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The visualization of relational data is at the heart of information visualization. The prevalence of visual representations for this kind of data is based on many real world examples spread over many application domains: protein-protein interaction networks in the field of bioinformatics, hyperlinked documents in the World Wide Web, call graphs in software systems, or co-author networks are just four instances of a rich source of relational datasets. The most common visual metaphor for this kind of data is definitely the node-link approach, which typically suffers from visual clutter caused by many edge crossings. Many sophisticated algorithms have been developed to layout a graph efficiently and with respect to a list of aesthetic graph drawing criteria. Relations between objects normally change over time. Visualizing the dynamics means an additional challenge for graph visualization researchers. Applying the same layout algorithms for static graphs to intermediate states of dynamic graphs may also be a strategy to compute layouts for an animated graph sequence that shows the dynamics. The major drawback of this approach is the high cognitive effort for a viewer of the animation to preserve his mental map. To tackle this problem, a sophisticated layout algorithm has to inspect the whole graph sequence and compute a layout with as little changes as possible between subsequent graphs. The main contribution and ultimate goal of this thesis is the visualization of dynamic compound weighted multi directed graphs as a static image that targets at visual clutter reduction and at mental map preservation. To achieve this goal, we use a radial space-filling visual metaphor to represent the dynamics in relational data. As a side effect the obtained pictures are very aesthetically appealing. In this thesis we firstly describe static graph visualizations for rule sets obtained by extracting knowledge from software archives under version control. In a different work we apply animated node-link diagrams to code-developer relationships to show the dynamics in software systems. An underestimated visualization paradigm is the radial representation of data. Though this kind of data has a long history back to centuries-old statistical graphics, only little efforts have been done to fully explore the benefits of this paradigm. We evaluated a Cartesian and a radial counterpart of a visualization technique for visually encoding transaction sequences and dynamic compound digraphs with both an eyetracking and an online study. We found some interesting phenomena apart from the fact that also laymen in graph theory can understand the novel approach in a short time and apply it to datasets. The thesis is concluded by an aesthetic dimensions framework for dynamic graph drawing, future work, and currently open issues.

External capital plays an important role in financing entrepreneurial ventures, due to limited internal capital sources. An important external capital provider for entrepreneurial ventures are venture capitalists (VCs). VCs worldwide are often confronted with thousands of proposals of entrepreneurial ventures per year and must choose among all of these companies in which to invest. Not only do VCs finance companies at their early stages, but they also finance entrepreneurial companies in their later stages, when companies have secured their first market success. That is why this dissertation focuses on the decision-making behavior of VCs when investing in later-stage ventures. This dissertation uses both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods in order to provide answer to how the decision-making behavior of VCs that invest in later-stage ventures can be described.
Based on qualitative interviews with 19 investment professionals, the first insight gained is that for different stages of venture development, different decision criteria are applied. This is attributed to different risks and goals of ventures at different stages, as well as the different types of information available. These decision criteria in the context of later-stage ventures contrast with results from studies that focus on early-stage ventures. Later-stage ventures possess meaningful information on financials (revenue growth and profitability), the established business model, and existing external investors that is not available for early-stage ventures and therefore constitute new decision criteria for this specific context.
Following this identification of the most relevant decision criteria for investors in the context of later-stage ventures, a conjoint study with 749 participants was carried out to understand the relative importance of decision criteria. The results showed that investors attribute the highest importance to 1) revenue growth, (2) value-added of products/services for customers, and (3) management team track record, demonstrating differences when compared to decision-making studies in the context of early-stage ventures.
Not only do the characteristics of a venture influence the decision to invest, additional indirect factors, such as individual characteristics or characteristics of the investment firm, can influence individual decisions. Relying on cognitive theory, this study investigated the influence of various individual characteristics on screening decisions and found that both investment experience and entrepreneurial experience have an influence on individual decision-making behavior. This study also examined whether goals, incentive structures, resources, and governance of the investment firm influence decision making in the context of later-stage ventures. This study particularly investigated two distinct types of investment firms, family offices and corporate venture capital funds (CVC), which have unique structures, goals, and incentive systems. Additional quantitative analysis showed that family offices put less focus on high-growth firms and whether reputable investors are present. They tend to focus more on the profitability of a later-stage venture in the initial screening. The analysis showed that CVCs place greater importance on product and business model characteristics than other investors. CVCs also favor later-stage ventures with lower revenue growth rates, indicating a preference for less risky investments. The results provide various insights for theory and practice.

The present thesis addresses the validity of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) as well as underlying mechanisms of BED from three different angles. Three studies provide data discriminating obesity with BED from obesity without BED. Study 1 demonstrates differences between obese individuals with and without BED regarding eating in the natural environment, psychiatric comorbidity, negative affect as well as self reported tendencies in eating behavior. Evidence for possible psychological mechanisms explaining increased intake of BED individuals in the natural environment was given by analyzing associations of negative affect, emotional eating, restrained eating and caloric intake in obese BED compared to NBED controls. Study 2 demonstrated stress-induced changes in the eating behavior of obese individuals with BED. The impact of a psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, Kirschbaum, Pirke, &amp;amp; Hellhammer, 1993), on behavioral patterns of eating behavior in laboratory was investigated. Special attention was given to stress-induced changes in variables that reflect mechanisms of appetite regulation in obese BED individuals compared to controls. To further explore by which mechanisms stress might trigger binge eating, study 3 investigated differences in stress-induced cortisol secretion after a socially evaluated cold pressure test (SECPT, Schwabe, Haddad, &amp;amp; Schachinger, 2008) in obese BED as compared to obese NBED individuals.

The reduction of information contained in model time series through the use of aggregating statistical performance measures is very high compared to the amount of information that one would like to draw from it for model identification and calibration purposes.rnIt is readily known that this loss imposes important limitations on model identification and -diagnostics and thus constitutes an element of the overall model uncertainty as essentially different model realizations with almost identical performance measures (e.g. r-² or RMSE) can be generated. In three consecutive studies the present work proposes an alternative approach towards hydrological model evaluation based on the application of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM; Kohonen, 2001).rnThe Self-Organizing Map is a type of artificial neural network and unsupervised learning algorithm that is used for clustering, visualization and abstraction of multidimensional data. It maps vectorial input data items with similar patterns onto contiguous locations of a discrete low-dimensional grid of neurons. The iterative training of the SOM causes the neurons to form a discrete, data-compressed representation of the high-dimensional input data. Using appropriate visualization techniques, information on distributions, patterns and relationships in complex data sets can be extracted. Irrespective of their potential, SOM applications have earned very little attention in hydrological modelling compared to other artificial neural network techniques.rnTherefore, the aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the application of Self-Organizing Maps has very high potential to address fundamental issues of model evaluation: It is shown that the clustering and classification of model time series by means of SOM can provide useful insights into model behaviour. In combination with the diagnostic properties of Signature Indices (Gupta et al., 2008; Yilmaz et al., 2008) SOM provides a novel tool for interpreting the model parameters in the hydrological context and identifying parameter sets that simultaneously meet multiple objectives, even if the corresponding model realizations belong to different models. Moreover, the presented studies and reviews also encourage further studies on the application of SOM in hydrological modelling.rn

In recent years, the study of dynamical systems has developed into a central research area in mathematics. Actually, in combination with keywords such as "chaos" or "butterfly effect", parts of this theory have been incorporated in other scientific fields, e.g. in physics, biology, meteorology and economics. In general, a discrete dynamical system is given by a set X and a self-map f of X. The set X can be interpreted as the state space of the system and the function f describes the temporal development of the system. If the system is in state x âˆˆ X at time zero, its state at time n âˆˆ N is denoted by f^n(x), where f^n stands for the n-th iterate of the map f. Typically, one is interested in the long-time behaviour of the dynamical system, i.e. in the behaviour of the sequence (f^n(x)) for an arbitrary initial state x âˆˆ X as the time n increases. On the one hand, it is possible that there exist certain states x âˆˆ X such that the system behaves stably, which means that f^n(x) approaches a state of equilibrium for nâ†’âˆž. On the other hand, it might be the case that the system runs unstably for some initial states x âˆˆ X so that the sequence (f^n(x)) somehow shows chaotic behaviour. In case of a non-linear entire function f, the complex plane always decomposes into two disjoint parts, the Fatou set F_f of f and the Julia set J_f of f. These two sets are defined in such a way that the sequence of iterates (f^n) behaves quite "wildly" or "chaotically" on J_f whereas, on the other hand, the behaviour of (f^n) on F_f is rather "nice" and well-understood. However, this nice behaviour of the iterates on the Fatou set can "change dramatically" if we compose the iterates from the left with just one other suitable holomorphic function, i.e. if we consider sequences of the form (gâˆ˜f^n) on D, where D is an open subset of F_f with f(D)âŠ‚ D and g is holomorphic on D. The general aim of this work is to study the long-time behaviour of such modified sequences. In particular, we will prove the existence of holomorphic functions g on D having the property that the behaviour of the sequence of compositions (gâˆ˜f^n) on the set D becomes quite similarly chaotic as the behaviour of the sequence (f^n) on the Julia set of f. With this approach, we immerse ourselves into the theory of universal families and hypercyclic operators, which itself has developed into an own branch of research. In general, for topological spaces X, Y and a family {T_i: i âˆˆ I} of continuous functions T_i:Xâ†’Y, an element x âˆˆ X is called universal for the family {T_i: i âˆˆ I} if the set {T_i(x): i âˆˆ I} is dense in Y. In case that X is a topological vector space and T is a continuous linear operator on X, a vector x âˆˆ X is called hypercyclic for T if it is universal for the family {T^n: n âˆˆ N}. Thus, roughly speaking, universality and hypercyclicity can be described via the following two aspects: There exists a single object which allows us, via simple analytical operations, to approximate every element of a whole class of objects. In the above situation, i.e. for a non-linear entire function f and an open subset D of F_f with f(D)âŠ‚ D, we endow the space H(D) of holomorphic functions on D with the topology of locally uniform convergence and we consider the map C_f:H(D)â†’H(D), C_f(g):=gâˆ˜f|_D, which is called the composition operator with symbol f. The transform C_f is a continuous linear operator on the Fréchet space H(D). In order to show that the above-mentioned "nice" behaviour of the sequence of iterates (f^n) on the set D âŠ‚ F_f can "change dramatically" if we compose the iterates from the left with another suitable holomorphic function, our aim consists in finding functions g âˆˆ H(D) which are hypercyclic for C_f. Indeed, for each hypercyclic function g for C_f, the set of compositions {gâˆ˜f^n|_D: n âˆˆ N} is dense in H(D) so that the sequence of compositions (gâˆ˜f^n|_D) is kind of "maximally divergent" " meaning that each function in H(D) can be approximated locally uniformly on D via subsequences of (gâˆ˜f^n|_D). This kind of behaviour stands in sharp contrast to the fact that the sequence of iterates (f^n) itself converges, behaves like a rotation or shows some "wandering behaviour" on each component of F_f. To put it in a nutshell, this work combines the theory of non-linear complex dynamics in the complex plane with the theory of dynamics of continuous linear operators on spaces of holomorphic functions. As far as the author knows, this approach has not been investigated before.

Chapter 2: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this study examines the relation-ship between immigrant residential segregation and immigrants" satisfaction with the neighbor-hood. The estimates show that immigrants living in segregated areas are less satisfied with the neighborhood. This is consistent with the hypothesis that housing discrimination rather than self-selection plays an important role in immigrant residential segregation. Our result holds true even when controlling for other influences such as household income and quality of the dwelling. It also holds true in fixed effects estimates that account for unobserved time-invariant influences. Chapter 3: Using survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this study shows that immigrants living in segregated residential areas are more likely to report discrimination because of their ethnic background. This applies to both segregated areas where most neighbors are immigrants from the same country of origin as the surveyed person and segregated areas where most neighbors are immigrants from other countries of origin. The results suggest that housing discrimination rather than self-selection plays an important role in immigrant residential segregation. Chapter 4: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and administrative data from 1996 to 2009, I investigate the question whether or not right-wing extremism of German residents is affected by the ethnic concentration of foreigners living in the same residential area. My results show a positive but insignificant relationship between ethnic concentration at the county level and the probability of extreme right-wing voting behavior for West Germany. However, due to potential endogeneity issues, I additionally instrument the share of foreigners in a county with the share of foreigners in each federal state (following an approach of Dustmann/Preston 2001). I find evidence for the interethnic contact theory, predicting a negative relationship between foreign-ers" share and right-wing voting. Moreover, I analyze the moderating role of education and the influence of cultural traits on this relationship. Chapter 5: Using data from the Socio-Economic Panel from 1998 to 2009 and administrative data on regional ethnic diversity, I show that ethnic diversity inhibits significantly people- political interest and participation in political organizations in West Germany. People seem to isolate themselves from political participation if exposed to more ethnic diversity which is particularly relevant with respect to the ongoing integration process of the European Union and the increasing transfer of legislative power from the national to European level. The results are robust if an instrumental variable strategy suggested by Dustmann and Preston (2001) is used to take into account that ethnic diversity measured on a local spatial level could be endogenous due to residential sorting. Interestingly, participation in non-political organizations is positively affected by ethnic diversity if selection bias is corrected for.

Cortisol exhibits typical ultradian and circadian rhythm and disturbances in its secretory pattern have been described in stress-related pathology. The aim of this thesis was to dissect the underlying structure of cortisol pulsatility and to develop tools to investigate the effects of this pulsatility on immune cell trafficking and the responsiveness of the neuroendocrine system and GR target genes to stress. Deconvolution modeling was set up as a tool for investigation of the pulsatile secretion underlying the ultradian cortisol rhythm. This further allowed us to investigate the role of the single cortisol pulses on the immune cell trafficking and the role of induced cortisol pulses on the kinetics of expression of GR target genes. The development of these three tools, would allow to induce and investigate in future the significance of single cortisol pulses for health and disease.

This thesis presents a study of tsunami deposits created by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at the Thai Andaman coast. The outcomes of a study are the characteristics of tsunami deposit for paleo-tsunami database, the identification of major sediment layers in tsunami deposit and the reconstructing tsunami run-ups from the characteristics of tsunami deposit for a coastal development program. rnThe investigations of tsunami deposit are made almost 3 years after the event. Field investigations characterize the tsunami deposit as a distinct sediment layer variable in thickness of gray sand deposited with an erosional basis on a pre-existing soil. The best location for the observation of recent tsunami deposit is the area located about 50-200 m inland from the coastline. In most cases, the deposit layer is normally graded. In some cases, the deposit contains rip-up clasts of muddy soils and/or organic matters. The tsunami deposits are compared with three deposits from coastal sub-environments. The mean grain-size and standard deviation of deposits show that the shoreface deposits are fine to very fine sand, poorly to moderately well sorted; the swash zone deposits are coarse to fine sand, poorly to well sorted; the berm/dune deposits are medium to fine sand, poorly to well sorted; and the tsunami deposits are coarse to very fine sand, poorly to moderately well sorted. The plots of deposit mean grain-size versus sorting indicate that the tsunami deposits are composed of shoreface deposits, swash zone deposits and berm/dune deposits as well. rnThe vertical variation of the texture of tsunami deposit shows that the mean grain-size fines upward and fining landward. The analysis and interpretation of the run-up numbers from the characteristics of tsunami deposits get three run-ups for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at the Thai Andaman coast. It corresponds to field observations from the eye-witness reports and local people- affirmations. The total deposition is a major transportation pattern of onshore tsunami sediments. The sediments must fine in the direction of transport. In general, the major origins of the sediment are the swash zone and berm/dune zone where coarse to medium sand is a significant material, the minor origin of tsunami sediment is a shoreface where a significant material is fine to very fine sand. Only at an area with flat slope shorface, the major origin of tsunami sediment is the shoreface.rn The thicknesses, the mean grain-sizes, and the standard deviations of tsunami deposits are used to evaluate the influences of coastal morphology on the sediment characteristics. The evaluations show that the tsunami affected areas were attacked by the variable energy waves. Wave energies at the direct tsunami wave affected areas are higher than at the indirect tsunami wave affected areas. Tsunami wave energy is highly dissipated at an area with steep slope shoreface. In the same way, tsunami run-up energy is highly dissipated at an area with steep slope onshore. A channel paralleled to the coastline decreases the run-up velocity, slightly dissipates run-up energy. The road and pond highly influence the characteristics of tsunami deposit and tsunami run-up. A road obstructs the run-up velocity, dissipates run-up energy. A pond decreases run-up velocity, dissipates run-up energy.rn The characteristics of tsunami deposit can be interpreted for reconstructing the characteristics of tsunami run-up such as a run-up height and a flow velocity. Soulsby et al.(2007)- model is applied for reconstructing tsunami run-up at the study areas. The input parameters are sediment grain-size and sediment inundation distance. Ao Kheuy beach and Khuk Khak beach, Phang Nga province, Thailand are the areas listed for reconstructing tsunami run-up. The evaluated run-up heights are 4.2-4.9 m at Ao Kheuy beach, and 5.4-9.4 m at Khuk Khak beach. The evaluated run-up velocities are 12.8-19.2 m/s (maximum) and 0.2-1.9 m/s (mean) at the coastline and onshore, respectively. Hence, a reasonably good agreement between the evaluated and observed run-up is found. Tsunami run-up height and velocity can be used for coastal development and risk management in the tsunami affected areas. The case studies from the Thai Andaman coast suggest that in the area from coastline to about 70-140 m inland was flooded by the high velocity (high energy) run-ups, and those run-up energies were dissipated there. That area ought to be a non-residential area or a physical protection construction area (flood barrier, forest planting, etc.).rn

The discretization of optimal control problems governed by partial differential equations typically leads to large-scale optimization problems. We consider flow control involving the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations as state equation which is stamped by exactly this property. In order to avoid the difficulties of dealing with large-scale (discretized) state equations during the optimization process, a reduction of the number of state variables can be achieved by employing a reduced order modelling technique. Using the snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition method, one obtains a low-dimensional model for the computation of an approximate solution to the state equation. In fact, often a small number of POD basis functions suffices to obtain a satisfactory level of accuracy in the reduced order solution. However, the small number of degrees of freedom in a POD based reduced order model also constitutes its main weakness for optimal control purposes. Since a single reduced order model is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a specified control, it might be an inadequate model when the control (and consequently also the actual corresponding flow behaviour) is altered, implying that the range of validity of a reduced order model, in general, is limited. Thus, it is likely to meet unreliable reduced order solutions during a control problem solution based on one single reduced order model. In order to get out of this dilemma, we propose to use a trust-region proper orthogonal decomposition (TRPOD) approach. By embedding the POD based reduced order modelling technique into a trust-region framework with general model functions, we obtain a mechanism for updating the reduced order models during the optimization process, enabling the reduced order models to represent the flow dynamics as altered by the control. In fact, a rigorous convergence theory for the TRPOD method is obtained which justifies this procedure also from a theoretical point of view. Benefiting from the trust-region philosophy, the TRPOD method guarantees to save a lot of computational work during the control problem solution, since the original state equation only has to be solved if we intend to update our model function in the trust-region framework. The optimization process itself is completely based on reduced order information only.

The complicated human alternative GR promoter region plays a pivotal role in the regulation of GR levels. In this thesis, both genomic and environmental factors linked with GR expression are covered. This research showed that GR promoters were susceptible to silencing by methylation and the activity of the individual promoters was also modulated by SNPs. E2F1 is a major element to drive the expression of GR 1F transcripts and single CpG dinucleotide methylation cannot mediate the inhibition of transcription in vitro. Also, the distribution of GR first exons and 3" splice variants (GRα and GR-P) is expressed throughout the human brain with no region-specific alternative first exon usage. These data mirrored the consistently low levels of methylation in the brain, and the observed homogeneity throughout the studied regions. Taken together, the research presented in this thesis explored several layers of complexity in GR transcriptional regulation.