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In this thesis, three studies investigating the impact of stress on the protective startle eye blink reflex are reported. In the first study a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex was observed after intravenous low dose cortisol application. In the second study a decrease in reflex magnitude of the startle reflex was observed after pharmacological suppression of endogenous cortisol production. In the third study, a higher reflex magnitude of the startle reflex was observed at reduced arterial and central venous blood pressure. These results can be interpreted in terms of an adaption to hostile environments.

Legalisation cannot be fully explained by interest politics. If that were the case, the attitudes towards legalisation would be expected to be based on objective interests and actual policies in France and Germany would be expected to be more similar. Nor can it be explained by institutional agency, because there are no hints that states struggle with different normative traditions. Rather, political actors seek to make use of the structures that already exist to guar-antee legitimacy for their actions. If the main concern of governmental actors really is to accumulate legitimacy, as stated in the introduction, then politicians have a good starting position in the case of legalisation of illegal foreigners. Citizens" negative attitudes towards legalisation cannot be explained by imagined labour market competition; income effects play only a secondary role. The most important explanatory factor is the educational level of each individual. Objective interests do not trigger attitudes towards legalisation, but rather a basic men-tal predisposition for or against illegal immigrants who are eligible for legalisation. Politics concerning amnesties are thus not tied to an objectively given structure like the socio-economic composition of the electorate, but are open for political discretion. Attitudes on legalising illegal immigrants can be regarded as being mediated by beliefs and perceptions, which can be used by political agents or altered by political developments. However, politicians must adhere to a national frame of legitimating strategies that cannot be neglected without consequences. It was evident in the cross-country comparison of political debates that there are national systems of reference that provide patterns of interpretation. Legalisation is seen and incorporated into immigration policy in a very specific way that differs from one country to the next. In both countries investigated in this study, there are fundamental debates about which basic principles apply to legalisation and which of these should be held in higher esteem: a legal system able to work, humanitarian rights, practical considerations, etc. The results suggest that legalisation is "technicized" in France by describing it as an unusual but possible pragmatic instrument for the adjustment of the inefficient rule of law. In Germany, however, legalisation is discussed at a more normative level. Proponents of conservative immigration policies regard it as a substantial infringement on the rule of law, so that even defenders of a humanitarian solution for illegal immigrants are not able to challenge this view without significant political harm. But the arguments brought to bear in the debate on legalisation are not necessarily sound because they are not irrefutable facts, but instruments to generate legitimacy, and there are enough possibilities for arguing and persuading because socio-economic factors play a minor role. One of the most important arguments, the alleged pull effect of legalisation, has been subjected to an empirical investigation. In the political debate, it does not make any dif-ference whether this is true or not, insofar as it is not contested by incontrovertible findings. In reality, the results suggest that amnesties indeed exert a small attracting influence on illegal immigration, which has been contested by immigration friendly politicians in the French par-liament. The effect, however, is not large; therefore, some conservative politicians may put too much stress on this argument. Moreover, one can see legalisation as an instrument to restore legitimacy that has slipped away from immigration politics because of a high number of illegally residing foreigners. This aspect explains some of the peculiarities in the French debate on legalisation, e.g. the idea that the coherence of the law is secured by creating exceptional rules for legalising illegal immigrants. It has become clear that the politics of legalisation are susceptible to manipulation by introducing certain interpretations into the political debate, which become predominant and supersede other views. In this study, there are no signs of a systematic misuse of this constellation by any certain actor. However, the history of immigration policy is full of examples of symbolic politics in which a certain measure has been initiated while the actors are totally aware of its lack of effect. Legalisation has escaped this fate so far because it is a specific instrument that is the result of neglecting populist mechanisms rather than an ex-ample of a superficial measure. This result does not apply to policies concerning illegal immi-gration in general, both with regard to concealing a lack of control and flexing the state- muscles.

N-acetylation by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is an important biotransformation pathway of the human skin and it is involved in the deactivation of the arylamine and well-known contact allergen para-phenylenediamine (PPD). Here, NAT1 expression and activity were analyzed in antigen presenting cells (monocyte-derived dendritic cells, MoDCs, a model for epidermal Langerhans cells) and human keratinocytes. The latter were used to study exogenous and endogenous NAT1 activity modulations. rnWithin this thesis, MoDCs were found to express metabolically active NAT1. Activities were between 23.4 and 26.6 nmol/mg/min and thus comparable to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells contribute to the cutaneous N-acetylation capacity. Keratinocytes, which are known for their efficient N-acetylation, were analyzed in a comparative study using primary keratinocytes (NHEK) and different shipments of the immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, in order to investigate the ability of the cell line to model epidermal biotransformation. N-acetylation of the substrate para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was 3.4-fold higher in HaCaT compared to NHEK and varied between the HaCaT shipments (range 12.0"44.5 nmol/mg/min). Since B[a]P induced cytochrome p450 1 (CYP1) activities were also higher in HaCaT compared to NHEK, the cell line can be considered as an in vitro tool to qualitatively model epidermal metabolism, regarding NAT1 and CYP1. The HaCaT shipment with the highest NAT1 activity showed only minimal reduction of cell viability after treatment with PPD and was subsequently used to study interactions between NAT1 and PPD in keratinocytes. Treatment with PPD induced expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) in HaCaT, but in parallel, PPD N-acetylation was found to saturate with increasing PPD concentration. This saturation explains the presence of the PPD induced COX induction despite the high N-acetylation capacities. A detailed analysis of the effect of PPD on NAT1 revealed that the saturation of PPD N-acetylation was caused by a PPD-induced decrease of NAT1 activity. This inhibition was found in HaCaT as well as in primary keratinocytes after treatment with PPD and PABA. Regarding the mechanism, reduced NAT1 protein level and unaffected NAT1 mRNA expression after PPD treatment adduced clear evidences for substrate-dependent NAT1 downregulation. These results expand the existing knowledge about substrate-dependent NAT1 downregulation to human epithelial skin cells and demonstrate that NAT1 activity in keratinocytes can be modulated by exogenous factors. Further analysis of HaCaT cells from different shipments revealed an accelerated progression through the cell cycle in HaCaT cells with high NAT1 activities. These findings suggest an association between NAT1 and proliferation in keratinocytes as it has been proposed earlier for tumor cells. rnIn conclusion, N-acetylation capacity of MoDCs as well as keratinocytes contribute to the overall N-acetylation capacity of human skin. NAT1 activity of keratinocytes and consequently the detoxification capacities of human skin can be modulated by the presence of exogenous NAT1 substrates and endogenous by the cell proliferation status of keratinocytes. rn

This work addresses the algorithmic tractability of hard combinatorial problems. Basically, we are considering \NP-hard problems. For those problemsrnwerncan not find a polynomial time algorithm. Several algorithmic approaches already exist which deal with this dilemma. Amongrnthemrnwe find (randomized) approximation algorithms and heuristics. Even though in practice they often work in reasonable time they usually do not return anrnoptimal solution. If we constrain optimality then there are only two methods which suffice for this purpose: exponential time algorithms andrnparameterized algorithms. In the first approach we seek to design algorithms consuming exponentially many steps who are more clever than some trivialrnalgorithm (whornsimply enumerates all solution candidates).rnTypically, the naive enumerative approach yields an algorithm with run time $\Oh^*(2^n)$. So, the general task is to construct algorithms obeying a run time of rnthe form $\Oh^*(c^n)$ where $c<2$.rn The second approach considers an additional parameter $k$ besides the input size $n$. This parameter shouldrnprovide more information about the problem and cover a typical characteristic. The standard parameterization is to see $k$ as an upper (lower, resp.)rnbound on the solution size in case of a minimization (maximization, resp.) problem. Then a parameterized algorithm should solve the problem in time $f(k)\cdot n^\beta$rnwhere $\beta$ is a constant and $f$ is independent of $n$. In principle this method aims to restrict the combinatorial difficulty of the problem tornthe parameter $k$ (if possible). The basic hypothesis is that $k$ is small with respect to the overall input size.rnIn both fields a frequent standard technique is the design of branching algorithms. These algorithms solve the problem by traversing the solutionrnspace in a clever way. They frequently select an entity of the input and create two new subproblems, one where this entity is considered as part ofrnthernfuture solution and another one where it is excluded from it. Then in both cases by fixing this entity possibly other entities will be fixed. If so then therntraversedrnnumber of possible solution is smaller than the whole solution space. The visited solutions can be arranged like a search tree. To estimate thernrun time of such algorithms there is need for a method to obtain tight upper bounds on the size of the search trees. In the field of exponential timernalgorithms a powerful technique called Measure&Conquer has been developed for this purpose. It has been applied successfully to manyrnproblems, especially to problems where other algorithmic attacks could not break the trivial run time upper bound. rnOn the other hand in the field of parameterized algorithms Measure&Conquer is almost not known. This piece of work will presentrnexamples where this technique can be used in this field. It also will point out what differences have to be made in order to successfully applyrnthe technique. Further, exponential time algorithms for hard problems where Measure&Conquer is applied are presented. Another aspect is thatrna formalization (and generalization) of the notion of a search tree is given. It is shown that for certain problems such a formalization is extremely useful.rn

Aggression is one of the most researched topics in psychology. This is understandable, since aggression behavior does a lot of harm to individuals and groups. A lot is known already about the biology of aggression, but one system that seems to be of vital importance in animals has largely been overlooked: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Menno Kruk and JÃ³szef Haller and their research teams developed rodent models of adaptive, normal, and abnormal aggressive behavior. They found the acute HPA axis (re)activity, but also chronic basal levels to be causally relevant in the elicitation and escalation of aggressive behavior. As a mediating variable, changes in the processing of relevant social information is proposed, although this could not be tested in animals. In humans, not a lot of research has been done, but there is evidence for both the association between acute and basal cortisol levels in (abnormal) aggression. However, not many of these studies have been experimental of nature. rnrnOur aim was to add to the understanding of both basal chronic levels of HPA axis activity, as well as acute levels in the formation of aggressive behavior. Therefore, we did two experiments, both with healthy student samples. In both studies we induced aggression with a well validated paradigm from social psychology: the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. Half of the subjects, however, only went through a non-provoking control condition. We measured trait basal levels of HPA axis activity on three days prior. We took several cortisol samples before, during, and after the task. After the induction of aggression, we measured the behavioral and electrophysiological brain response to relevant social stimuli, i.e., emotional facial expressions embedded in an emotional Stroop task. In the second study, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels 60min before the beginning of the experiment. To do that, half of the subjects were administered 20mg of hydrocortisone, which elevates circulating cortisol levels (cortisol group), the other half was administered a placebo (placebo group).rnrnResults showed that acute HPA axis activity is indeed relevant for aggressive behavior. We found in Study 1 a difference in cortisol levels after the aggression induction in the provoked group compared to the non-provoked group (i.e., a heightened reactivity of the HPA axis). However, this could not be replicated in Study 2. Furthermore, the pharmacological elevation of cortisol levels led to an increase in aggressive behavior in women compared to the placebo group. There were no effects in men, so that while men were significantly more aggressive than women in the placebo group, they were equally aggressive in the cortisol group. Furthermore, there was an interaction of cortisol treatment with block of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in that the cortisol group was significantly more aggressive in the third block of the task. Concerning basal HPA axis activity, we found an effect on aggressive behavior in both studies, albeit more consistently in women and in the provoked and non-provoked groups. However, the effect was not apparent in the cortisol group. After the aggressive encounter, information processing patterns were changed in the provoked compared to the non-provoked group for all facial expressions, especially anger.rnrnThese results indicate that the HPA axis plays an important role in the formation of aggressive behavior in humans, as well. Importantly, different changes within the system, be it basal or acute, are associated with the same outcome in this task. More studies are needed, however, to better understand the role that each plays in different kinds of aggressive behavior, and the role information processing plays as a possible mediating variable. This extensive knowledge is necessary for better behavioral interventions.

Abstracts book of oral presentations and poster contributions for the mid-term conference of the Interreg IVB NWE project ForeStClim. The international conference took place in Nancy (France) from 20. to 22. September 2010. The topics of the conference sessions were as follows:rnSession 1: Projecting forest sites and stand shiftsrnSession 2: Climate change and water: modelling across spatial and temporal scalesrnSession 3: Addressing climate change in practical silvicultural decision support

Recently, optimization has become an integral part of the aerodynamic design process chain. However, because of uncertainties with respect to the flight conditions and geometrical uncertainties, a design optimized by a traditional design optimization method seeking only optimality may not achieve its expected performance. Robust optimization deals with optimal designs, which are robust with respect to small (or even large) perturbations of the optimization setpoint conditions. The resulting optimization tasks become much more complex than the usual single setpoint case, so that efficient and fast algorithms need to be developed in order to identify, quantize and include the uncertainties in the overall optimization procedure. In this thesis, a novel approach towards stochastic distributed aleatory uncertainties for the specific application of optimal aerodynamic design under uncertainties is presented. In order to include the uncertainties in the optimization, robust formulations of the general aerodynamic design optimization problem based on probabilistic models of the uncertainties are discussed. Three classes of formulations, the worst-case, the chance-constrained and the semi-infinite formulation, of the aerodynamic shape optimization problem are identified. Since the worst-case formulation may lead to overly conservative designs, the focus of this thesis is on the chance-constrained and semi-infinite formulation. A key issue is then to propagate the input uncertainties through the systems to obtain statistics of quantities of interest, which are used as a measure of robustness in both robust counterparts of the deterministic optimization problem. Due to the highly nonlinear underlying design problem, uncertainty quantification methods are used in order to approximate and consequently simplify the problem to a solvable optimization task. Computationally demanding evaluations of high dimensional integrals resulting from the direct approximation of statistics as well as from uncertainty quantification approximations arise. To overcome the curse of dimensionality, sparse grid methods in combination with adaptive refinement strategies are applied. The reduction of the number of discretization points is an important issue in the context of robust design, since the computational effort of the numerical quadrature comes up in every iteration of the optimization algorithm. In order to efficiently solve the resulting optimization problems, algorithmic approaches based on multiple-setpoint ideas in combination with one-shot methods are presented. A parallelization approach is provided to overcome the amount of additional computational effort involved by multiple-setpoint optimization problems. Finally, the developed methods are applied to 2D and 3D Euler and Navier-Stokes test cases verifying their industrial usability and reliability. Numerical results of robust aerodynamic shape optimization under uncertain flight conditions as well as geometrical uncertainties are presented. Further, uncertainty quantification methods are used to investigate the influence of geometrical uncertainties on quantities of interest in a 3D test case. The results demonstrate the significant effect of uncertainties in the context of aerodynamic design and thus the need for robust design to ensure a good performance in real life conditions. The thesis proposes a general framework for robust aerodynamic design attacking the additional computational complexity of the treatment of uncertainties, thus making robust design in this sense possible.

Large scale non-parametric applied shape optimization for computational fluid dynamics is considered. Treating a shape optimization problem as a standard optimal control problem by means of a parameterization, the Lagrangian usually requires knowledge of the partial derivative of the shape parameterization and deformation chain with respect to input parameters. For a variety of reasons,rnthis mesh sensitivity Jacobian is usually quite problematic. For a sufficiently smooth boundary, the Hadamard theorem provides a gradient expression that exists on the surface alone, completely bypassing the mesh sensitivity Jacobian. Building upon this, the gradient computation becomes independent of the number of design parameters and all surface mesh nodes are used as designrnunknowns in this work, effectively allowing a free morphing of shapes during optimization. Contrary to a parameterized shape optimization problem, where a smooth surface is usually created independently of the input parameters by construction, regularity is not preserved automatically in the non-parametric case. As part of this work, the shape Hessian is used in an approximative Newton method, also known as Sobolev method or gradient smoothing, to ensure a certain regularity of the updates, and thus a smooth shape is preserved while at the same time the one-shot optimization method is also accelerated considerably. For PDE constrained shape optimization, the Hessian usually is a pseudo-differential operator. Fourier analysis is used to identify the operatorrnsymbol both analytically and discretely. Preconditioning the one-shot optimization by an appropriate Hessian symbol is shown to greatly accelerate the optimization. As the correct discretization of the Hadamard form usually requires evaluating certain surface quantities such as tangential divergence and curvature, special attention is also given to discrete differential geometry on triangulated surfaces for evaluating shape gradients and Hessians.rnThe Hadamard formula and Hessian approximations are applied to a variety of flow situations. In addition to shape optimization of internal and external flows, major focus lies on aerodynamic design such as optimizing two dimensional airfoils and three dimensional wings. Shock waves form whenrnthe local speed of sound is reached, and the gradient must be evaluated correctly at discontinuous states. To ensure proper shock resolution, an adaptive multi-level optimization of the Onera M6 wing is conducted using more than 36, 000 shape unknowns on a standard office workstation, demonstrating the applicability of the shape-one-shot method to industry size problems.

The subject of this thesis is a homological approach to the splitting theory of PLS-spaces, i.e. to the question for which topologically exact short sequences 0->X->Y->Z->0 of PLS-spaces X,Y,Z the right-hand map admits a right inverse. We show that the category (PLS) of PLS-spaces and continuous linear maps is an additive category in which every morphism admits a kernel and a cokernel, i.e. it is pre-abelian. However, we also show that it is neither quasi-abelian nor semi-abelian. As a foundation for our homological constructions we show the more general result that every pre-abelian category admits a largest exact structure in the sense of Quillen. In the pre-abelian category (PLS) this exact structure consists precisely of the topologically exact short sequences of PLS-spaces. Using a construction of Ext-functors due to Yoneda, we show that one can define for each PLS-space A and every natural number k the k-th abelian-group valued covariant and contravariant Ext-functors acting on the category (PLS) of PLS-spaces, which induce for every topologically exact short sequence of PLS-spaces a long exact sequence of abelian groups and group morphisms. These functors are studied in detail and we establish a connection between the Ext-functors of PLS-spaces and the Ext-functors for LS-spaces. Through this connection we arrive at an analogue of a result for Fréchet spaces which connects the first derived functor of the projective limit with the first Ext-functor and also gives sufficient conditions for the vanishing of the higher Ext-functors. Finally, we show that Ext^k(E,F) = 0 for a k greater or equal than 1, whenever E is a closed subspace and F is a Hausdorff-quotient of the space of distributions, which generalizes a result of Wengenroth that is itself a generalization of results due to Domanski and Vogt.