is called the cp-rank of A and so far it is still an open question how to derive the cp-rank for a given matrix. Some facts on completely positive matrices and the cp-rank will be given in Chapter 2.rnrnMoreover, in Chapter 6, we will see a factorization algorithm, which, for a given completely positive matrix A and a suitable starting point, computes the nonnegative factorization A=BB^T. The algorithm therefore returns a certificate for the matrix to be completely positive. As introduced in Chapter 3, the fundamental idea of the factorization algorithm is to start from an initial square factorization which is not necessarily entrywise nonnegative, and extend this factorization to a matrix for which the number of columns is greater than or equal to the cp-rank of A. Then it is the goal to transform this generated factorization into a cp-factorization.rnrnThis problem can be formulated as a nonconvex feasibility problem, as shown in Section 4.1, and solved by a method which is based on alternating projections, as proven in Chapter 6.rnrnOn the topic of alternating projections, a survey will be given in Chapter 5. Here we will see how to apply this technique to several types of sets like subspaces, convex sets, manifolds and semialgebraic sets. Furthermore, we will see some known facts on the convergence rate for alternating projections between these types of sets. Considering more than two sets yields the so called cyclic projections approach. Here some known facts for subspaces and convex sets will be shown. Moreover, we will see a new convergence result on cyclic projections among a sequence of manifolds in Section 5.4.rnrnIn the context of cp-factorizations, a local convergence result for the introduced algorithm will be given. This result is based on the known convergence for alternating projections between semialgebraic sets.rnrnTo obtain cp-facrorizations with this first method, it is necessary to solve a second order cone problem in every projection step, which is very costly. Therefore, in Section 6.2, we will see an additional heuristic extension, which improves the numerical performance of the algorithm. Extensive numerical tests in Chapter 7 will show that the factorization method is very fast in most instances. In addition, we will see how to derive a certificate for the matrix to be an element of the interior of the completely positive cone.rnrnAs a further application, this method can be extended to find a symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization, where we consider an additional low-rank constraint. Here again, the method to derive factorizations for completely positive matrices can be used, albeit with some further adjustments, introduced in Section 8.1. Moreover, we will see that even for the general case of deriving a nonnegative matrix factorization for a given rectangular matrix A, the key aspects of the completely positive factorization approach can be used. To this end, it becomes necessary to extend the idea of finding a completely positive factorization such that it can be used for rectangular matrices. This yields an applicable algorithm for nonnegative matrix factorization in Section 8.2.rnNumerical results for this approach will suggest that the presented algorithms and techniques to obtain completely positive matrix factorizations can be extended to general nonnegative factorization problems.

Two areas were selected to represent major process regimes of Mediterranean rangelands. In the County of Lagads (Greece), situated east of the city of Thessaloniki, livestock grazing with sheep and goats is a major factor of the rural economy. In suitable areas, it is complemented by agricultural use. The region of Ayora (Spain) is located west of the city of Valencia. It is one of regions most affected by fires in Spain. First of all, long time series of satellite data were compiled for both regions on the basis of Landsat sensors, which cover the time until 1976 (Ayora) and 1984 (Lagadas) with one image per year. Using a rigorous processing scheme, the data were geometrically and radiometrically corrected Specific attention was given to an exact sensor calibration, the radiometric intercalibration of Landsat-TM and "MSS. Proportional cover of photosynthetically active vegetation was identified as a suitable quantitative indicator for assessing the state of rangelands. Using Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) it was inferred for all data sets. The extensive data base procured this way enabled to map fire events in the Ayora area based on sequential diachronic sets and provide fire dates, perimeter as well as fire recurrence for each pixel. The increasing fire frequency in the past decades is in large parts attributed to the accelerated abandonment of the area that leads to an encroachment of shrublands and the accumulation of combustible biomass. On the basis of the fire mapping results, a spatial and temporal stratification of the data set allowed to asses plant recovery dynamics on the landscape level through linear trend analysis. The long history of fire events in the Mediterranean frequently leads to processes of auto-succession. Following an initial dominance of herbaceous vegetation this commonly leads to similar plant communities as the ones present before the fire. On a temporal axis, this results in typical exponential post-fire trajectories which could also be shown in this study. The analysis of driving factors for post-fire dynamics confirmed the importance of aspect and slope. Locations with lower amounts of solar irradiation and favourable water supply yielded faster recovery rates and higher post-fire vegetation cover levels. In most cases, the vegetation cover levels observed before the fire were not reached within the post-fire observation period. In the area of Lagadas, linear trend analysis and additional statistical parameters were used to infer a degradation index. This could be used to illustrate a complex pattern of stability, regeneration and degradation of vegetation cover. These different processes and states are found in close proximity and are clearly determined by topography and elevation. Following a sequence of analyses, it was found that in particular steep, narrow valleys show positive trends, while negative trends are more abundant on plain or gently undulating areas. Considering the local grazing regime, this spatial differentiation was related to the accessibility of specific locations. Subsequently, animal numbers on community level were used to calculate efficient stocking rates and assess the temporal development of their relation with vegetation cover. This calculation of temporal trajectories illustrated that only some communities show the expected negative relation. To the contrary, a positive relation or even changing relation patterns are observed. This signifies recent concentration and intensification processes in the grazing scheme, as a result of which animals are kept in sheds, where additional feedstuffs are provided. In these cases, free roaming of livestock animals is often confined to some hours every day, which explains the spatial preference of easily accessible areas by the shepherds. Beyond these temporal trends, it was analysed whether the grazing pattern is equally reflected in a spatial trend. Making use of available geospatial information layers, the efforts required to reach each location was expressed as a cost. Then, cost zones could be defined and woody vegetation cover as a grazing indicator could be inferred for the different zones. Animal sheds were employed as starting features for this piospheric analysis, which could be mapped from very high spatial resolution Quickbird image data. The result was a clearly structured gradient showing increasing woody vegetation cover with increasing cost distance. On the basis of these two pilot studies, the elements of a monitoring and interpretation framework identified at the beginning of the work were evaluated and a formal interpretation scheme was presented.

Water-deficit stress, usually shortened to water- or drought stress, is one of the most critical abiotic stressors limiting plant growth, crop yield and quality concerning food production. Today, agriculture consumes about 80 " 90 % of the global freshwater used by humans and about two thirds are used for crop irrigation. An increasing world population and a predicted rise of 1.0 " 2.5-°C in the annual mean global temperature as a result of climate change will further increase the demand of water in agriculture. Therefore, one of the most challenging tasks of our generation is to reduce the amount water used per unit yield to satisfy the second UN Sustainable Development Goal and to ensure global food security. Precision agriculture offers new farming methods with the goal to improve the efficiency of crop production by a sustainable use of resources. Plant responses to water stress are complex and co-occur with other environmental stresses under natural conditions. In general, water stress causes plant physiological and biochemical changes that depend on the severity and the duration of the actual plant water deficit. Stomatal closure is one of the first responses to plant water stress causing a decrease in plant transpiration and thus an increase in plant temperature. Prolonged or severe water stress leads to irreversible damage to the photosynthetic machinery and is associated with decreasing chlorophyll content and leaf structural changes (e.g., leaf rolling). Since a crop can already be irreversibly damaged by only mild water deficit, a pre-visual detection of water stress symptoms is essential to avoid yield loss. Remote sensing offers a non-destructive and spatio-temporal method for measuring numerous physiological, biochemical and structural crop characteristics at different scales and thus is one of the key technologies used in precision agriculture. With respect to the detection of plant responses to water stress, the current state-of-the-art hyperspectral remote sensing imaging techniques are based on measurements of thermal infrared emission (TIR; 8 " 14 -µm), visible, near- and shortwave infrared reflectance (VNIR/SWIR; 0.4 " 2.5 -µm), and sun-induced fluorescence (SIF; 0.69 and 0.76 -µm). It is, however, still unclear how sensitive these techniques are with respect to water stress detection. Therefore, the overall aim of this dissertation was to provide a comparative assessment of remotely sensed measures from the TIR, SIF, and VNIR/SWIR domains for their ability to detect plant responses to water stress at ground- and airborne level. The main findings of this thesis are: (i) temperature-based indices (e.g., CWSI) were most sensitive for the detection of plant water stress in comparison to reflectance-based VNIR/SWIR indices (e.g., PRI) and SIF at both, ground- and airborne level, (ii) for the first time, spectral emissivity as measured by the new hyperspectral TIR instrument could be used to detect plant water stress at ground level. Based on these findings it can be stated that hyperspectral TIR remote sensing offers great potential for the detection of plant responses to water stress at ground- and airborne level based on both TIR key variables, surface temperature and spectral emissivity. However, the large-scale application of water stress detection based on hyperspectral TIR measures in precision agriculture will be challenged by several problems: (i) missing thresholds of temperature-based indices (e.g., CWSI) for the application in irrigation scheduling, (ii) lack of current TIR satellite missions with suitable spectral and spatial resolution, (iii) lack of appropriate data processing schemes (including atmosphere correction and temperature emissivity separation) for hyperspectral TIR remote sensing at airborne- and satellite level.

Death is perceived as a severe threat to the self. Although it is certain that everyone has to die, people usually don"t think about the finiteness of their life. Everything reminding of death is ignored, rationalized and death-related thoughts and fears are pushed out of mind (TMT; Pyszczynski et al., 1999). However, people differ in their ability to regulate negative affect and to access their self-system (Kuhl, 2001). As death is assumed to arouse existential fears, the ability to regulate such fears is particularly important, higher self-access could be relevant in defending central personal values. This thesis aimed at showing existential fears under mortality salience and effects of self-regulation of affect under mortality salience. In two studies (Chapter 2) implicit negative affect under mortality salience was demonstrated. An additional study (Chapter 3) shows the effects of self-regulation on implicit negative affect, whereas four studies in Chapter 4 displayed differences in self-access under mortality salience depending on people- ability of self-regulating negative affect.

This work addresses the algorithmic tractability of hard combinatorial problems. Basically, we are considering \NP-hard problems. For those problemsrnwerncan not find a polynomial time algorithm. Several algorithmic approaches already exist which deal with this dilemma. Amongrnthemrnwe find (randomized) approximation algorithms and heuristics. Even though in practice they often work in reasonable time they usually do not return anrnoptimal solution. If we constrain optimality then there are only two methods which suffice for this purpose: exponential time algorithms andrnparameterized algorithms. In the first approach we seek to design algorithms consuming exponentially many steps who are more clever than some trivialrnalgorithm (whornsimply enumerates all solution candidates).rnTypically, the naive enumerative approach yields an algorithm with run time $\Oh^*(2^n)$. So, the general task is to construct algorithms obeying a run time of rnthe form $\Oh^*(c^n)$ where $c<2$.rn The second approach considers an additional parameter $k$ besides the input size $n$. This parameter shouldrnprovide more information about the problem and cover a typical characteristic. The standard parameterization is to see $k$ as an upper (lower, resp.)rnbound on the solution size in case of a minimization (maximization, resp.) problem. Then a parameterized algorithm should solve the problem in time $f(k)\cdot n^\beta$rnwhere $\beta$ is a constant and $f$ is independent of $n$. In principle this method aims to restrict the combinatorial difficulty of the problem tornthe parameter $k$ (if possible). The basic hypothesis is that $k$ is small with respect to the overall input size.rnIn both fields a frequent standard technique is the design of branching algorithms. These algorithms solve the problem by traversing the solutionrnspace in a clever way. They frequently select an entity of the input and create two new subproblems, one where this entity is considered as part ofrnthernfuture solution and another one where it is excluded from it. Then in both cases by fixing this entity possibly other entities will be fixed. If so then therntraversedrnnumber of possible solution is smaller than the whole solution space. The visited solutions can be arranged like a search tree. To estimate thernrun time of such algorithms there is need for a method to obtain tight upper bounds on the size of the search trees. In the field of exponential timernalgorithms a powerful technique called Measure&Conquer has been developed for this purpose. It has been applied successfully to manyrnproblems, especially to problems where other algorithmic attacks could not break the trivial run time upper bound. rnOn the other hand in the field of parameterized algorithms Measure&Conquer is almost not known. This piece of work will presentrnexamples where this technique can be used in this field. It also will point out what differences have to be made in order to successfully applyrnthe technique. Further, exponential time algorithms for hard problems where Measure&Conquer is applied are presented. Another aspect is thatrna formalization (and generalization) of the notion of a search tree is given. It is shown that for certain problems such a formalization is extremely useful.rn