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This doctoral thesis includes five studies that deal with the topics work, well-being, and family formation, as well as their interaction. The studies aim to find answers to the following questions: Do workers’ personality traits determine whether they sort into jobs with performance appraisals? Does job insecurity result in lower quality and quantity of sleep? Do public smoking bans affect subjective well-being by changing individuals’ use of leisure time? Can risk preferences help to explain non-traditional family forms? And finally, are differences in out-of-partnership birth rates between East and West Germany driven by cultural characteristics that have evolved in the two separate politico-economic systems? To answer these questions, the following chapters use basic economic subjects such as working conditions, income, and time use, but also employ a range of sociological and psychological concepts such as personality traits and satisfaction measures. Furthermore, all five studies use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), a representative longitudinal panel of private households in Germany, and apply state-of-the-art microeconometric methods. The findings of this doctoral thesis are important for individuals, employers, and policymakers. Workers and employers benefit from knowing the determinants of occupational sorting, as vacancies can be filled more accurately. Moreover, knowing which job-related problems lead to lower well-being and potentially higher sickness absence likely increases efficiency in the workplace. The research on smoking bans and family formation in chapters 4, 5, and 6 is particularly interesting for policymakers. The results on the effects of smoking bans on subjective well-being presented in chapter 4 suggest that the impacts of tobacco control policies could be weighed more carefully. Additionally, understanding why women are willing to take the risks associated with single motherhood can help to improve policies targeting single mothers.

This thesis discusses revue as a significantly inter-cultural genre in the history of global theatre.
During the ‘modernisation’ period in Europe, America and Japan, most major urban cities
experienced a boom in revue venues and performances. Few studies about revue have yet been
done in theatre studies or in urban cultural studies. My thesis will attempt to reevaluate and
redefine revue as a highly inter-cultural theatre genre by using the concept of liminality. In other
words, the aim is to examine revue as a genre built on ‘modern composition of betweenness’,
bridging seemingly opposing elements, such as the foreign and the domestic, the classic and the
innovative, the traditional and the modern, the professional and the amateur, high and low
culture, and the feminine and the masculine. The goal is to regard revue as a liminal genre
constructed amidst the negotiations between these binaries, existing in a state of constant flux.
The purpose of this approach is to capture revue as a transitory phenomena in five dimensions:
conceptual, spatial, temporal, categorical and physical. Over the course of six chapters, this
inter-disciplinary discussion will reveal the reasons why and the ways by which revue came to
establish its prominent position in the Japanese theatre industry. The whole structure is also an
attempt to provide plausible ways to apply sociological considerations to theatre studies.

Finding behavioral parameterization for a 1-D water balance model by multi-criteria evaluation
(2019)

Evapotranspiration is often estimated by numerical simulation. However, to produce accurate simulations, these models usually require on-site measurements for parameterization or calibration. We have to make sure that the model realistically reproduces both, the temporal patterns of soil moisture and evapotranspiration. In this study, we combine three sources of information: (i) measurements of sap velocities; (ii) soil moisture; and (iii) expert knowledge on local runoff generation and water balance to define constraints for a “behavioral” forest stand water balance model. Aiming for a behavioral model, we adjusted soil moisture at saturation, bulk resistance parameters and the parameters of the water retention curve (WRC). We found that the shape of the WRC influences substantially the behavior of the simulation model. Here, only one model realization could be referred to as “behavioral”. All other realizations failed for a least one of our evaluation criteria: Not only transpiration and soil moisture are simulated consistently with our observations, but also total water balance and runoff generation processes. The introduction of a multi-criteria evaluation scheme for the detection of unrealistic outputs made it possible to identify a well performing parameter set. Our findings indicate that measurement of different fluxes and state variables instead of just one and expert knowledge concerning runoff generation facilitate the parameterization of a hydrological model.

Subject of this publication is torture as an interrogational instrument in criminal proceedings from a legal history point of view. Thereby, the paper at hand is the continuation of Volume I (published in 2014, number 68 of the Legal Policy Forum).
Volume II covers the following historical periods: Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Age; the latter ending with the 18th century as the so called Century of Enlightenment, being the actual beginning of the Modern Age in criminal law and criminal procedure law.
The paper ends with critical remarks against the predominant view that the torture's reign of terror in the former inquisitionsprozess merely was the inevitable consequence of the unreasonable kaw on evidence applicable at that time.

Major threats to the Spanish Constitutional Court’s independence and authority have come, first, from political parties and the media and, second, by the Catalonian secession movement. The authority and the legitimacy of the Constitutional Court were tested in the stormy
proceedings on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006 that ended in 2010 and, above all, in the period of 2013–2017, when successive acts directed at the secession of were recurrently Catalonia challenged before the Court and subsequently overturned, and to stop the continued disobedience its rulings the of Court was given extended execution powers for its judgments. These new powers include the temporary replacement of any authority or public official that does not comply with a Court’s ruling and the ordering of a substitutive execution through the central government. The Court declared the new powers to be consistent with the Constitution (with three dissenting votes by four constitutional judges) and it even used them for the first time to enforce its prohibition of the referendum on the independence of Catalonia of 1 October 2017. Nevertheless, the Venice Commission has raised doubts about the opportunity of those powers, which are unusual in European constitutional jurisdiction models. At the end, the Court’s powers were not enough to stop the Catalonian secession process, and on 27 October 2017 the state government implemented the federal coercion clause and suspended Catalonian autonomy until new elections were held.

Although geographically it belongs to Europe, as far as the constitutionality control of the statutory provisions is concerned, Greece follows the American system. That means that there is no Constitutional Court and, on the contrary, every court (even those of first instance) are entitled, and indeed obliged, to control the constitutionality of the laws (Articles 87 par. 2 and 93 par. 4 of the Greek Constitution). The Greek Courts examine only the substantial and not the formal constitutionality of the statutory provisions. If a court comes to the result of the unconstitutionality, then the statutory provision is not annulled and removed from the legal order, but it is not applied by the court in the relevant court procedure. The only – rather rare – case where a statutory provision is erga omnes annulled is when this is ordered by a decision of the Highest Special Court (Article 100 of the Greek Constitution), following a disagreement between two of the three highest Courts, namely between Symvoulio tis Epikrateias (highest Administrative Court), Areios Pagos (Cassations Court in Civil and Criminal procedures) and Elegtiko Synedrio (Court of Audit).
The presentation is going to examine the origins of the Greek system of the constitutionality control. It will also focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the Greek system and on the scientific and political discussion. Last but not least, the presentation will examine the role of the Council of State, which, although formally not a Constitutional Court, in practice issues the vast majority of the court decisions which accept the unconstitutionality of statutory provisions.

Subject of this publication is torture as an interrogational instrument in criminal proceedings from a legal history point of view. Thereby, the author makes a distinction between torturing the accused on the one hand and, on the other hand, torture as an instrument to force a witness' incriminating testimony against third parties (in German: Zeugenfolter), torture as a means to avert dangers (lifesaving torture), torture as an additional cruelty to the accused's punishment (in German: Straffolter), and corporal punlishment for lying in a court. Only the first manifestation, namely torturing the accused intending to extort his confession, is the real subject of this paper.

Nonlocal operators are used in a wide variety of models and applications due to many natural phenomena being driven by nonlocal dynamics. Nonlocal operators are integral operators allowing for interactions between two distinct points in space. The nonlocal models investigated in this thesis involve kernels that are assumed to have a finite range of nonlocal interactions. Kernels of this type are used in nonlocal elasticity and convection-diffusion models as well as finance and image analysis. Also within the mathematical theory they arouse great interest, as they are asymptotically related to fractional and classical differential equations.
The results in this thesis can be grouped according to the following three aspects: modeling and analysis, discretization and optimization.
Mathematical models demonstrate their true usefulness when put into numerical practice. For computational purposes, it is important that the support of the kernel is clearly determined. Therefore nonlocal interactions are typically assumed to occur within an Euclidean ball of finite radius. In this thesis we consider more general interaction sets including norm induced balls as special cases and extend established results about well-posedness and asymptotic limits.
The discretization of integral equations is a challenging endeavor. Especially kernels which are truncated by Euclidean balls require carefully designed quadrature rules for the implementation of efficient finite element codes. In this thesis we investigate the computational benefits of polyhedral interaction sets as well as geometrically approximated interaction sets. In addition to that we outline the computational advantages of sufficiently structured problem settings.
Shape optimization methods have been proven useful for identifying interfaces in models governed by partial differential equations. Here we consider a class of shape optimization problems constrained by nonlocal equations which involve interface-dependent kernels. We derive the shape derivative associated to the nonlocal system model and solve the problem by established numerical techniques.

In this thesis, we aim to study the sampling allocation problem of survey statistics under uncertainty. We know that the stratum specific variances are generally not known precisely and we have no information about the distribution of uncertainty. The cost of interviewing each person in a stratum is also a highly uncertain parameter as sometimes people are unavailable for the interview. We propose robust allocations to deal with the uncertainty in both stratum specific variances and costs. However, in real life situations, we can face such cases when only one of the variances or costs is uncertain. So we propose three different robust formulations representing these different cases. To the best of our knowledge robust allocation in the sampling allocation problem has not been considered so far in any research.
The first robust formulation for linear problems was proposed by Soyster (1973). Bertsimas and Sim (2004) proposed a less conservative robust formulation for linear problems. We study these formulations and extend them for the nonlinear sampling allocation problem. It is very unlikely to happen that all of the stratum specific variances and costs are uncertain. So the robust formulations are in such a way that we can select how many strata are uncertain which we refer to as the level of uncertainty. We prove that an upper bound on the probability of violation of the nonlinear constraints can be calculated before solving the robust optimization problem. We consider various kinds of datasets and compute robust allocations. We perform multiple experiments to check the quality of the robust allocations and compare them with the existing allocation techniques.

We consider a linear regression model for which we assume that some of the observed variables are irrelevant for the prediction. Including the wrong variables in the statistical model can either lead to the problem of having too little information to properly estimate the statistic of interest, or having too much information and consequently describing fictitious connections. This thesis considers discrete optimization to conduct a variable selection. In light of this, the subset selection regression method is analyzed. The approach gained a lot of interest in recent years due to its promising predictive performance. A major challenge associated with the subset selection regression is the computational difficulty. In this thesis, we propose several improvements for the efficiency of the method. Novel bounds on the coefficients of the subset selection regression are developed, which help to tighten the relaxation of the associated mixed-integer program, which relies on a Big-M formulation. Moreover, a novel mixed-integer linear formulation for the subset selection regression based on a bilevel optimization reformulation is proposed. Finally, it is shown that the perspective formulation of the subset selection regression is equivalent to a state-of-the-art binary formulation. We use this insight to develop novel bounds for the subset selection regression problem, which show to be highly effective in combination with the proposed linear formulation.
In the second part of this thesis, we examine the statistical conception of the subset selection regression and conclude that it is misaligned with its intention. The subset selection regression uses the training error to decide on which variables to select. The approach conducts the validation on the training data, which oftentimes is not a good estimate of the prediction error. Hence, it requires a predetermined cardinality bound. Instead, we propose to select variables with respect to the cross-validation value. The process is formulated as a mixed-integer program with the sparsity becoming subject of the optimization. Usually, a cross-validation is used to select the best model out of a few options. With the proposed program the best model out of all possible models is selected. Since the cross-validation is a much better estimate of the prediction error, the model can select the best sparsity itself.
The thesis is concluded with an extensive simulation study which provides evidence that discrete optimization can be used to produce highly valuable predictive models with the cross-validation subset selection regression almost always producing the best results.

Harvesting of silage maize in late autumn on waterlogged soils may result in several ecological problems such as soil compaction and may subsequently be a major threat to soil fertility in Europe. It was hypothesized that perennial energy crops might reduce the vulnerability for soil compaction through earlier harvest dates and improved soil stability. However, the performance of such crops to be grown on soil that are periodically waterlogged and implications for soil chemical and microbial properties are currently an open issue. Within the framework of a two-year pot experiment we investigated the potential of the cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), giant knotweed (Fallopia japonicum X bohemica), tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) for cultivation under periodically waterlogged soil conditions during the winter half year and implications for soil chemical and biological properties. Examined perennial energy crops coped with periodical waterlogging and showed yields 50% to 150% higher than in the control which was never faced with waterlogging. Root formation was similar in waterlogged and non-waterlogged soil layers. Soil chemical and microbial properties clearly responded to different soil moisture treatments. For example, dehydrogenase activity was two to four times higher in the periodically waterlogged treatment compared to the control. Despite waterlogging, aerobic microbial activity was significantly elevated indicating morphological and metabolic adaptation of the perennial crops to withstand waterlogged conditions. Thus, our results reveal first evidence of a site-adapted biomass production on periodical waterlogged soils through the cultivation of perennial energy crops and for intense plant microbe interactions.

A satellite-based climatology of wind-induced surface temperature anomalies for the Antarctic
(2019)

It is well-known that katabatic winds can be detected as warm signatures in the surface temperature over the slopes of the Antarctic ice sheets. For appropriate synoptic forcing and/or topographic channeling, katabatic surges occur, which result in warm signatures also over adjacent ice shelves. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice surface temperature (IST) data are used to detect warm signatures over the Antarctic for the winter periods 2002–2017. In addition, high-resolution (5 km) regional climate model data is used for the years of 2002 to 2016. We present a case study and a climatology of wind-induced IST anomalies for the Ross Ice Shelf and the eastern Weddell Sea. The IST anomaly distributions show maxima around 10–15K for the slopes, but values of more than 25K are also found. Katabatic surges represent a strong climatological signal with a mean warm anomaly of more than 5K on more than 120 days per winter for the Byrd Glacier and the Nimrod Glacier on the Ross Ice Shelf. The mean anomaly for the Brunt Ice Shelf is weaker, and exceeds 5K on about 70 days per winter. Model simulations of the IST are compared to the MODIS IST, and show a very good agreement. The model data show that the near-surface stability is a better measure for the response to the wind than the IST itself.

Abstract: Thermal infrared (TIR) multi-/hyperspectral and sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) approaches together with classic solar-reflective (visible, near-, and shortwave infrared reflectance (VNIR)/SWIR) hyperspectral remote sensing form the latest state-of-the-art techniques for the detection of crop water stress. Each of these three domains requires dedicated sensor technology currently in place for ground and airborne applications and either have satellite concepts under development (e.g., HySPIRI/SBG (Surface Biology and Geology), Sentinel-8, HiTeSEM in the TIR) or are subject to satellite missions recently launched or scheduled within the next years (i.e., EnMAP and PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa, launched on March 2019) in the VNIR/SWIR, Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) in the SIF). Identification of plant water stress or drought is of utmost importance to guarantee global water and food supply. Therefore, knowledge of crop water status over large farmland areas bears large potential for optimizing agricultural water use. As plant responses to water stress are numerous and complex, their physiological consequences affect the electromagnetic signal in different spectral domains. This review paper summarizes the importance of water stress-related applications and the plant responses to water stress, followed by a concise review of water-stress detection through remote sensing, focusing on TIR without neglecting the comparison to other spectral domains (i.e., VNIR/SWIR and SIF) and multi-sensor approaches. Current and planned sensors at ground, airborne, and satellite level for the TIR as well as a selection of commonly used indices and approaches for water-stress detection using the main multi-/hyperspectral remote sensing imaging techniques are reviewed. Several important challenges are discussed that occur when using spectral emissivity, temperature-based indices, and physically-based approaches for water-stress detection in the TIR spectral domain. Furthermore, challenges with data processing and the perspectives for future satellite missions in the TIR are critically examined. In conclusion, information from multi-/hyperspectral TIR together with those from VNIR/SWIR and SIF sensors within a multi-sensor approach can provide profound insights to actual plant (water) status and the rationale of physiological and biochemical changes. Synergistic sensor use will open new avenues for scientists to study plant functioning and the response to environmental stress in a wide range of ecosystems.

Background
In light of the current biodiversity crisis, DNA barcoding is developing into an essential tool to quantify state shifts in global ecosystems. Current barcoding protocols often rely on short amplicon sequences, which yield accurate identification of biological entities in a community but provide limited phylogenetic resolution across broad taxonomic scales. However, the phylogenetic structure of communities is an essential component of biodiversity. Consequently, a barcoding approach is required that unites robust taxonomic assignment power and high phylogenetic utility. A possible solution is offered by sequencing long ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicons on the MinION platform (Oxford Nanopore Technologies).
Findings
Using a dataset of various animal and plant species, with a focus on arthropods, we assemble a pipeline for long rDNA barcode analysis and introduce a new software (MiniBar) to demultiplex dual indexed Nanopore reads. We find excellent phylogenetic and taxonomic resolution offered by long rDNA sequences across broad taxonomic scales. We highlight the simplicity of our approach by field barcoding with a miniaturized, mobile laboratory in a remote rainforest. We also test the utility of long rDNA amplicons for analysis of community diversity through metabarcoding and find that they recover highly skewed diversity estimates.
Conclusions
Sequencing dual indexed, long rDNA amplicons on the MinION platform is a straightforward, cost-effective, portable, and universal approach for eukaryote DNA barcoding. Although bulk community analyses using long-amplicon approaches may introduce biases, the long rDNA amplicons approach signifies a powerful tool for enabling the accurate recovery of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity across biological communities.

A huge number of clinical studies and meta-analyses have shown that psychotherapy is effective on average. However, not every patient profits from psychotherapy and some patients even deteriorate in treatment. Due to this result and the restricted generalization of clinical studies to clinical practice, a more patient-focused research strategy has emerged. The question whether a particular treatment works for an individual case is the focus of this paradigm. The use of repeated assessments and the feedback of this information to therapists is a major ingredient of patient-focused research. Improving patient outcomes and reducing dropout rates by the use of psychometric feedback seems to be a promising path. Therapists seem to differ in the degree to which they make use of and profit from such feedback systems. This dissertation aims to better understand therapist differences in the context of patient-focused research and the impact of therapists on psychotherapy. Three different studies are included, which focus on different aspects within the field:
Study I (Chapter 5) investigated how therapists use psychometric feedback in their work with patients and how much therapists differ in their usage. Data from 72 therapists treating 648 patients were analyzed. It could be shown that therapists used the psychometric feedback for most of their patients. Substantial variance in the use of feedback (between 27% and 52%) was attributable to therapists. Therapists were more likely to use feedback when they reported being satisfied with the graphical information they received. The results therefore indicated that not only patient characteristics or treatment progress affected the use of feedback.
Study II (Chapter 6) picked up on the idea of analyzing systematic differences in therapists and applied it to the criterion of premature treatment termination (dropout). To answer the question whether therapist effects occur in terms of patients’ dropout rates, data from 707 patients treated by 66 therapists were investigated. It was shown that approximately six percent of variance in dropout rates could be attributed to therapists, even when initial impairment was controlled for. Other predictors of dropout were initial impairment, sex, education, personality styles, and treatment expectations.
Study III (Chapter 7) extends the dissertation by investigating the impact of a transfer from one therapist to another within ongoing treatments. Data from 124 patients who agreed to and experienced a transfer during their treatment were analyzed. A significant drop in patient-rated as well as therapist-rated alliance levels could be observed after a transfer. On average, there seemed to be no difficulties establishing a good therapeutic alliance with the new therapist, although differences between patients were observed. There was no increase in symptom severity due to therapy transfer. Various predictors of alliance and symptom development after transfer were investigated. Impacts on clinical practice were discussed.
Results of the three studies are discussed and general conclusions are drawn. Implications for future research as well as their utility for clinical practice and decision-making are presented.

In this thesis, we consider the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems with an underlying low-rank tensor structure. Due to the exponentially increasing computational complexity in the number of dimensions—the so-called curse of dimensionality—they present a considerable computational challenge and become infeasible even for moderate problem sizes.
Multilinear algebra and tensor numerical methods have a wide range of applications in the fields of data science and scientific computing. Due to the typically large problem sizes in practical settings, efficient methods, which exploit low-rank structures, are essential. In this thesis, we consider an application each in both of these fields.
Tensor completion, or imputation of unknown values in partially known multiway data is an important problem, which appears in statistics, mathematical imaging science and data science. Under the assumption of redundancy in the underlying data, this is a well-defined problem and methods of mathematical optimization can be applied to it.
Due to the fact that tensors of fixed rank form a Riemannian submanifold of the ambient high-dimensional tensor space, Riemannian optimization is a natural framework for these problems, which is both mathematically rigorous and computationally efficient.
We present a novel Riemannian trust-region scheme, which compares favourably with the state of the art on selected application cases and outperforms known methods on some test problems.
Optimization problems governed by partial differential equations form an area of scientific computing which has applications in a variety of areas, ranging from physics to financial mathematics. Due to the inherent high dimensionality of optimization problems arising from discretized differential equations, these problems present computational challenges, especially in the case of three or more dimensions. An even more challenging class of optimization problems has operators of integral instead of differential type in the constraint. These operators are nonlocal, and therefore lead to large, dense discrete systems of equations. We present a novel solution method, based on separation of spatial dimensions and provably low-rank approximation of the nonlocal operator. Our
approach allows the solution of multidimensional problems with a complexity which is only slightly larger than linear in the univariate grid size; this improves the state of the art for a particular test problem problem by at least two orders of magnitude.

Because EU water quality policy can result in infrastructure creation or adaptation at the local level across member states, compliance cases are worth examining critically from a sustainable spatial planning perspective. In this study, the 2000 EU Water Framework Directive’s (WFD) reach to local implementation efforts in average towns and cities is shown through the case study of nonconforming household wastewater infrastructure in the German state of Rhineland Palatinate. Seeing wastewater as a socio-technical infrastructure, we ask how the WFD implementation can be understood in the context of local infrastructure development, sustainability, and spatial planning concepts. In particular, this study examines what compliance meant for the centralization or decentralization of local wastewater infrastructure systems—and the sustainability implications for cities
from those choices.

When do anorexic patients perceive their body as too fat? Aggravating and ameliorating factors
(2019)

Objective
Our study investigated body image representations in female patients with anorexia nervosa
and healthy controls using a size estimation with pictures of their own body. We also
explored a method to reduce body image distortions through right hemispheric activation.
Method
Pictures of participants’ own bodies were shown on the left or right visual fields for 130 ms
after presentation of neutral, positive, or negative word primes, which could be self-relevant
or not, with the task of classifying the picture as “thinner than”, “equal to”, or “fatter than”
one’s own body. Subsequently, activation of the left- or right hemispheric through right- or
left-hand muscle contractions for 3 min., respectively. Finally, participants completed the
size estimation task again.
Results
The distorted “fatter than” body image was found only in patients and only when a picture of
their own body appeared on the right visual field (left hemisphere) and was preceded by
negative self-relevant words. This distorted perception of the patients’ body image was
reduced after left-hand muscle contractions (right hemispheric activation).
Discussion
To reduce body image distortions it is advisable to find methods that help anorexia nervosa
patients to increase their self-esteem. The body image distortions were ameliorated after
right hemispheric activation. A related method to prevent distorted body-image representations
in these patients may be Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
therapy.

Background: Increasing exposure to engineered inorganic nanoparticles takes actually place in both terrestric and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Although we already know harmful effects of AgNP on the soil bacterial community, information about the impact of the factors functionalization, concentration, exposure time, and soil texture on the AgNP effect expression are still rare. Hence, in this study, three soils of different grain size were exposed for up to 90 days to bare and functionalized AgNP in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.00 mg/kg soil dry weight. Effects on soil microbial community were quantified by various biological parameters, including 16S rRNA gene, photometric, and fluorescence analyses.
Results: Multivariate data analysis revealed significant effects of AgNP exposure for all factors and factor combinations investigated. Analysis of individual factors (silver species, concentration, exposure time, soil texture) in the unifactorial ANOVA explained the largest part of the variance compared to the error variance. In depth analysis of factor combinations revealed even better explanation of variance. For the biological parameters assessed in this study, the matching of soil texture and silver species, and the matching of soil texture and exposure time were the two most relevant factor combinations. The factor AgNP concentration contributed to a lower extent to the effect expression compared to silver species, exposure time and physico–chemical composition of soil.
Conclusions: The factors functionalization, concentration, exposure time, and soil texture significantly impacted the effect expression of AgNP on the soil microbial community. Especially long-term exposure scenarios are strongly needed for the reliable environmental impact assessment of AgNP exposure in various soil types.

Academic achievement is a central outcome in educational research, both in and outside higher education, has direct effects on individual’s professional and financial prospects and a high individual and public return on investment. Theories comprise cognitive as well as non-cognitive influences on achievement. Two examples frequently investigated in empirical research are knowledge (as a cognitive determinant) and stress (as a non-cognitive determinant) of achievement. However, knowledge and stress are not stable, what raises questions as to how temporal dynamics in knowledge on the one hand and stress on the other contribute to achievement. To study these contributions in the present doctoral dissertation, I used meta-analysis, latent profile transition analysis, and latent state-trait analysis. The results support the idea of knowledge acquisition as a cumulative and long-term process that forms the basis for academic achievement and conceptual change as an important mechanism for the acquisition of knowledge in higher education. Moreover, the findings suggest that students’ stress experiences in higher education are subject to stable, trait-like influences, as well as situational and/or interactional, state-like influences which are differentially related to achievement and health. The results imply that investigating the causal networks between knowledge, stress, and academic achievement is a promising strategy for better understanding academic achievement in higher education. For this purpose, future studies should use longitudinal designs, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analytical techniques. Potential practical applications include taking account of students’ prior knowledge in higher education teaching and decreasing stress among higher education students.

With the advent of highthroughput sequencing (HTS), profiling immunoglobulin (IG) repertoires has become an essential part of immunological research. The dissection of IG repertoires promises to transform our understanding of the adaptive immune system dynamics. Advances in sequencing technology now also allow the use of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) to cover the full length of IG mRNA transcripts. The applications of this benchtop scale HTS platform range from identification of new therapeutic antibodies to the deconvolution of malignant B cell tumors. In the context of this thesis, the usability of the PGM is assessed to investigate the IG heavy chain (IGH) repertoires of animal models. First, an innovate bioinformatics approach is presented to identify antigendriven IGH sequences from bulk sequenced bone marrow samples of transgenic humanized rats, expressing a human IG repertoire (OmniRatTM). We show, that these rats mount a convergent IGH CDR3 response towards measles virus hemagglutinin protein and tetanus toxoid, with high similarity to human counterparts. In the future, databases could contain all IGH CDR3 sequences with known specificity to mine IG repertoire datasets for past antigen exposures, ultimately reconstructing the immunological history of an individual. Second, a unique molecular identifier (UID) based HTS approach and network property analysis is used to characterize the CLLlike CD5+ B cell expansion of A20BKO mice overexpressing a natural short splice variant of the CYLD gene (A20BKOsCYLDBOE). We could determine, that in these mice, overexpression of sCYLD leads to unmutated subvariant of CLL (UCLL). Furthermore, we found that this short splice variant is also seen in human CLL patients highlighting it as important target for future investigations. Third, the UID based HTS approach is improved by adapting it to the PGM sequencing technology and applying a custommade data processing pipeline including the ImMunoGeneTics (IMGT) database error detection. Like this, we were able to obtain correct IGH sequences with over 99.5% confidence and correct CDR3 sequences with over 99.9% confidence. Taken together, the results, protocols and sample processing strategies described in this thesis will improve the usability of animal models and the Ion Torrent PGM HTS platform in the field if IG repertoire research.

External capital plays an important role in financing entrepreneurial ventures, due to limited internal capital sources. An important external capital provider for entrepreneurial ventures are venture capitalists (VCs). VCs worldwide are often confronted with thousands of proposals of entrepreneurial ventures per year and must choose among all of these companies in which to invest. Not only do VCs finance companies at their early stages, but they also finance entrepreneurial companies in their later stages, when companies have secured their first market success. That is why this dissertation focuses on the decision-making behavior of VCs when investing in later-stage ventures. This dissertation uses both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods in order to provide answer to how the decision-making behavior of VCs that invest in later-stage ventures can be described.
Based on qualitative interviews with 19 investment professionals, the first insight gained is that for different stages of venture development, different decision criteria are applied. This is attributed to different risks and goals of ventures at different stages, as well as the different types of information available. These decision criteria in the context of later-stage ventures contrast with results from studies that focus on early-stage ventures. Later-stage ventures possess meaningful information on financials (revenue growth and profitability), the established business model, and existing external investors that is not available for early-stage ventures and therefore constitute new decision criteria for this specific context.
Following this identification of the most relevant decision criteria for investors in the context of later-stage ventures, a conjoint study with 749 participants was carried out to understand the relative importance of decision criteria. The results showed that investors attribute the highest importance to 1) revenue growth, (2) value-added of products/services for customers, and (3) management team track record, demonstrating differences when compared to decision-making studies in the context of early-stage ventures.
Not only do the characteristics of a venture influence the decision to invest, additional indirect factors, such as individual characteristics or characteristics of the investment firm, can influence individual decisions. Relying on cognitive theory, this study investigated the influence of various individual characteristics on screening decisions and found that both investment experience and entrepreneurial experience have an influence on individual decision-making behavior. This study also examined whether goals, incentive structures, resources, and governance of the investment firm influence decision making in the context of later-stage ventures. This study particularly investigated two distinct types of investment firms, family offices and corporate venture capital funds (CVC), which have unique structures, goals, and incentive systems. Additional quantitative analysis showed that family offices put less focus on high-growth firms and whether reputable investors are present. They tend to focus more on the profitability of a later-stage venture in the initial screening. The analysis showed that CVCs place greater importance on product and business model characteristics than other investors. CVCs also favor later-stage ventures with lower revenue growth rates, indicating a preference for less risky investments. The results provide various insights for theory and practice.

Many combinatorial optimization problems on finite graphs can be formulated as conic convex programs, e.g. the stable set problem, the maximum clique problem or the maximum cut problem. Especially NP-hard problems can be written as copositive programs. In this case the complexity is moved entirely into the copositivity constraint.
Copositive programming is a quite new topic in optimization. It deals with optimization over the so-called copositive cone, a superset of the positive semidefinite cone, where the quadratic form x^T Ax has to be nonnegative for only the nonnegative vectors x. Its dual cone is the cone of completely positive matrices, which includes all matrices that can be decomposed as a sum of nonnegative symmetric vector-vector-products.
The related optimization problems are linear programs with matrix variables and cone constraints.
However, some optimization problems can be formulated as combinatorial problems on infinite graphs. For example, the kissing number problem can be formulated as a stable set problem on a circle.
In this thesis we will discuss how the theory of copositive optimization can be lifted up to infinite dimension. For some special cases we will give applications in combinatorial optimization.

This doctoral thesis examines intergenerational knowledge, its antecedents as well as how participation in intergenerational knowledge transfer is related to the performance evaluation of employees. To answer these questions, this doctoral thesis builds on a literature review and quantitative research methods. A systematic literature study shows that empirical evidence on intergenerational knowledge transfer is limited. Building on prior literature, effects of various antecedents at the interpersonal and organizational level regarding their effects on intergenerational and intragenerational knowledge transfer are postulated. By questioning 444 trainees and trainers, this doctoral thesis also demonstrates that interpersonal antecedents impact how trainees participate in intergenerational knowledge transfer with their trainers. Thereby, the results of this study provide support that interpersonal antecedents are relevant for intergenerational knowledge transfer, yet, also emphasize the implications attached to the assigned roles in knowledge transfer (i.e., whether one is a trainee or trainer). Moreover, the results of an experimental vignette study reveal that participation in intergenerational knowledge transfer is linked to the performance evaluation of employees, yet, is susceptible to whether the employee is sharing or seeking knowledge. Overall, this doctoral thesis provides insights into this topic by covering a multitude of antecedents of intergenerational knowledge transfer, as well as how participation in intergenerational knowledge transfer may be associated with the performance evaluation of employees.

Die räumliche Entwicklung von Städten und Regionen wird durch Trends wie Klimawandel, demographische Veränderungen und Strukturwandel beeinflusst, welche nicht an Verwaltungsgrenzen aufhören, sondern die Entwicklung großflächiger Gebiete bestimmen. Außerdem weisen Grenzräume häufig funktionale und thematische Verflechtungen auf, die über die nationalen Grenzen hinweg bestehen. Damit verbunden sind ein regelmäßiger Austausch und Abhängigkeiten zwischen Grenzräumen und deren Bewohnern. Daher ist die Koordination der grenzüberschreitenden Raumentwicklung entscheidend für eine zukunftsorientierte und nachhaltige räumliche Entwicklung. Aufgrund seiner hohen Bedeutung wird dieses Thema von europäischen Wissenschaftlern in der ersten Ausgabe der Themenhefte Borders in Perspective aus verschiedenen Perspektiven beleuchtet.

Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) influences the perception of taste and texture, features both relevant in acquiring food liking and, with time, food preference. However, no studies have yet investigated the relationship between basal activity levels of sAA and food preference. We collected saliva from 57 volunteers (63% women) who we assessed in terms of their preference for different food items. These items were grouped into four categories according to their nutritional properties: high in starch, high in sugar, high glycaemic index, and high glycaemic load. Anthropometric markers of cardiovascular risk were also calculated. Our findings suggest that sAA influences food
preference and body composition in women. Regression analysis showed that basal sAA activity is inversely associated with subjective but not self-reported behavioural preference for foods high in sugar. Additionally, sAA and subjective preference are associated with anthropometric markers of cardiovascular risk. We believe that this pilot study points to this enzyme as an interesting candidate to consider among the physiological factors that modulate eating behaviour.

The trophic niche is a life trait that identifies the consumer’s position in a local food web. Several factors, such as ontogeny, competitive ability and resource availability contribute in shaping species trophic niches. To date, information on the diet of European Hydromantes salamanders are only available for a limited number of species, no dietary studies have involved more than one species of the genus at a time, and there are limited evidences on how multiple factors interact in determining diet variation. In this study we examined the diet of multiple populations of six out of the eight European cave salamanders, providing the first data on the diet for five of them. In addition, we assessed whether these closely related generalist species show similar diet and, for each species, we tested whether season, age class or sex influence the number and the type of prey consumed. Stomach condition (empty/full) and the number of prey consumed were strongly related to seasonality and to the activity level of individuals. Empty stomachs were more frequent in autumn, in individuals far from cave entrance and in juveniles. Diet composition was significantly different among species. Hydromantes imperialis and H. supramontis were the most generalist species; H. flavus and H. sarrabusensis fed mostly on Hymenoptera and Coleoptera Staphylinidae, while H. genei and H. ambrosii mostly consumed Arachnida and Endopterygota larvae. Furthermore, we detected seasonal shifts of diet in the majority of the species examined. Conversely, within each species, we did not find diet differences between females, males and juveniles. Although being assumed to have very similar dietary habits, here Hydromantes species were shown to be characterized by a high divergence in diet composition and in the stomach condition of individuals.

Sample surveys are a widely used and cost effective tool to gain information about a population under consideration. Nowadays, there is an increasing demand not only for information on the population level but also on the level of subpopulations. For some of these subpopulations of interest, however, very small subsample sizes might occur such that the application of traditional estimation methods is not expedient. In order to provide reliable information also for those so called small areas, small area estimation (SAE) methods combine auxiliary information and the sample data via a statistical model.
The present thesis deals, among other aspects, with the development of highly flexible and close to reality small area models. For this purpose, the penalized spline method is adequately modified which allows to determine the model parameters via the solution of an unconstrained optimization problem. Due to this optimization framework, the incorporation of shape constraints into the modeling process is achieved in terms of additional linear inequality constraints on the optimization problem. This results in small area estimators that allow for both the utilization of the penalized spline method as a highly flexible modeling technique and the incorporation of arbitrary shape constraints on the underlying P-spline function.
In order to incorporate multiple covariates, a tensor product approach is employed to extend the penalized spline method to multiple input variables. This leads to high-dimensional optimization problems for which naive solution algorithms yield an unjustifiable complexity in terms of runtime and in terms of memory requirements. By exploiting the underlying tensor nature, the present thesis provides adequate computationally efficient solution algorithms for the considered optimization problems and the related memory efficient, i.e. matrix-free, implementations. The crucial point thereby is the (repetitive) application of a matrix-free conjugated gradient method, whose runtime is drastically reduced by a matrx-free multigrid preconditioner.

This study examines to what extent a banking crisis and the ensuing potential liquidity shortage affect corporate cash holdings. Specifically, how do firms adjust their liquidity management prior to and during a banking crisis when they are restricted in their financing options? These restrictions might not result from firm-specific characteristics but also incorporate the effects of certain regulatory requirements. I analyse the real effects of indicators of a potential crisis and the occurrence of a crisis event on corporate cash holdings for both unregulated and regulated firms from 31 different countries. In contrast to existing studies, I perform this analysis on the basis of a long observation period (1997 to 2014 respectively 2003 to 2014) using multiple crisis indicators (early warning signals) and multiple crisis events. For regulated firms, this study makes use of a unique sample of country-specific regulatory information, which is collected by hand for 15 countries and converted into an ordinal scale based on the severity of the regulation. Regulated firms are selected from a single industry: Real Estate Investment Trusts. These firms invest in real estate properties and let these properties to third parties. Real Estate Investment Trusts that comply with the aforementioned regulations are exempt from income taxation and are punished for a breach, which makes this industry particularly interesting for the analysis of capital structure decisions.
The results for regulated and unregulated firms are mostly inconclusive. I find no convincing evidence that the degree of regulation affects the level of cash holdings for regulated firms before and during a banking crisis. For unregulated firms, I find strong evidence that financially constrained firms have higher cash holdings than unconstrained firms. Further, there is no real evidence that either financially constrained firms or unconstrained firms increase their cash holdings when observing an early warning signal. In case of a banking crisis, the results differ for univariate tests and in panel regressions. In the univariate setting, I find evidence that both types of firms hold higher levels of cash during a banking crisis. In panel regressions, the effect is only evident for financially unconstrained firms from the US, and when controlling for financial stress, it is also apparent for financially constrained US firms. For firms from Europe, the results are predominantly inconclusive. For banking crises that are preceded by an early warning signal, there is only evidence for an increase in cash holdings for unconstrained US firms when controlling for financial stress.

In the present study a non-motion-stabilized scanning Doppler lidar was operated on board of RV Polarstern in the Arctic (June 2014) and Antarctic (December 2015– January 2016). This is the first time that such a system measured on an icebreaker in the Antarctic. A method for a motion correction of the data in the post-processing is presented.
The wind calculation is based on vertical azimuth display (VAD) scans with eight directions that pass a quality control. Additionally a method for an empirical signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) threshold is presented, which can be calculated for individual measurement set-ups. Lidar wind profiles are compared to total of about 120 radiosonde profiles and also to wind measurements of the ship.
The performance of the lidar measurements in comparison with radio soundings generally shows small root mean square deviation (bias) for wind speed of around 1ms-1(0.1ms-1) and for wind direction of around 10 (1). The post-processing of the non-motion-stabilized data shows comparably high quality to studies with motion-stabilized systems.
Two case studies show that a flexible change in SNR threshold can be beneficial for special situations. Further the studies reveal that short-lived low-level jets in the atmospheric boundary layer can be captured by lidar measurements with a high temporal resolution in contrast to routine radio soundings. The present study shows that a non-motionstabilized Doppler lidar can be operated successfully on an
icebreaker. It presents a processing chain including quality control tests and error quantification, which is useful for further measurement campaigns.

In the context of accelerated global socio-environmental change, the Water-Energy-Food Nexus has received increasing attention within science and international politics by promoting integrated resource governance. This study explores the scientific nexus debates from a discourse analytical perspective to reveal knowledge and power relations as well as geographical settings of nexus research. We also investigate approaches to socio-nature relations that influence nexus research and subsequent political implications. Our findings suggest that the leading nexus discourse is dominated by natural scientific perspectives and a neo-Malthusian framing of environmental challenges. Accordingly, the promoted cross-sectoral nexus approach to resource governance emphasizes efficiency, security, future sustainability, and poverty reduction. Water, energy, and food are conceived as global trade goods that require close monitoring, management and control, to be achieved via quantitative assessments and technological interventions. Within the less visible discourse, social scientific perspectives engage with the social, political, and normative elements of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. These perspectives criticize the dominant nexus representation for itsmanagerial, neoliberal, and utilitarian approach to resource governance. The managerial framing is critiqued for masking power relations and social inequalities, while alternative framings acknowledge the political nature of resource governance and socio-nature relations. The spatial dimensions of the nexus debate are also discussed. Notably, the nexus is largely shaped by western knowledge, yet applied mainly in specific regions of the Global South. In order for the nexus to achieve integrative solutions for sustainability, the debate needs to overcome its current discursive and spatial separations. To this end, we need to engage more closely with alternative nexus discourses, embrace epistemic pluralism and encourage multi-perspective debates about the socio-nature relations we actually intend to promote.

A basic assumption of standard small area models is that the statistic of interest can be modelled through a linear mixed model with common model parameters for all areas in the study. The model can then be used to stabilize estimation. In some applications, however, there may be different subgroups of areas, with specific relationships between the response variable and auxiliary information. In this case, using a distinct model for each subgroup would be more appropriate than employing one model for all observations. If no suitable natural clustering variable exists, finite mixture regression models may represent a solution that „lets the data decide“ how to partition areas into subgroups. In this framework, a set of two or more different models is specified, and the estimation of subgroup-specific model parameters is performed simultaneously to estimating subgroup identity, or the probability of subgroup identity, for each area. Finite mixture models thus offer a fexible approach to accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Therefore, in this thesis, finite mixtures of small area models are proposed to account for the existence of latent subgroups of areas in small area estimation. More specifically, it is assumed that the statistic of interest is appropriately modelled by a mixture of K linear mixed models. Both mixtures of standard unit-level and standard area-level models are considered as special cases. The estimation of mixing proportions, area-specific probabilities of subgroup identity and the K sets of model parameters via the EM algorithm for mixtures of mixed models is described. Eventually, a finite mixture small area estimator is formulated as a weighted mean of predictions from model 1 to K, with weights given by the area-specific probabilities of subgroup identity.

Acute social and physical stress interact to influence social behavior: the role of social anxiety
(2018)

Stress is proven to have detrimental effects on physical and mental health. Due to different tasks and study designs, the direct consequences of acute stress have been found to be wide-reaching: while some studies report prosocial effects, others report increases in antisocial behavior, still others report no effect. To control for specific effects of different stressors and to consider the role of social anxiety in stress-related social behavior, we investigated the effects of social versus physical stress on behavior in male participants possessing different levels of social anxiety. In a randomized, controlled two by two design we investigated the impact of social and physical stress on behavior in healthy young men. We found significant influences on various subjective increases in stress by physical and social stress, but no interaction effect. Cortisol was significantly increased by physical stress, and the heart rate was modulated by physical and social stress as well as their combination. Social anxiety modulated the subjective stress response but not the cortisol or heart rate response. With respect to behavior, our results show that social and physical stress interacted to modulate trust, trustworthiness, and sharing. While social stress and physical stress alone reduced prosocial behavior, a combination of the two stressor modalities could restore prosociality. Social stress alone reduced nonsocial risk behavior regardless of physical stress. Social anxiety was associated with higher subjective stress responses and higher levels of trust. As a consequence, future studies will need to investigate further various stressors and clarify their effects on social behavior in health and social anxiety disorders.

The forward effect of testing refers to the finding that retrieval practice of previously studied information increases retention of subsequently studied other information. It has recently been hypothesized that the forward effect (partly) reflects the result of a reset-of-encoding (ROE) process. The proposal is that encoding efficacy decreases with an increase in study material, but testing of previously studied information resets the encoding process and makes the encoding of the subsequently studied information as effective as the encoding of the previously studied information. The goal of the present study was to verify the ROE hypothesis on an item level basis. An experiment is reported that examined the effects of testing in comparison to restudy on items’ serial position curves. Participants studied three lists of items in each condition. In the testing condition, participants were tested immediately on non-target lists 1 and 2, whereas in the restudy condition, they restudied lists 1 and 2. In both conditions, participants were tested immediately on target list 3. Influences of condition and items’ serial learning position on list 3 recall were analyzed. The results showed the forward effect of testing and furthermore that this effect varies with items’ serial list position. Early target list items at list primacy positions showed a larger enhancement effect than middle and late target list items at non-primacy positions. The results are consistent with the ROE hypothesis on an item level basis. The generalizability of the ROE hypothesis across different experimental tasks, like the list-method directed-forgetting task, is discussed.

Background: The growing production and use of engineered AgNP in industry and private households make increasing concentrations of AgNP in the environment unavoidable. Although we already know the harmful effects of AgNP on pivotal bacterial driven soil functions, information about the impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on the soil bacterial community structure is rare. Hence, the aim of this study was to reveal the long-term effects of AgNP on major soil bacterial phyla in a loamy soil. The study was conducted as a laboratory incubation experiment over a period of 1 year using a loamy soil and AgNP concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg AgNP/kg soil. Effects were quantified using the taxon-specific 16S rRNA qPCR.
Results: The short-term exposure of AgNP at environmentally relevant concentration of 0.01 mg AgNP/kg caused significant positive effects on Acidobacteria (44.0%), Actinobacteria (21.1%) and Bacteroidetes (14.6%), whereas beta-Proteobacteria population was minimized by 14.2% relative to the control (p ≤ 0.05). After 1 year of exposure to 0.01 mg AgNP/kg diminished Acidobacteria (p = 0.007), Bacteroidetes (p = 0.005) and beta-Proteobacteria (p = 0.000) by 14.5, 10.1 and 13.9%, respectively. Actino- and alpha-Proteobacteria were statistically unaffected by AgNP treatments after 1-year exposure. Furthermore, a statistically significant regression and correlation analysis between silver toxicity and exposure time confirmed loamy soils as a sink for silver nanoparticles and their concomitant silver ions.
Conclusions: Even very low concentrations of AgNP may cause disadvantages for the autotrophic ammonia oxidation (nitrification), the organic carbon transformation and the chitin degradation in soils by exerting harmful effects on the liable bacterial phyla.

Species can show strong variation of local abundance across their ranges. Recent analyses suggested that variation in abundance can be related to environmental suitability, as the highest abundances are often observed in populations living in the most suitable areas. However, there is limited information on the mechanisms through which variation in environmental suitability determines abundance. We analysed populations of the microendemic salamander Hydromantes flavus, and tested several hypotheses on potential relationships linking environmental suitability to population parameters. For multiple populations across the whole species range, we assessed suitability using species distribution models, and measured density, activity level, food intake and body condition index. In high-suitability sites, the density of salamanders was up to 30-times higher than in the least suitable ones. Variation in activity levels and population performance can explain such variation of abundance. In high-suitability sites, salamanders were active close to the surface, and showed a low frequency of empty stomachs. Furthermore, when taking into account seasonal variation, body condition was better in the most suitable sites. Our results show that the strong relationship between environmental suitability and population abundance can be mediated by the variation of parameters strongly linked to individual performance and fitness.

Stiftungsunternehmen sind Unternehmen, die sich ganz oder teilweise im Eigentum einer gemeinnützigen oder privaten Stiftung befinden. Die Anzahl an Stiftungsunternehmen in Deutschland ist in den letzten Jahren deutlich gestiegen. Bekannte deutsche Unternehmen wie Aldi, Bosch, Bertelsmann, LIDL oder Würth befinden sich im Eigentum von Stiftungen. Einige von ihnen, wie beispielsweise Fresenius, ZF Friedrichshafen oder Zeiss, sind sogar an der Börse notiert. Die Mehrzahl der Stiftungsunternehmen entsteht dadurch, dass Unternehmensgründer oder Unternehmerfamilien ihr Unternehmen in eine Stiftung einbringen, anstatt es zu vererben oder zu verkaufen.
Die Motive hierfür sind vielfältig und können familiäre Gründe (z. B. Kinderlosigkeit, Vermeidung von Familienstreit), unternehmensbezogene Gründe (z. B. Möglichkeit der langfristigen Planung durch stabile Eigentümerstruktur) und steuerliche Gründe (Vermeidung oder Reduzierung der Erbschaftssteuer) haben oder sind durch die Person des Gründers motiviert (Möglichkeit, das Unternehmen auch nach dem eigenen Tod über die Stiftung noch weiterhin zu prägen). Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Stiftungsunternehmen zumeist aus Familienunternehmen hervorgehen, wird in der Forschung häufig nicht zwischen Familien- und Stiftungsunternehmen differenziert. Aus diesem Grund werden in dieser Dissertation zu Beginn anhand des Drei-Kreis-Modells für Familienunternehmen die Unterschiede zwischen Stiftungs- und Familienunternehmen dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass nur eine sehr geringe Anzahl von Stiftungsunternehmen eine große Ähnlichkeit zu klassischen Familienunternehmen aufweist. Die meisten Stiftungsunternehmen unterscheiden sich zum Teil sehr stark von Familienunternehmen. Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass Stiftungsunternehmen als separates Forschungsfeld betrachtet werden sollten.
Da innerhalb der Gruppe der Stiftungsunternehmen ebenfalls eine starke Heterogenität herrscht, werden im Anschluss Performanceunterschiede innerhalb der Gruppe der Stiftungsunternehmen untersucht. Hierzu wurden die Daten von 142 deutschen Stiftungsunternehmen für die Jahre 2006-2016 erhoben und mittels einer lineareren Regression ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass zwischen den verschiedenen Typen signifikante Unterschiede herrschen. Unternehmen, die von einer gemeinnützigen Stiftung gehalten werden, weisen eine signifikant schlechtere Performance auf, als Unternehmen die eine private Stiftung als Shareholder haben.
Im nächsten Schritt wird die Gruppe der börsennotierten Stiftungsunternehmen untersucht. Mittels einer Ereignisstudie wird getestet, wie sich die Stiftung als Eigentümer eines börsennotierten Unternehmens auf den Shareholder Value auswirkt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Anteilsverringerung einer Stiftung einen positiven Einfluss auf den Shareholder Value hat. Stiftungen werden vom Kapitalmarkt dementsprechend negativ bewertet. Aufgrund der divergierenden Ziele von Stiftung und Unternehmen birgt die Verbindung zwischen Stiftung und Unternehmen potentielle Konflikte und Herausforderungen für die beteiligten Personen. Mittels eines qualitativen explorativen Ansatzes, wird basierend auf Interviews, ein Modell entwickelt, welches die potentiellen Konflikte in Stiftungsunternehmen anhand des Beispiels der Doppelstiftung aufzeigt.
Im letzten Schritt werden Handlungsempfehlungen in Form eines Entwurfs für einen Corporate Governance Kodex erarbeitet, die (potentiellen) Stifterinnen und Stiftern helfen sollen, mögliche Konflikte entweder zu vermeiden oder bereits bestehende Probleme zu lösen.
Die Ergebnisse dieser Dissertation sind relevant für Theorie und Praxis. Aus theoretischer Sicht liegt der Wert dieser Untersuchungen darin, dass Forscher künftig besser zwischen Stiftungs- und Familienunternehmen unterscheiden können. Zudem bringt diese Arbeit den aktuellen Forschungsstand zum Thema Stiftungsunternehmen weiter. Außerdem bietet diese Dissertation insbesondere potentiellen Stiftern einen Überblick über die verschiedenen Ausgestaltungsmöglichkeiten und die Vor- und Nachteile, die diese Konstruktionen mit sich bringen. Die Handlungsempfehlungen ermöglichen es Stiftern, vorab potentielle Gefahren erkennen zu können und diese zu umgehen.

The changing views on the evolutionary relationships of extant Salamandridae (Amphibia: Urodela)
(2018)

The phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Salamandridae have been repeatedly investigated over the last 90 years, with changing character and taxon sampling. We review the changing composition and the phylogenetic position of salamandrid genera and species groups and add a new phylogeny based exclusively on sequences of nuclear genes. Salamandrina often changed its position depending on the characters used. It was included several times in a clade together with the primitive newts (Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, Tylototriton) due to their seemingly ancestral morphology. The latter were often inferred as a monophyletic clade. Respective monophyly was almost consistently established in all molecular studies for true salamanders (Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, Mertensiella, Salamandra), modern Asian newts (Cynops, Laotriton, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton) and modern New World newts (Notophthalmus, Taricha). Reciprocal non-monophyly has been established through molecular studies for the European mountain newts (Calotriton, Euproctus) and the modern European newts (Ichthyosaura, Lissotriton, Neurergus, Ommatotriton, Triturus) since Calotriton was identified as the sister lineage of Triturus. In pre-molecular studies, their respective monophyly had almost always been assumed, mainly because a complex courtship behaviour shared by their respective members. Our nuclear tree is nearly identical to a mito-genomic tree, with all but one node being highly supported. The major difference concerns the position of Calotriton, which is no longer nested within the modern European newts. This has implications for the evolution of courtship behaviour of European newts. Within modern European newts, Ichthyosaura and Lissotriton changed their position compared to the mito-genomic tree. Previous molecular trees based on seemingly large nuclear data sets, but analysed together with mitochondrial data, did not reveal monophyly of modern European newts since taxon sampling and nuclear gene coverage was too poor to obtain conclusive results. We therefore conclude that mitochondrial and nuclear data should be analysed on their own.

Reptiles belong to a taxonomic group characterized by increasing worldwide population declines. However, it has not been until comparatively recent years that public interest in these taxa has increased, and conservation measures are starting to show results. While many factors contribute to these declines, environmental pollution, especially in form of pesticides, has seen a strong increase in the last few decades, and is nowadays considered a main driver for reptile diversity loss. In light of the above, and given that reptiles are extremely underrepresented in ecotoxicological studies regarding the effects of plant protection products, this thesis aims at studying the impacts of pesticide exposure in reptiles, by using the Common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) as model species. In a first approach, I evaluated the risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species within the European Union, as a means to detect species with above average exposure probabilities and to detect especially sensitive reptile orders. While helpful to detect species at risk, a risk evaluation is only the first step towards addressing this problem. It is thus indispensable to identify effects of pesticide exposure in wildlife. For this, the use of enzymatic biomarkers has become a popular method to study sub-individual responses, and gain information regarding the mode of action of chemicals. However, current methodologies are very invasive. Thus, in a second step, I explored the use of buccal swabs as a minimally invasive method to detect changes in enzymatic biomarker activity in reptiles, as an indicator for pesticide uptake and effects at the sub-individual level. Finally, the last part of this thesis focuses on field data regarding pesticide exposure and its effects on reptile wildlife. Here, a method to determine pesticide residues in food items of the Common wall lizard was established, as a means to generate data for future dietary risk assessments. Subsequently, a field study was conducted with the aim to describe actual effects of pesticide exposure on reptile populations at different levels.

The Harmonic Faber Operator
(2018)

P. K. Suetin points out in the beginning of his monograph "Faber
Polynomials and Faber Series" that Faber polynomials play an important
role in modern approximation theory of a complex variable as they
are used in representing analytic functions in simply connected domains,
and many theorems on approximation of analytic functions are proved
with their help [50].
In 1903, the Faber polynomials were firstly discovered by G. Faber. It was Faber's aim to find a generalisation of Taylor
series of holomorphic functions in the open unit disc D
in the following way. As any holomorphic function in D
has a Taylor series representation
f(z)=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} (z\in\D)
converging locally uniformly inside D, for a simply connected
domain G, Faber wanted to determine a system of polynomials (Q_n)
such that each function f being holomorphic in G can be expanded
into a series
f=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}b_{\nu}Q_{\nu}
converging locally uniformly inside G. Having this goal in mind,
Faber considered simply connected domains bounded by an analytic Jordan
curve. He constructed a system of polynomials (F_n)
with this property. These polynomials F_n were named after him
as Faber polynomials. In the preface of [50],
a detailed summary of results concerning Faber polynomials and results
obtained by the aid of them is given.
An important application of Faber polynomials is e.g. the transfer
of known assertions concerning polynomial approximation of functions
belonging to the disc algebra to results of the approximation of functions
being continuous on a compact continuum K which contains at least
two points and has a connected complement and being holomorphic in
the interior of K. In this field, the Faber operator
denoted by T turns out to be a powerful tool (for
an introduction, see e.g. D. Gaier's monograph). It
assigns a polynomial of degree at most n given in the monomial
basis \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} with a polynomial of degree
at most n given in the basis of Faber polynomials \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}.
If the Faber operator is continuous with respect to the uniform norms,
it has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the disc
algebra onto the space of functions being continuous on the whole
compact continuum and holomorphic in its interior. For all f being
element of the disc algebra and all polynomials P, via the obvious
estimate for the uniform norms
||T(f)-T(P)||<= ||T|| ||f-P||,
it can be seen that the original task of approximating F=T(f)
by polynomials is reduced to the polynomial approximation of the function
f. Therefore, the question arises under which conditions the Faber
operator is continuous and surjective. A fundamental result in this
regard was established by J. M. Anderson and J. Clunie who showed
that if the compact continuum is bounded by a rectifiable Jordan curve
with bounded boundary rotation and free from cusps, then the Faber
operator with respect to the uniform norms is a topological isomorphism.
Now, let f be a harmonic function in D.
Similar as above, we find that f has a uniquely determined representation
f=\sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}a_{\nu}p_{\nu}
converging locally uniformly inside D where p_{n}(z)=z^{n}
for n\in\N_{0} and p_{-n}(z)=\overline{z}^{n}
for n\in\N}. One may ask whether there is an analogue for
harmonic functions on simply connected domains G. Indeed, for a
domain G bounded by an analytic Jordan curve, the conjecture that
each function f being harmonic in G has a uniquely determined
representation
f=\sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}b_{\nu}F_{\nu}
where F_{-n}(z)=\overline{F_{n}(z\)} for n\inN,
converging locally uniformly inside G, holds true.
Let now K be a compact continuum containing at least two points
and having a connected complement. A main component of this thesis
will be the examination of the harmonic Faber operator mapping a harmonic
polynomial given in the basis of the harmonic monomials \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}p_{\nu}
to a harmonic polynomial given as \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}.
If this operator, which is based on an idea of J. Müller,
is continuous with respect to the uniform norms, it has a unique continuous
extension to an operator mapping the functions being continuous on
\partial\D onto the continuous functions on K being
harmonic in the interior of K. Harmonic Faber polynomials and the
harmonic Faber operator will be the objects accompanying us throughout
our whole discussion.
After having given an overview about notations and certain tools we
will use in our consideration in the first chapter, we begin our studies
with an introduction to the Faber operator and the harmonic Faber
operator. We start modestly and consider domains bounded by an analytic
Jordan curve. In Section 2, as a first
result, we will show that, for such a domain G, the harmonic Faber
operator has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping
the space of the harmonic functions in D onto the space
of the harmonic functions in G, and moreover, the harmonic Faber
operator is an isomorphism with respect to the topologies of locally
uniform convergence. In the further sections of this chapter, we illumine
the behaviour of the (harmonic) Faber operator on certain function
spaces.
In the third chapter, we leave the situation of compact continua bounded
by an analytic Jordan curve. Instead we consider closures of domains
bounded by Jordan curves having a Dini continuous curvature. With
the aid of the concept of compact operators and the Fredholm alternative,
we are able to show that the harmonic Faber operator is a topological
isomorphism.
Since, in particular, the main result of the third chapter holds true
for closures K of domains bounded by analytic Jordan curves, we
can make use of it to obtain new results concerning the approximation
of functions being continuous on K and harmonic in the interior
of K by harmonic polynomials. To do so, we develop techniques applied
by L. Frerick and J. Müller in [11] and adjust them to
our setting. So, we can transfer results about the classic Faber operator
to the harmonic Faber operator.
In the last chapter, we will use the theory of harmonic Faber polynomials
to solve certain Dirichlet problems in the complex plane. We pursue
two different approaches: First, with a similar philosophy as in [50],
we develop a procedure to compute the coefficients of a series \sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}c_{\nu}F_{\nu}
converging uniformly to the solution of a given Dirichlet problem.
Later, we will point out how semi-infinite programming with harmonic
Faber polynomials as ansatz functions can be used to get an approximate
solution of a given Dirichlet problem. We cover both approaches first
from a theoretical point of view before we have a focus on the numerical
implementation of concrete examples. As application of the numerical
computations, we considerably obtain visualisations of the concerned
Dirichlet problems rounding out our discussion about the harmonic
Faber polynomials and the harmonic Faber operator.

Optimal Control of Partial Integro-Differential Equations and Analysis of the Gaussian Kernel
(2018)

An important field of applied mathematics is the simulation of complex financial, mechanical, chemical, physical or medical processes with mathematical models. In addition to the pure modeling of the processes, the simultaneous optimization of an objective function by changing the model parameters is often the actual goal. Models in fields such as finance, biology or medicine benefit from this optimization step.
While many processes can be modeled using an ordinary differential equation (ODE), partial differential equations (PDEs) are needed to optimize heat conduction and flow characteristics, spreading of tumor cells in tissue as well as option prices. A partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) is a parital differential equation involving an integral operator, e.g., the convolution of the unknown function with a given kernel function. PIDEs occur for example in models that simulate adhesive forces between cells or option prices with jumps.
In each of the two parts of this thesis, a certain PIDE is the main object of interest. In the first part, we study a semilinear PIDE-constrained optimal control problem with the aim to derive necessary optimality conditions. In the second, we analyze a linear PIDE that includes the convolution of the unknown function with the Gaussian kernel.

Early life adversity (ELA) poses a high risk for developing major health problems in adulthood including cardiovascular and infectious diseases and mental illness. However, the fact that ELA-associated disorders first become manifest many years after exposure raises questions about the mechanisms underlying their etiology. This thesis focuses on the impact of ELA on startle reflexivity, physiological stress reactivity and immunology in adulthood.
The first experiment investigated the impact of parental divorce on affective processing. A special block design of the affective startle modulation paradigm revealed blunted startle responsiveness during presentation of aversive stimuli in participants with experience of parental divorce. Nurture context potentiated startle in these participants suggesting that visual cues of childhood-related content activates protective behavioral responses. The findings provide evidence for the view that parental divorce leads to altered processing of affective context information in early adulthood.
A second investigation was conducted to examine the link between aging of the immune system and long-term consequences of ELA. In a cohort of healthy young adults, who were institutionalized early in life and subsequently adopted, higher levels of T cell senescence were observed compared to parent-reared controls. Furthermore, the results suggest that ELA increases the risk of cytomegalovirus infection in early childhood, thereby mediating the effect of ELA on T cell-specific immunosenescence.
The third study addresses the effect of ELA on stress reactivity. An extended version of the Cold Pressor Test combined with a cognitive challenging task revealed blunted endocrine response in adults with a history of adoption while cardiovascular stress reactivity was similar to control participants. This pattern of response separation may best be explained by selective enhancement of central feedback-sensitivity to glucocorticoids resulting from ELA, in spite of preserved cardiovascular/autonomic stress reactivity.

The dissertation deals with methods to improve design-based and model-assisted estimation techniques for surveys in a finite population framework. The focus is on the development of the statistical methodology as well as their implementation by means of tailor-made numerical optimization strategies. In that regard, the developed methods aim at computing statistics for several potentially conflicting variables of interest at aggregated and disaggregated levels of the population on the basis of one single survey. The work can be divided into two main research questions, which are briefly explained in the following sections.
First, an optimal multivariate allocation method is developed taking into account several stratification levels. This approach results in a multi-objective optimization problem due to the simultaneous consideration of several variables of interest. In preparation for the numerical solution, several scalarization and standardization techniques are presented, which represent the different preferences of potential users. In addition, it is shown that by solving the problem scalarized with a weighted sum for all combinations of weights, the entire Pareto frontier of the original problem can be generated. By exploiting the special structure of the problem, the scalarized problems can be efficiently solved by a semismooth Newton method. In order to apply this numerical method to other scalarization techniques as well, an alternative approach is suggested, which traces the problem back to the weighted sum case. To address regional estimation quality requirements at multiple stratification levels, the potential use of upper bounds for regional variances is integrated into the method. In addition to restrictions on regional estimates, the method enables the consideration of box-constraints for the stratum-specific sample sizes, allowing minimum and maximum stratum-specific sampling fractions to be defined.
In addition to the allocation method, a generalized calibration method is developed, which is supposed to achieve coherent and efficient estimates at different stratification levels. The developed calibration method takes into account a very large number of benchmarks at different stratification levels, which may be obtained from different sources such as registers, paradata or other surveys using different estimation techniques. In order to incorporate the heterogeneous quality and the multitude of benchmarks, a relaxation of selected benchmarks is proposed. In that regard, predefined tolerances are assigned to problematic benchmarks at low aggregation levels in order to avoid an exact fulfillment. In addition, the generalized calibration method allows the use of box-constraints for the correction weights in order to avoid an extremely high variation of the weights. Furthermore, a variance estimation by means of a rescaling bootstrap is presented.
Both developed methods are analyzed and compared with existing methods in extensive simulation studies on the basis of a realistic synthetic data set of all households in Germany. Due to the similar requirements and objectives, both methods can be successively applied to a single survey in order to combine their efficiency advantages. In addition, both methods can be solved in a time-efficient manner using very comparable optimization approaches. These are based on transformations of the optimality conditions. The dimension of the resulting system of equations is ultimately independent of the dimension of the original problem, which enables the application even for very large problem instances.

The economic growth theory analyses which factors affect economic growth
and tries to analyze how it can last. A popular neoclassical growth model
is the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, which aims to determine how much
of its income a nation or an economy should save in order to maximize its
welfare.
In this thesis, we present and analyze an extended capital accumulation equation of a spatial version of the Ramsey model, balancing diffusive and agglomerative effects. We model the capital mobility in space via a nonlocal
diffusion operator which allows for jumps of the capital stock from one lo-
cation to an other. Moreover, this operator smooths out heterogeneities in
the factor distributions slower, which generated a more realistic behavior of
capital flows. In addition to that, we introduce an endogenous productivity-
production operator which depends on time and on the capital distribution
in space. This operator models the technological progress of the economy.
The resulting mathematical model is an optimal control problem under a
semilinear parabolic integro-differential equation with initial and volume constraints, which are a nonlocal analog to local boundary conditions, and box-constraints on the state and the control variables. In this thesis, we consider
this problem on a bounded and unbounded spatial domain, in both cases with
a finite time horizon. We derive existence results of weak solutions for the
capital accumulation equations in both settings and we proof the existence
of a Ramsey equilibrium in the unbounded case. Moreover, we solve the
optimal control problem numerically and discuss the results in the economic
context.

This dissertation is dedicated to the analysis of the stabilty of portfolio risk and the impact of European regulation introducing risk based classifications for investment funds.
The first paper examines the relationship between portfolio size and the stability of mutual fund risk measures, presenting evidence for economies of scale in risk management. In a unique sample of 338 fund portfolios we find that the volatility of risk numbers decreases for larger funds. This finding holds for dispersion as well as tail risk measures. Further analyses across asset classes provide evidence for the robustness of the effect for balanced and fixed income portfolios. However, a size effect did not emerge for equity funds, suggesting that equity fund managers simply scale their strategy up as they grow. Analyses conducted on the differences in risk stability between tail risk measures and volatilities reveal that smaller funds show higher discrepancies in that respect. In contrast to the majority of prior studies on the basis of ex-post time series risk numbers, this study contributes to the literature by using ex-ante risk numbers based on the actual assets and de facto portfolio data.
The second paper examines the influence of European legislation regarding risk classification of mutual funds. We conduct analyses on a set of worldwide equity indices and find that a strategy based on the long term volatility as it is imposed by the Synthetic Risk Reward Indicator (SRRI) would lead to substantial variations in exposures ranging from short phases of very high leverage to long periods of under investments that would be required to keep the risk classes. In some cases, funds will be forced to migrate to higher risk classes due to limited means to reduce volatilities after crises events. In other cases they might have to migrate to lower risk classes or increase their leverage to ridiculous amounts. Overall, we find if the SRRI creates a binding mechanism for fund managers, it will create substantial interference with the core investment strategy and may incur substantial deviations from it. Fruthermore due to the forced migrations the SRRI degenerates to a passive indicator.
The third paper examines the impact of this volatility based fund classification on portfolio performance. Using historical data on equity indices we find initially that a strategy based on long term portfolio volatility, as it is imposed by the Synthetic Risk Reward Indicator (SRRI), yields better Sharpe Ratios (SRs) and Buy and Hold Returns (BHRs) for the investment strategies matching the risk classes. Accounting for the Fama-French factors reveals no significant alphas for the vast majority of the strategies. In our simulation study where volatility was modelled through a GJR(1,1) - model we find no significant difference in mean returns, but significantly lower SRs for the volatility based strategies. These results were confirmed in robustness checks using alternative models and timeframes. Overall we present evidence which suggests that neither the higher leverage induced by the SRRI nor the potential protection in downside markets does pay off on a risk adjusted basis.

The implicit power motive is one of the most researched motives in motivational
psychology—at least in adults. Children have rarely been subject to investigation and there
are virtually no results on behavioral and affective correlates of the implicit power motive in
children. As behavior and affect are important components of conceptual validation, the
empirical data in this dissertation focused on identifying three correlates, namely resource
control behavior (study 1), power stress (study 2), and persuasive behavior (study 3). In each
study, the implicit power motive was measured via the Picture Story Exercise, using an
adapted version for children. Children across samples were between 4 and 11 years old.
Results from study 1 and 2 showed that children’s power-related behavior corresponded with
evidence from adult samples: children with a high implicit power motive secure attractive
resources and show negative reactions to a thwarted attempt to exert influence. Study 3
contradicted existing evidence with adults in that children’s persuasive behavior was not
associated with nonverbal, but with verbal strategies of persuasion. Despite this inconsistency,
these results are, together with the validation of a child-friendly Picture Story Exercise
version, an important step into further investigating and confirming the concept of the implicit
power motive and how to measure it in children.

A matrix A is called completely positive if there exists an entrywise nonnegative matrix B such that A = BB^T. These matrices can be used to obtain convex reformulations of for example nonconvex quadratic or combinatorial problems. One of the main problems with completely positive matrices is checking whether a given matrix is completely positive. This is known to be NP-hard in general. rnrnFor a given matrix completely positive matrix A, it is nontrivial to find a cp-factorization A=BB^T with nonnegative B since this factorization would provide a certificate for the matrix to be completely positive. But this factorization is not only important for the membership to the completely positive cone, it can also be used to recover the solution of the underlying quadratic or combinatorial problem.rnrnIn addition, it is not a priori known how many columns are necessary to generate a cp-factorization for the given matrix. The minimal possible number of columns is called the cp-rank of A and so far it is still an open question how to derive the cp-rank for a given matrix. Some facts on completely positive matrices and the cp-rank will be given in Chapter 2.rnrnMoreover, in Chapter 6, we will see a factorization algorithm, which, for a given completely positive matrix A and a suitable starting point, computes the nonnegative factorization A=BB^T. The algorithm therefore returns a certificate for the matrix to be completely positive. As introduced in Chapter 3, the fundamental idea of the factorization algorithm is to start from an initial square factorization which is not necessarily entrywise nonnegative, and extend this factorization to a matrix for which the number of columns is greater than or equal to the cp-rank of A. Then it is the goal to transform this generated factorization into a cp-factorization.rnrnThis problem can be formulated as a nonconvex feasibility problem, as shown in Section 4.1, and solved by a method which is based on alternating projections, as proven in Chapter 6.rnrnOn the topic of alternating projections, a survey will be given in Chapter 5. Here we will see how to apply this technique to several types of sets like subspaces, convex sets, manifolds and semialgebraic sets. Furthermore, we will see some known facts on the convergence rate for alternating projections between these types of sets. Considering more than two sets yields the so called cyclic projections approach. Here some known facts for subspaces and convex sets will be shown. Moreover, we will see a new convergence result on cyclic projections among a sequence of manifolds in Section 5.4.rnrnIn the context of cp-factorizations, a local convergence result for the introduced algorithm will be given. This result is based on the known convergence for alternating projections between semialgebraic sets.rnrnTo obtain cp-facrorizations with this first method, it is necessary to solve a second order cone problem in every projection step, which is very costly. Therefore, in Section 6.2, we will see an additional heuristic extension, which improves the numerical performance of the algorithm. Extensive numerical tests in Chapter 7 will show that the factorization method is very fast in most instances. In addition, we will see how to derive a certificate for the matrix to be an element of the interior of the completely positive cone.rnrnAs a further application, this method can be extended to find a symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization, where we consider an additional low-rank constraint. Here again, the method to derive factorizations for completely positive matrices can be used, albeit with some further adjustments, introduced in Section 8.1. Moreover, we will see that even for the general case of deriving a nonnegative matrix factorization for a given rectangular matrix A, the key aspects of the completely positive factorization approach can be used. To this end, it becomes necessary to extend the idea of finding a completely positive factorization such that it can be used for rectangular matrices. This yields an applicable algorithm for nonnegative matrix factorization in Section 8.2.rnNumerical results for this approach will suggest that the presented algorithms and techniques to obtain completely positive matrix factorizations can be extended to general nonnegative factorization problems.

We will consider discrete dynamical systems (X,T) which consist of a state space X and a linear operator T acting on X. Given a state x in X at time zero, its state at time n is determined by the n-th iteration T^n(x). We are interested in the long-term behaviour of this system, that means we want to know how the sequence (T^n (x))_(n in N) behaves for increasing n and x in X. In the first chapter, we will sum up the relevant definitions and results of linear dynamics. In particular, in topological dynamics the notions of hypercyclic, frequently hypercyclic and mixing operators will be presented. In the setting of measurable dynamics, the most important definitions will be those of weakly and strongly mixing operators. If U is an open set in the (extended) complex plane containing 0, we can define the Taylor shift operator on the space H(U) of functions f holomorphic in U as Tf(z) = (f(z)- f(0))/z if z is not equal to 0 and otherwise Tf(0) = f'(0). In the second chapter, we will start examining the Taylor shift on H(U) endowed with the topology of locally uniform convergence. Depending on the choice of U, we will study whether or not the Taylor shift is weakly or strongly mixing in the Gaussian sense. Next, we will consider Banach spaces of functions holomorphic on the unit disc D. The first section of this chapter will sum up the basic properties of Bergman and Hardy spaces in order to analyse the dynamical behaviour of the Taylor shift on these Banach spaces in the next part. In the third section, we study the space of Cauchy transforms of complex Borel measures on the unit circle first endowed with the quotient norm of the total variation and then with a weak-* topology. While the Taylor shift is not even hypercyclic in the first case, we show that it is mixing for the latter case. In Chapter 4, we will first introduce Bergman spaces A^p(U) for general open sets and provide approximation results which will be needed in the next chapter where we examine the Taylor shift on these spaces on its dynamical properties. In particular, for 1<=p<2 we will find sufficient conditions for the Taylor shift to be weakly mixing or strongly mixing in the Gaussian sense. For p>=2, we consider specific Cauchy transforms in order to determine open sets U such that the Taylor shift is mixing on A^p(U). In both sections, we will illustrate the results with appropriate examples. Finally, we apply our results to universal Taylor series. The results of Chapter 5 about the Taylor shift allow us to consider the behaviour of the partial sums of the Taylor expansion of functions in general Bergman spaces outside its disc of convergence.

Given a compact set K in R^d, the theory of extension operators examines the question, under which conditions on K, the linear and continuous restriction operators r_n:E^n(R^d)→E^n(K),f↦(∂^α f|_K)_{|α|≤n}, n in N_0 and r:E(R^d)→E(K),f↦(∂^α f|_K)_{α in N_0^d}, have a linear and continuous right inverse. This inverse is called extension operator and this problem is known as Whitney's extension problem, named after Hassler Whitney. In this context, E^n(K) respectively E(K) denote spaces of Whitney jets of order n respectively of infinite order. With E^n(R^d) and E(R^d), we denote the spaces of n-times respectively infinitely often continuously partially differentiable functions on R^d. Whitney already solved the question for finite order completely. He showed that it is always possible to construct a linear and continuous right inverse E_n for r_n. This work is concerned with the question of how the existence of a linear and continuous right inverse of r, fulfilling certain continuity estimates, can be characterized by properties of K. On E(K), we introduce a full real scale of generalized Whitney seminorms (|·|_{s,K})_{s≥0}, where |·|_{s,K} coincides with the classical Whitney seminorms for s in N_0. We equip also E(R^d) with a family (|·|_{s,L})_{s≥0} of those seminorms, where L shall be a a compact set with K in L-°. This family of seminorms on E(R^d) suffices to characterize the continuity properties of an extension operator E, since we can without loss of generality assume that E(E(K)) in D^s(L).
In Chapter 2, we introduce basic concepts and summarize the classical results of Whitney and Stein.
In Chapter 3, we modify the classical construction of Whitney's operators E_n and show that |E_n(·)|_{s,L}≤C|·|_{s,K} for s in[n,n+1).
In Chapter 4, we generalize a result of Frerick, Jordá and Wengenroth and show that LMI(1) for K implies the existence of an extension operator E without loss of derivatives, i.e. we have it fulfils |E(·)|_{s,L}≤C|·|_{s,K} for all s≥0. We show that a large class of self similar sets, which includes the Cantor set and the Sierpinski triangle, admits an extensions operator without loss of derivatives.
In Chapter 5 we generalize a result of Frerick, Jordá and Wengenroth and show that WLMI(r) for r≥1 implies the existence of a tame linear extension operator E having a homogeneous loss of derivatives, such that |E(·)|_{s,L}≤C|·|_{(r+ε)s,K} for all s≥0 and all ε>0.
In the last chapter we characterize the existence of an extension operator having an arbitrary loss of derivatives by the existence of measures on K.

Industrial companies mainly aim for increasing their profit. That is why they intend to reduce production costs without sacrificing the quality. Furthermore, in the context of the 2020 energy targets, energy efficiency plays a crucial role. Mathematical modeling, simulation and optimization tools can contribute to the achievement of these industrial and environmental goals. For the process of white wine fermentation, there exists a huge potential for saving energy. In this thesis mathematical modeling, simulation and optimization tools are customized to the needs of this biochemical process and applied to it. Two different models are derived that represent the process as it can be observed in real experiments. One model takes the growth, division and death behavior of the single yeast cell into account. This is modeled by a partial integro-differential equation and additional multiple ordinary integro-differential equations showing the development of the other substrates involved. The other model, described by ordinary differential equations, represents the growth and death behavior of the yeast concentration and development of the other substrates involved. The more detailed model is investigated analytically and numerically. Thereby existence and uniqueness of solutions are studied and the process is simulated. These investigations initiate a discussion regarding the value of the additional benefit of this model compared to the simpler one. For optimization, the process is described by the less detailed model. The process is identified by a parameter and state estimation problem. The energy and quality targets are formulated in the objective function of an optimal control or model predictive control problem controlling the fermentation temperature. This means that cooling during the process of wine fermentation is controlled. Parameter and state estimation with nonlinear economic model predictive control is applied in two experiments. For the first experiment, the optimization problems are solved by multiple shooting with a backward differentiation formula method for the discretization of the problem and a sequential quadratic programming method with a line search strategy and a Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno update for the solution of the constrained nonlinear optimization problems. Different rounding strategies are applied to the resulting post-fermentation control profile. Furthermore, a quality assurance test is performed. The outcomes of this experiment are remarkable energy savings and tasty wine. For the next experiment, some modifications are made, and the optimization problems are solved by using direct transcription via orthogonal collocation on finite elements for the discretization and an interior-point filter line-search method for the solution of the constrained nonlinear optimization problems. The second experiment verifies the results of the first experiment. This means that by the use of this novel control strategy energy conservation is ensured and production costs are reduced. From now on tasty white wine can be produced at a lower price and with a clearer conscience at the same time.

Fostering positive and realistic self-concepts of individuals is a major goal in education worldwide (Trautwein & Möller, 2016). Individuals spend most of their childhood and adolescence in school. Thus, schools are important contexts for individuals to develop positive self-perceptions such as self-concepts. In order to enhance positive self-concepts in educational settings and in general, it is indispensable to have a comprehensive knowledge about the development and structure of self-concepts and their determinants. To date, extensive empirical and theoretical work on antecedents and change processes of self-concept has been conducted. However, several research gaps still exist, and several of these are the focus of the present dissertation. Specifically, these research gaps encompass (a) the development of multiple self-concepts from multiple perspectives regarding stability and change, (b) the direction of longitudinal interplay between self-concept facets over the entire time period from childhood to late adolescence, and (c) the evidence that a recently developed structural model of academic self-concept (nested Marsh/Shavelson model [Brunner et al., 2010]) fits the data in elementary school students, (d) the investigation of structural changes in academic self-concept profile formation within this model, (e) the investigation of dimensional comparison processes as determinants of academic self-concept profile formation in elementary school students within the internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986), (f) the test of moderating variables for dimensional comparison processes in elementary school, (g) the test of the key assumptions of the I/E model that effects of dimensional comparisons depend to a large degree on the existence of achievement differences between subjects, and (h) the generalizability of the findings regarding the I/E model over different statistical analytic methods. Thus, the aim of the present dissertation is to contribute to close these gaps with three studies. Thereby, data from German students enrolled in elementary school to secondary school education were gathered in three projects comprising the developmental time span from childhood to adolescence (ages 6 to 20). Three vital self-concept areas in childhood and adolescence were in-vestigated: general self-concept (i.e., self-esteem), academic self-concepts (general, math, reading, writing, native language), and social self-concepts (of acceptance and assertion). In all studies, data were analyzed within a latent variable framework. Findings are discussed with respect to the research aims of acquiring more comprehensive knowledge on the structure and development of significant self-concept in childhood and adolescence and their determinants. In addition, theoretical and practical implications derived from the findings of the present studies are outlined. Strengths and limitations of the present dissertation are discussed. Finally, an outlook for future research on self-concepts is given.

Background and rationale: Changing working conditions demand adaptation, resulting in higher stress levels in employees. In consequence, decreased productivity, increasing rates of sick leave, and cases of early retirement result in higher direct, indirect, and intangible costs.rnAims of the Research Project: The aim of the study was to test the usefulness of a novel translational diagnostic tool, Neuropattern, for early detection, prevention, and personalized treatment of stress-related disorders. The trial was designed as a pilot study with a wait list control group.rnMaterials and Methods: In this study, 70 employees of the Forestry Department Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, were enrolled. Subjects were block-randomized according to the functional group of their career field, and either underwent Neuropattern diagnostics immediately, or after a waiting period of three months. After the diagnostic assessment, their physicians received the Neuropattern Medical Report, including the diagnostic results and treatment recommendations. Participants were informed by the Neuropattern Patient Report, and were eligible to an individualized Neuropattern Online Counseling account. Results: The application of Neuropattern diagnostics significantly improved mental health and health-related behavior, reduced perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, overcommitment and possibly, presenteeism. Additionally, Neuropattern sensitively detected functional changes in stress physiology at an early stage, thus allowing timely personalized interventions to prevent and treat stress pathology.rnConclusion: The present study encouraged the application of Neuropattern diagnostics to early intervention in non-clinical populations. However, further research is required to determine the best operating conditions.

Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Changes in the immune system have been proposed to underlie this association. Although higher levels of inflammation and immunosenescence have been reported, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. In addition, stress systems and health behaviors are altered in ELA, which may contribute to the generation of the "ELA immune phenotype". In this thesis, we have investigated the ELA immune phenotype on a cellular level and whether this is an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. To address these questions the EpiPath cohort was established, consisting of 115 young adults with or without ELA. ELA participants had experienced separation from their parents in early childhood and were subsequently adopted, which is a standard model for ELA, whereas control participants grew up with their biological parents. At a first visit, blood samples were taken for analysis of epigenetic markers and immune parameters. A selection of the cohort underwent a standardized laboratory stress test (SLST). Endocrine, immune, and cardiovascular parameters were assessed at several time points before and after stress. At a second visit, participants underwent structural clinical interviews and filled out psychological questionnaires. We observed a higher number of activated T cells in ELA, measured by HLA-DR and CD25 expression. Neither cortisol levels nor health-risk behaviors explained the observed group differences. Besides a trend towards higher numbers of CCR4+CXCR3-CCR6+ CD4 T cells in ELA, relative numbers of immune cell subsets in circulation were similar between groups. No difference was observed in telomere length or in methylation levels of age-related CpGs in whole blood. However, we found a higher expression of senescence markers (CD57) on T cells in ELA. In addition, these cells had an increased cytolytic potential. A mediation analysis demonstrated that cytomegalovirus infection " an important driving force of immunosenescence " largely accounted for elevated CD57 expression. The psychological investigations revealed that after adoption, family conditions appeared to have been similar to the controls. However, PhD thesis MMC Elwenspoek 18 ELA participants scored higher on a depression index, chronic stress, and lower on self-esteem. Psychological, endocrine, and cardiovascular parameters significantly responded to the SLST, but were largely similar between the two groups. Only in a smaller subset of groups matched for gender, BMI, and age, the cortisol response seemed to be blunted in ELA participants. Although we found small differences in the methylation level of the GR promoter, GR sensitivity and mRNA expression levels GR as well as expression of the GR target genes FKBP5 and GILZ were similar between groups. Taken together, our data suggest an elevated state of immune activation in ELA, in which particularly T cells are affected. Furthermore, we found higher levels of T cells immunosenescence in ELA. Our data suggest that ELA may increase the risk of cytomegalovirus infection in early childhood, thereby mediating the effect of ELA on T cell specific immunosenescence. Importantly, we found no evidence of HPA dysregulation in participants exposed to ELA in the EpiPath cohort. Thus, the observed immune phenotype does not seem to be secondary to alterations in the stress system or health-risk behaviors, but rather a primary effect of early life programming on immune cells. Longitudinal studies will be necessary to further dissect cause from effect in the development of the ELA immune phenotype.

This thesis is focused on improving the knowledge on a group of threatened species, the European cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes). There are three main sections gathering studies dealing with different topics: Ecology (first part), Life traits (second part) and Monitoring methodologies (third part). First part starts with the study of the response of Hydromantes to the variation of climatic conditions, analysing 15 different localities throughout a full year (CHAPTER I; published in PEERJ in August 2015). After that, the focus moves on identify which is the operative temperature that these salamander experience, including how their body respond to variation of environmental temperature. This study was conducted using one of the most advanced tool, an infrared thermocamera, which gave the opportunity to perform detailed observation on salamanders body (CHAPTER II; published in JOURNAL OF THERMAL BIOLOGY in June 2016). In the next chapter we use the previous results to analyse the ecological niche of all eight Hydromantes species. The study mostly underlines the mismatch between macro- and microscale analysis of ecological niche, showing a weak conservatism of ecological niches within the evolution of species (CHAPTER III; unpublished manuscript). We then focus only on hybrids, which occur within the natural distribution of mainland species. Here, we analyse if the ecological niche of hybrids shows divergences from those of parental species, thus evaluating the power of hybrids adaptation (CHAPTER IV; unpublished manuscript). Considering that hybrids may represent a potential threat for parental species (in terms of genetic erosion and competition), we produced the first ecological study on an allochthonous mixed population of Hydromantes, analysing population structure, ecological requirements and diet. The interest on this particular population mostly comes by the fact that its members are coming from all three mainland Hydromantes species, and thus it may represent a potential source of new hybrids (CHAPTER V; accepted in AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA in October 2017). The focus than moves on how bioclimatic parameters affect species within their distributional range. Using as model species the microendemic H. flavus, we analyse the relationship between environmental suitability and local abundance of the species, also focusing on all intermediate dynamics which provide useful information on spatial variation of individual fitness (CHAPTER VI; submitted to SCIENTIFIC REPORTS in November 2017). The first part ends with an analysis of the interaction between Hydromantes and Batracobdella algira leeches, the only known ectoparasite for European cave salamanders. Considering that the effect of leeches on their hosts is potentially detrimental, we investigated if these ectoparasites may represent a further threat for Hydromantes (CHAPTER VII; submitted to INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY: PARASITES AND WILDLIFE in November 2017). The second part is related to the reproduction of Hydromantes. In the first study we perform analyses on the breeding behaviour of several females belonging to a single population, identifying differences and similarities occurring in cohorting females (CHAPTER VIII; published in NORTH-WESTERN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY in December 2015). In the second study we gather information from all Hydromantes species, analysing size and development of breeding females, and identifying a relationship between breeding time and climatic conditions (CHAPTER IX; submitted to SALAMANDRA in June 2017). In the last part of this thesis, we analyse two potential methods for monitoring Hydromantes populations. In the first study we evaluate the efficiency of the marking method involving Alpha tags (CHAPTER X; published in SALAMANDRA in October 2017). In the second study we focus on evaluating N-mixtures models as a methodology for estimating abundance in wild populations (CHAPTER XI; submitted to BIODIVERSITY & CONSERVATION in October 2017).

There are large health, societal, and economic costs associated with attrition from psychological services. The recently emerged, innovative statistical tool of complex network analysis was used in the present proof-of-concept study to improve the prediction of attrition. Fifty-eight patients undergoing psychological treatment for mood or anxiety disorders were assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessments four times a day for two weeks before treatment (3,248 measurements). Multilevel vector autoregressive models were employed to compute dynamic symptom networks. Intake variables and network parameters (centrality measures) were used as predictors for dropout using machine-learning algorithms. Networks for patients differed significantly between completers and dropouts. Among intake variables, initial impairment and sex predicted dropout explaining 6% of the variance. The network analysis identified four additional predictors: Expected force of being excited, outstrength of experiencing social support, betweenness of feeling nervous, and instrength of being active. The final model with the two intake and four network variables explained 32% of variance in dropout and identified 47 out of 58 patients correctly. The findings indicate that patients" dynamic network structures may improve the prediction of dropout. When implemented in routine care, such prediction models could identify patients at risk for attrition and inform personalized treatment recommendations.

The availability of data on the feeding habits of species of conservation value may be of great importance to develop analyses for both scientific and management purposes. Stomach flushing is a harmless technique that allowed us to collect extensive data on the feeding habits of six Hydromantes species. Here, we present two datasets originating from a three-year study performed in multiple seasons (spring and autumn) on 19 different populations of cave salamanders. The first dataset contains data of the stomach content of 1,250 salamanders, where 6,010 items were recognized; the second one reports the size of the intact prey items found in the stomachs. These datasets integrate considerably data already available on the diet of the European plethodontid salamanders, being also of potential use for large scale meta-analyses on amphibian diet.

Leeches can parasitize many vertebrate taxa. In amphibians, leech parasitism often has potential detrimental effects including population decline. Most of studies on the host-parasite interactions involving leeches and amphibians focus on freshwater environments, while they are very scarce for terrestrial amphibians. In this work, we studied the relationship between the leech Batracobdella algira and the European terrestrial salamanders of the genus Hydromantes, identifying environmental features related to the presence of the leeches and their possible effects on the hosts. We performed observation throughout Sardinia (Italy), covering the distribution area of all Hydromantes species endemic to this island. From September 2015 to May 2017, we conducted >150 surveys in 26 underground environments, collecting data on 2629 salamanders and 131 leeches. Water hardness was the only environmental feature correlated with the presence of B. algira, linking this leech to active karstic systems. Leeches were more frequently parasitizing salamanders with large body size. Body Condition Index was not significantly different between parasitized and non-parasitized salamanders. Our study shows the importance of abiotic environmental features for host-parasite interactions, and poses new questions on complex interspecific interactions between this ectoparasite and amphibians.

Dry tropical forests are facing massive conversion and degradation processes and they are the most endangered forest type worldwide. One of the largest dry forest types are Miombo forests that stretch across the Southern African subcontinent and the proportionally largest part of this type can be found in Angola. The study site of this thesis is located in south-central Angola. The country still suffers from the consequences of the 27 years of civil war (1975 " 2002) that provides a unique socio-economic setting. The natural characteristics are a representative cross section which proved ideal to study underlying drivers as well as current and retrospective land use change dynamics. The major land change dynamic of the study area is the conversion of Miombo forests to cultivation areas as well as modification of forest areas, i.e. degradation, due to the extraction of natural resources. With future predictions of population growth, climate change and large scale investments, land pressure is expected to further increase. To fully understand the impacts of these dynamics, both, conversion and modification of forest areas were assessed. By using the conceptual framework of ecosystem services, the predominant trade-off between food and timber in the study area was analyzed, including retrospective dynamics and impacts. This approach accounts for products that contribute directly or indirectly to human well-being. For this purpose, data from the Landsat archive since 1989 until 2013 was applied in different study area adapted approaches. The objectives of these approaches were (I) to detect underlying drivers and their temporal and spatial extent of impact, (II) to describe modification and conversion processes that reach from times of armed conflicts over the ceasefire and the post-war period and (III) to provide an assessment of drivers and impacts in a comparative setting. It could be shown that major underlying drivers for the conversion processes are resettlement dynamics as well as the location and quality of streets and settlements. Furthermore, forests that are selectively used for resource extraction have a higher chance of being converted to a field. Drivers of forest degradation are on one hand also strongly connected to settlement and infrastructural structures. But also to a large extent to fire dynamics that occur mostly in more remote and presumably undisturbed forest areas. The loss of woody biomass as well as its slow recovery after the abandonment of fields could be quantified and stands in large contrast to the amount of potentially cultivated food that is necessarily needed. The results of the thesis support the fundamental understanding of drivers and impacts in the study area and can thus contribute to a sustainable resource management.

This thesis considers the general task of computing a partition of a set of given objects such that each set of the partition has a cardinality of at least a fixed number k. Among such kinds of partitions, which we call k-clusters, the objective is to find the k-cluster which minimises a certain cost derived from a given pairwise difference between objects which end up the same set. As a first step, this thesis introduces a general problem, denoted by (||.||,f)-k-cluster, which models the task to find a k-cluster of minimum cost given by an objective function computed with respect to specific choices for the cost functions f and ||.||. In particular this thesis considers three different choices for f and also three different choices for ||.|| which results in a total of nine different variants of the general problem. Especially with the idea to use the concept of parameterised approximation, we first investigate the role of the lower bound on the cluster cardinalities and find that k is not a suitable parameter, due to remaining NP-hardness even for the restriction to the constant 3. The reductions presented to show this hardness yield the even stronger result which states that polynomial time approximations with some constant performance ratio for any of the nine variants of (||.||,f)-k-cluster require a restriction to instances for which the pairwise distance on the objects satisfies the triangle inequality. For this restriction to what we informally refer to as metric instances, constant-factor approximation algorithms for eight of the nine variants of (||.||,f)-k-cluster are presented. While two of these algorithms yield the provably best approximation ratio (assuming P!=NP), others can only guarantee a performance which depends on the lower bound k. With the positive effect of the triangle inequality and applications to facility location in mind, we discuss the further restriction to the setting where the given objects are points in the Euclidean metric space. Considering the effect of computational hardness caused by high dimensionality of the input for other related problems (curse of dimensionality) we check if this is also the source of intractability for (||.||,f)-k-cluster. Remaining NP-hardness for restriction to small constant dimensionality however disproves this theory. We then use parameterisation to develop approximation algorithms for (||.||,f)-k-cluster without restriction to metric instances. In particular, we discuss structural parameters which reflect how much the given input differs from a metric. This idea results in parameterised approximation algorithms with parameters such as the number of conflicts (our name for pairs of objects for which the triangle inequality is violated) or the number of conflict vertices (objects involved in a conflict). The performance ratios of these parameterised approximations are in most cases identical to those of the approximations for metric instances. This shows that for most variants of (||.||,f)-k-cluster efficient and reasonable solutions are also possible for non-metric instances.

At any given moment, our senses are assaulted with a flood of information from the environment around us. We need to pick our way through all this information in order to be able to effectively respond to that what is relevant to us. In most cases we are usually able to select information relevant to our intentions from what is not relevant. However, what happens to the information that is not relevant to us? Is this irrelevant information completely ignored so that it does not affect our actions? The literature suggests that even though we mayrnignore an irrelevant stimulus, it may still interfere with our actions. One of the ways in which irrelevant stimuli can affect actions is by retrieving a response with which it was associated. An irrelevant stimulus that is presented in close temporal contiguity with a relevant stimulus can be associated with the response made to the relevant stimulus " an observation termed distractor-response binding (Rothermund, Wentura, & De Houwer, 2005). The studies presented in this work take a closer look at such distractor-response bindings, and therncircumstances in which they occur. Specifically, the study reported in chapter 6 examined whether only an exact repetition of the distractor can retrieve the response with which it was associated, or whether even similar distractors may cause retrieval. The results suggested that even repeating a similar distractor caused retrieval, albeit less than an exact repetition. In chapter 7, the existence of bindings between a distractor and a response were tested beyond arnperceptual level, to see whether they exist at an (abstract) conceptual level. Similar to perceptual repetition, distractor-based retrieval of the response was observed for the repetition of concepts. The study reported in chapter 8 of this work examined the influence of attention on the feature-response binding of irrelevant features. The results pointed towards a stronger binding effects when attention was directed towards the irrelevant feature compared to whenrnit was not. The study in chapter 9 presented here looked at the processes underlying distractor-based retrieval and distractor inhibition. The data suggest that motor processes underlie distractor-based retrieval and cognitive process underlie distractor inhibition. Finally, the findings of all four studies are also discussed in the context of learning.

Water-deficit stress, usually shortened to water- or drought stress, is one of the most critical abiotic stressors limiting plant growth, crop yield and quality concerning food production. Today, agriculture consumes about 80 " 90 % of the global freshwater used by humans and about two thirds are used for crop irrigation. An increasing world population and a predicted rise of 1.0 " 2.5-°C in the annual mean global temperature as a result of climate change will further increase the demand of water in agriculture. Therefore, one of the most challenging tasks of our generation is to reduce the amount water used per unit yield to satisfy the second UN Sustainable Development Goal and to ensure global food security. Precision agriculture offers new farming methods with the goal to improve the efficiency of crop production by a sustainable use of resources. Plant responses to water stress are complex and co-occur with other environmental stresses under natural conditions. In general, water stress causes plant physiological and biochemical changes that depend on the severity and the duration of the actual plant water deficit. Stomatal closure is one of the first responses to plant water stress causing a decrease in plant transpiration and thus an increase in plant temperature. Prolonged or severe water stress leads to irreversible damage to the photosynthetic machinery and is associated with decreasing chlorophyll content and leaf structural changes (e.g., leaf rolling). Since a crop can already be irreversibly damaged by only mild water deficit, a pre-visual detection of water stress symptoms is essential to avoid yield loss. Remote sensing offers a non-destructive and spatio-temporal method for measuring numerous physiological, biochemical and structural crop characteristics at different scales and thus is one of the key technologies used in precision agriculture. With respect to the detection of plant responses to water stress, the current state-of-the-art hyperspectral remote sensing imaging techniques are based on measurements of thermal infrared emission (TIR; 8 " 14 -µm), visible, near- and shortwave infrared reflectance (VNIR/SWIR; 0.4 " 2.5 -µm), and sun-induced fluorescence (SIF; 0.69 and 0.76 -µm). It is, however, still unclear how sensitive these techniques are with respect to water stress detection. Therefore, the overall aim of this dissertation was to provide a comparative assessment of remotely sensed measures from the TIR, SIF, and VNIR/SWIR domains for their ability to detect plant responses to water stress at ground- and airborne level. The main findings of this thesis are: (i) temperature-based indices (e.g., CWSI) were most sensitive for the detection of plant water stress in comparison to reflectance-based VNIR/SWIR indices (e.g., PRI) and SIF at both, ground- and airborne level, (ii) for the first time, spectral emissivity as measured by the new hyperspectral TIR instrument could be used to detect plant water stress at ground level. Based on these findings it can be stated that hyperspectral TIR remote sensing offers great potential for the detection of plant responses to water stress at ground- and airborne level based on both TIR key variables, surface temperature and spectral emissivity. However, the large-scale application of water stress detection based on hyperspectral TIR measures in precision agriculture will be challenged by several problems: (i) missing thresholds of temperature-based indices (e.g., CWSI) for the application in irrigation scheduling, (ii) lack of current TIR satellite missions with suitable spectral and spatial resolution, (iii) lack of appropriate data processing schemes (including atmosphere correction and temperature emissivity separation) for hyperspectral TIR remote sensing at airborne- and satellite level.

Educational researchers have intensively investigated students" academic self-concept (ASC) and self-efficacy (SE). Both constructs are part of the competence-related self-perceptions of students and are considered to support students" academic success and their career development in a positive manner (e.g., Abele-Brehm & Stief, 2004; Richardson, Abraham, & Bond, 2012; Schneider & Preckel, 2017). However, there is a lack of basic research on ASC and SE in higher education in general, and in undergraduate psychology courses in particular. Therefore, according to the within-network and between-network approaches of construct validation (Byrne, 1984), the present dissertation comprises three empirical studies examining the structure (research question 1), measurement (research question 2), correlates (research question 3), and differentiation (research question 4) of ASC and SE in a total sample of N = 1243 psychology students. Concerning research question 1, results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs) implied that students" ASC and SE are domain-specific in the sense of multidimensionality, but they are also hierarchically structured, with a general factor at the apex according to the nested Marsh/Shavelson model (NMS model, Brunner et al., 2010). Additionally, psychology students" SE to master specific psychological tasks in different areas of psychological application could be described by a 2-dimensional model with six factors according to the Multitrait-Multimethod (MTMM)-approach (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). With regard to research question 2, results revealed that the internal structure of ASC and SE could be validly assessed. However, the assessment of psychology students" SE should follow a task-specific measurement strategy. Results of research question 3 further showed that both constructs of psychology students" competence-related self-perceptions were positively correlated to achievement in undergraduate psychology courses if predictor (ASC, SE) corresponded to measurement specificity of the criterion (achievement). Overall, ASC provided substantially stronger relations to achievement compared to SE. Moreover, there was evidence for negative paths (contrast effects) from achievement in one psychological domain on ASC of another psychological domain as postulated by the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model (Marsh, 1986). Finally, building on research questions 1 to 3 (structure, measurement, and correlates of ASC and SE), psychology students" ASC and SE were be differentiated on an empirical level (research question 4). Implications for future research practices are discussed. Furthermore, practical implications for enhancing ASC and SE in higher education are proposed to support academic achievement and the career development of psychology students.

Digital libraries have become a central aspect of our live. They provide us with an immediate access to an amount of data which has been unthinkable in the past. Support of computers and the ability to aggregate data from different libraries enables small projects to maintain large digital collections on various topics. A central aspect of digital libraries is the metadata -- the information that describes the objects in the collection. Metadata are digital and can be processed and studied automatically. In recent years, several studies considered different aspects of metadata. Many studies focus on finding defects in the data. Specifically, locating errors related to the handling of personal names has drawn attention. In most cases the studies concentrate on the most recent metadata of a collection. For example, they look for errors in the collection at day X. This is a reasonable approach for many applications. However, to answer questions such as when the errors were added to the collection we need to consider the history of the metadata itself. In this work, we study how the history of metadata can be used to improve the understanding of a digital library. To this goal, we consider how digital libraries handle and store their metadata. Based in this information we develop a taxonomy to describe available historical data which means data on how the metadata records changed over time. We develop a system that identifies changes to metadata over time and groups them in semantically related blocks. We found that historical meta data is often unavailable. However, we were able to apply our system on a set of large real-world collections. A central part of this work is the identification and analysis of changes to metadata which corrected a defect in the collection. These corrections are the accumulated effort to ensure data quality of a digital library. In this work, we present a system that automatically extracts corrections of defects from the set of all modifications. We present test collections containing more than 100,000 test cases which we created by extracting defects and their corrections from DBLP. This collections can be used to evaluate automatic approaches for error detection. Furthermore, we use these collections to study properties of defects. We will concentrate on defects related to the person name problem. We show that many defects occur in situations where very little context information is available. This has major implications for automatic defect detection. We also show that properties of defects depend on the digital library in which they occur. We also discuss briefly how corrected defects can be used to detect hidden or future defects. Besides the study of defects, we show that historical metadata can be used to study the development of a digital library over time. In this work, we present different studies as example how historical metadata can be used. At first we describe the development of the DBLP collection over a period of 15 years. Specifically, we study how the coverage of different computer science sub fields changed over time. We show that DBLP evolved from a specialized project to a collection that encompasses most parts of computer science. In another study we analyze the impact of user emails to defect corrections in DBLP. We show that these emails trigger a significant amount of error corrections. Based on these data we can draw conclusions on why users report a defective entry in DBLP.

The search for relevant determinants of knowledge acquisition has a long tradition in educational research, with systematic analyses having started over a century ago. To date, a variety of relevant environmental and learner-related characteristics have been identified, providing a wide body of empirical evidence. However, there are still some gaps in the literature, which are highlighted in the current dissertation. The dissertation includes two meta-analyses summarizing the evidence on the effectiveness of electrical brain stimulation and the effects of prior knowledge on later learning outcomes and one empirical study employing latent profile transition analysis to investigate the changes in conceptual knowledge over time. The results from the three studies demonstrate how learning outcomes can be advanced by input from the environment and that they are highly related to the students" level of prior knowledge. It is concluded that the effects of environmental and learner-related variables impact both the biological and cognitive processes underlying knowledge acquisition. Based on the findings from the three studies, methodological and practical implications are provided, followed by an outline of four recommendations for future research on knowledge acquisition.

This thesis is divided into three main parts: The description of the calibration problem, the numerical solution of this problem and the connection to optimal stochastic control problems. Fitting model prices to given market prices leads to an abstract least squares formulation as calibration problem. The corresponding option price can be computed by solving a stochastic differential equation via the Monte-Carlo method which seems to be preferred by most practitioners. Due to the fact that the Monte-Carlo method is expensive in terms of computational effort and requires memory, more sophisticated stochastic predictor-corrector schemes are established in this thesis. The numerical advantage of these predictor-corrector schemes ispresented and discussed. The adjoint method is applied to the calibration. The theoretical advantage of the adjoint method is discussed in detail. It is shown that the computational effort of gradient calculation via the adjoint method is independent of the number of calibration parameters. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results and summarize the computational advantage of the adjoint method. Furthermore, provides the connection to optimal stochastic control problems is proven in this thesis.rn

Surveys are commonly tailored to produce estimates of aggregate statistics with a desired level of precision. This may lead to very small sample sizes for subpopulations of interest, defined geographically or by content, which are not incorporated into the survey design. We refer to subpopulations where the sample size is too small to provide direct estimates with adequate precision as small areas or small domains. Despite the small sample sizes, reliable small area estimates are needed for economic and political decision making. Hence, model-based estimation techniques are used which increase the effective sample size by borrowing strength from other areas to provide accurate information for small areas. The paragraph above introduced small area estimation as a field of survey statistics where two conflicting philosophies of statistical inference meet: the design-based and the model-based approach. While the first approach is well suited for the precise estimation of aggregate statistics, the latter approach furnishes reliable small area estimates. In most applications, estimates for both large and small domains based on the same sample are needed. This poses a challenge to the survey planner, as the sampling design has to reflect different and potentially conflicting requirements simultaneously. In order to enable efficient design-based estimates for large domains, the sampling design should incorporate information related to the variables of interest. This may be achieved using stratification or sampling with unequal probabilities. Many model-based small area techniques require an ignorable sampling design such that after conditioning on the covariates the variable of interest does not contain further information about the sample membership. If this condition is not fulfilled, biased model-based estimates may result, as the model which holds for the sample is different from the one valid for the population. Hence, an optimisation of the sampling design without investigating the implications for model-based approaches will not be sufficient. Analogously, disregarding the design altogether and focussing only on the model is prone to failure as well. Instead, a profound knowledge of the interplay between the sample design and statistical modelling is a prerequisite for implementing an effective small area estimation strategy. In this work, we concentrate on two approaches to address this conflict. Our first approach takes the sampling design as given and can be used after the sample has been collected. It amounts to incorporate the survey design into the small area model to avoid biases stemming from informative sampling. Thus, once a model is validated for the sample, we know that it holds for the population as well. We derive such a procedure under a lognormal mixed model, which is a popular choice when the support of the dependent variable is limited to positive values. Besides, we propose a three pillar strategy to select the additional variable accounting for the design, based on a graphical examination of the relationship, a comparison of the predictive accuracy of the choices and a check regarding the normality assumptions.rnrnOur second approach to deal with the conflict is based on the notion that the design should allow applying a wide variety of analyses using the sample data. Thus, if the use of model-based estimation strategies can be anticipated before the sample is drawn, this should be reflected in the design. The same applies for the estimation of national statistics using design-based approaches. Therefore, we propose to construct the design such that the sampling mechanism is non-informative but allows for precise design-based estimates at an aggregate level.

In this thesis, we present a new approach for estimating the effects of wind turbines for a local bat population. We build an individual based model (IBM) which simulates the movement behaviour of every single bat of the population with its own preferences, foraging behaviour and other species characteristics. This behaviour is normalized by a Monte-Carlo simulation which gives us the average behaviour of the population. The result is an occurrence map of the considered habitat which tells us how often the bat and therefore the considered bat population frequent every region of this habitat. Hence, it is possible to estimate the crossing rate of the position of an existing or potential wind turbine. We compare this individual based approach with a partial differential equation based method. This second approach produces a lower computational effort but, unfortunately, we lose information about the movement trajectories at the same time. Additionally, the PDE based model only gives us a density profile. Hence, we lose the information how often each bat crosses special points in the habitat in one night.rnIn a next step we predict the average number of fatalities for each wind turbine in the habitat, depending on the type of the wind turbine and the behaviour of the considered bat species. This gives us the extra mortality caused by the wind turbines for the local population. This value is used for a population model and finally we can calculate whether the population still grows or if there already is a decline in population size which leads to the extinction of the population.rnUsing the combination of all these models, we are able to evaluate the conflict of wind turbines and bats and to predict the result of this conflict. Furthermore, it is possible to find better positions for wind turbines such that the local bat population has a better chance to survive.rnSince bats tend to move in swarm formations under certain circumstances, we introduce swarm simulation using partial integro-differential equations. Thereby, we have a closer look at existence and uniqueness properties of solutions.

Interaction between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and the Circadian Clock System in Humans
(2017)

Rotation of the Earth creates day and night cycles of 24 h. The endogenous circadian clocks sense these light/dark rhythms and the master pacemaker situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus entrains the physical activities according to this information. The circadian machinery is built from the transcriptional/translational feedback loops generating the oscillations in all nucleated cells of the body. In addition, unexpected environmental changes, called stressors, also challenge living systems. A response to these stimuli is provided immediately via the autonomic-nervous system and slowly via the hypothalamus"pituitary"adrenal (HPA) axis. When the HPA axis is activated, circulating glucocorticoids are elevated and regulate organ activities in order to maintain survival of the organism. Both the clock and the stress systems are essential for continuity and interact with each other to keep internal homeostasis. The physiological interactions between the HPA axis and the circadian clock system are mainly addressed in animal studies, which focus on the effects of stress and circadian disturbances on cardiovascular, psychiatric and metabolic disorders. Although these studies give opportunity to test in whole body, apply unwelcome techniques, control and manipulate the parameters at the high level, generalization of the results to humans is still a debate. On the other hand, studies established with cell lines cannot really reflect the conditions occurring in a living organism. Thus, human studies are absolutely necessary to investigate mechanisms involved in stress and circadian responses. The studies presented in this thesis were intended to determine the effects of cortisol as an end-product of the HPA axis on PERIOD (PER1, PER2 and PER3) transcripts as circadian clock genes in healthy humans. The expression levels of PERIOD genes were measured under baseline conditions and after stress in whole blood. The results demonstrated here have given better understanding of transcriptional programming regulated by pulsatile cortisol at standard conditions and short-term effects of cortisol increase on circadian clocks after acute stress. These findings also draw attention to inter-individual variations in stress response as well as non-circadian functions of PERIOD genes in the periphery, which need to be examined in details in the future.

Automata theory is the study of abstract machines. It is a theory in theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics (a subject of study in mathematics and computer science). The word automata (the plural of automaton) comes from a Greek word which means "self-acting". Automata theory is closely related to formal language theory [99, 101]. The theory of formal languages constitutes the backbone of the field of science now generally known as theoretical computer science. This thesis aims to introduce a few types of automata and studies then class of languages recognized by them. Chapter 1 is the road map with introduction and preliminaries. In Chapter 2 we consider few formal languages associated to graphs that has Eulerian trails. We place few languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has some other properties together with the Eulerian property. In Chapter 3 we consider jumping finite automata, i. e., finite automata in which input head after reading and consuming a symbol, can jump to an arbitrary position of the remaining input. We characterize the class of languages described by jumping finite automata in terms of special shuffle expressions and survey other equivalent notions from the existing literature. We could also characterize some super classes of this language class. In Chapter 4 we introduce boustrophedon finite automata, i. e., finite automata working on rectangular shaped arrays (i. e., pictures) in a boustrophedon mode and we also introduce returning finite automata that reads the input, line after line, does not alters the direction like boustrophedon finite automata i. e., reads always from left to right, line after line. We provide close relationships with the well-established class of regular matrix (array) languages. We sketch possible applications to character recognition and kolam patterns. Chapter 5 deals with general boustrophedon finite automata, general returning finite automata that read with different scanning strategies. We show that all 32 different variants only describe two different classes of array languages. We also introduce Mealy machines working on pictures and show how these can be used in a modular design of picture processing devices. In Chapter 6 we compare three different types of regular grammars of array languages introduced in the literature, regular matrix grammars, (regular : regular) array grammars, isometric regular array grammars, and variants thereof, focusing on hierarchical questions. We also refine the presentation of (regular : regular) array grammars in order to clarify the interrelations. In Chapter 7 we provide further directions of research with respect to the study that we have done in each of the chapters.

The first part of this thesis offers a theoretical foundation for the analysis of Tolkien- texts. Each of the three fields of interest, nostalgia, utopia, and the pastoral tradition, are introduced in separate chapters. Special attention is given to the interrelations of the three fields. Their history, meaning, and functions are shortly elaborated and definitions applicable to their occurrences in fantasy texts are reached. In doing so, new categories and terms are proposed that enable a detailed analysis of the nostalgic, pastoral, and utopian properties of Tolkien- works. As nostalgia and utopia are important ingredients of pastoral writing, they are each introduced first and are finally related to a definition of the pastoral. The main part of this thesis applies the definitions and insights reached in the theoretical chapters to Tolkien- The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. This part is divided into three main sections. Again, the order of the chapters follows the line of argumentation. The first section contains the analysis of pastoral depictions in the two texts. Given the separation of the pastoral into different categories, which were outlined in the theoretical part, the chapters examine bucolic and georgic pastoral creatures and landscapes before turning to non-pastoral depictions, which are sub-divided into the antipastoral and the unpastoral. A separate chapter looks at the bucolic and georgic pastoral- positions and functions in the primary texts. This analysis is followed by a chapter on men- special position in Tolkien- mythology, as their depiction reveals their potential to be both pastoral and antipastoral. The second section of the analytical part is concerned with the role of nostalgia within pastoral culture. The focus is laid on the meaning and function of the different kinds of nostalgia, which were defined in the theoretical part, detectable in bucolic and georgic pastoral cultures. Finally, the analysis turns to the utopian potential of Tolkien- mythology. Again, the focus lies on the pastoral and non-pastoral creatures. Their utopian and dystopian visions are presented and contrasted. This way, different kinds of utopian vision are detected and set in relation to the overall dystopian fate of Tolkien- fictional universe. Drawing on the results of this thesis and on Terry Gifford- ecocritical work, the final chapter argues that Tolkien- texts can be defined as modern pastorals. The connection between Tolkien- work and pastoral literature made explicit in the analysis is thus cemented in generic terms. The conclusion presents a summary of the central findings of this thesis and introduces questions for further study.

A phenomenon of recent decades is that digital marketplaces on the Internet are establishing themselves for a wide variety of products and services. Recently, it has become possible for private individuals to invest in young and innovative companies (so-called "start-ups"). Via Internet portals, potential investors can examine various start-ups and then directly invest in their chosen start-up. In return, investors receive a share in the firm- profit, while companies can use the raised capital to finance their projects. This new way of financing is called "Equity Crowdfunding" (ECF) or "Crowdinvesting". The aim of this dissertation is to provide empirical findings about the characteristics of ECF. In particular, the question of whether ECF is able to overcome geographic barriers, the interdependence of ECF and capital structure, and the risk of failure for funded start-ups and their chances of receiving follow-up funding by venture capitalists or business angels will be analyzed. The results of the first part of this dissertation show that investors in ECF prefer local companies. In particular, investors who invest larger amounts have a stronger tendency to invest in local start-ups. The second part of the dissertation provides first indications of the interdependencies between capital structure and ECF. The analysis makes clear that the capital structure is not a determinant for undertaking an ECF campaign. The third part of the dissertation analyzes the success of companies financed by ECF in a country comparison. The results show that after a successful ECF campaign German companies have a higher chance of receiving follow-up funding by venture capitalists compared to British companies. The probability of survival, however, is slightly lower for German companies. The results provide relevant implications for theory and practice. The existing literature in the area of entrepreneurial finance will be extended by insights into investor behavior, additions to the capital structure theory and a country comparison in ECF. In addition, implications are provided for various actors in practice.

Long-Term Memory Updating: The Reset-of-Encoding Hypothesis in List-Method Directed Forgetting
(2017)

People- memory for new information can be enhanced by cuing them to forget older information, as is shown in list-method directed forgetting (LMDF). In this task, people are cued to forget a previously studied list of items (list 1) and to learn a new list of items (list 2) instead. Such cuing typically enhances memory for the list 2 items and reduces memory for the list 1 items, which reflects effective long-term memory updating. This review focuses on the reset-of-encoding (ROE) hypothesis as a theoretical explanation of the list 2 enhancement effect in LMDF. The ROE hypothesis is based on the finding that encoding efficacy typically decreases with number of encoded items and assumes that providing a forget cue after study of some items (e.g., list 1) resets the encoding process and makes encoding of subsequent items (e.g., early list 2 items) as effective as encoding of previously studied (e.g., early list 1) items. The review provides an overview of current evidence for the ROE hypothesis. The evidence arose from recent behavioral, neuroscientific, and modeling studies that examined LMDF on both an item and a list level basis. The findings support the view that ROE plays a critical role for the list 2 enhancement effect in LMDF. Alternative explanations of the effect and the generalizability of ROE to other experimental tasks are discussed.

Background: We evaluated depression and social isolation assessed at time of waitlisting as predictors of survival in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. Methods and Results: Between 2005 and 2006, 318 adult HTx candidates were enrolled in the Waiting for a New Heart Study, and 164 received transplantation. Patients were followed until February 2013. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by questionnaires. Eurotransplant provided medical data at waitlisting, transplantation dates, and donor characteristics; hospitals reported medical data at HTx and date of death after HTx. During a median followâ€up of 70 months (<1"93 months postâ€HTx), 56 (38%) of 148 transplanted patients with complete data died. Depression scores were unrelated to social isolation, and neither correlated with disease severity. Higher depression scores increased the risk of dying (hazard ratio=1.07, 95% confidence interval, 1.01, 1.15, P=0.032), which was moderated by social isolation scores (significant interaction term; hazard ratio = 0.985, 95% confidence interval, 0.973, 0.998; P=0.022). These findings were maintained in multivariate models controlling for covariates (P values 0.020"0.039). Actuarial 1â€year/5â€year survival was best for patients with low depression who were not socially isolated at waitlisting (86% after 1 year, 79% after 5 years). Survival of those who were either depressed, or socially isolated or both, was lower, especially 5 years posttransplant (56%, 60%, and 62%, respectively). Conclusions: Low depression in conjunction with social integration at time of waitlisting is related to enhanced chances for survival after HTx. Both factors should be considered for inclusion in standardized assessments and interventions for HTx candidates. We evaluated depression and social isolation assessed at time of waitlisting as predictors of survival in heart transplant (HTx) recipients.\r\n\r\nMethods and Results: Between 2005 and 2006, 318 adult HTx candidates were enrolled in the Waiting for a New Heart Study, and 164 received transplantation. Patients were followed until February 2013. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by questionnaires. Eurotransplant provided medical data at waitlisting, transplantation dates, and donor characteristics; hospitals reported medical data at HTx and date of death after HTx. During a median followâ€up of 70 months (<1"93 months postâ€HTx), 56 (38%) of 148 transplanted patients with complete data died. Depression scores were unrelated to social isolation, and neither correlated with disease severity. Higher depression scores increased the risk of dying (hazard ratio=1.07, 95% confidence interval, 1.01, 1.15, P=0.032), which was moderated by social isolation scores (significant interaction term; hazard ratio = 0.985, 95% confidence interval, 0.973, 0.998; P=0.022). These findings were maintained in multivariate models controlling for covariates (P values 0.020"0.039). Actuarial 1â€year/5â€year survival was best for patients with low depression who were not socially isolated at waitlisting (86% after 1 year, 79% after 5 years). Survival of those who were either depressed, or socially isolated or both, was lower, especially 5 years posttransplant (56%, 60%, and 62%, respectively).

Entrepreneurship is a process of discovering and exploiting opportunities, during which two crucial milestones emerge: in the very beginning when entrepreneurs start their businesses, and in the end when they determine the future of the business. This dissertation examines the establishment and exit of newly created as well as of acquired firms, in particular the behavior and performance of entrepreneurs at these two important stages of entrepreneurship. The first part of the dissertation investigates the impact of characteristics at the individual and at the firm level on an entrepreneur- selection of entry modes across new venture start-up and business takeover. The second part of the dissertation compares firm performance across different entrepreneurship entry modes and then examines management succession issues that family firm owners have to confront. This study has four main findings. First, previous work experience in small firms, same sector experience, and management experience affect an entrepreneur- choice of entry modes. Second, the choice of entry mode for hybrid entrepreneurs is associated with their characteristics, such as occupational experience, level of education, and gender, as well as with the characteristics of their firms, such as location. Third, business takeovers survive longer than new venture start-ups, and both entry modes have different survival determinants. Fourth, the family firm- decision of recruiting a family or a nonfamily manager is not only determined by a manager- abilities, but also by the relationship between the firm- economic and non-economic goals and the measurability of these goals. The findings of this study extend our knowledge on entrepreneurship entry modes by showing that new venture start-ups and business takeovers are two distinct entrepreneurship entry modes in terms of their founders" profiles, their survival rates and survival determinants. Moreover, this study contributes to the literature on top management hiring in family firms: it establishes family firm- non-economic goals as another factor that impacts the family firm- hiring decision between a family and a nonfamily manager.

This study aims to estimate the cotton yield at the field and regional level via the APSIM/OZCOT crop model, using an optimization-based recalibration approach based on the state variable of the cotton canopyâ€”the leaf area index (LAI), derived from atmospherically corrected Landsat-8 OLI remote sensing images in 2014. First, a local sensitivity and global analysis approach was employed to test the sensitivity of cultivar, soil and agronomic parameters to the dynamics of the LAI. After sensitivity analyses, a series of sensitive parameters were obtained. Then, the APSIM/OZCOT crop model was calibrated by observations over a two-year span (2006"2007) at the Aksu station, combined with these sensitive cultivar parameters and the current understanding of cotton cultivar parameters. Third, the relationship between the observed in-situ LAI and synchronous perpendicular vegetation indices derived from six Landsat-8 OLI images covering the entire growth stage was modelled to generate LAI maps in time and space. Finally, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and general-purpose optimization approach (based on Nelder-Mead algorithm) were used to recalibrate four sensitive agronomic parameters (row spacing, sowing density per row, irrigation amount and total fertilization) according to the minimization of the root-mean-square deviation (RMSE) between the simulated LAI from the APSIM/OZCOT model and retrieved LAI from Landsat-8 OLI remote sensing images. After the recalibration, the best simulated results compared with observed cotton yield were obtained. The results showed that: (1) FRUDD, FLAI and DDISQ were the major cultivar parameters suitable for calibrating the cotton cultivar. (2) After the calibration, the simulated LAI performed well with an RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.45 and 0.33, respectively, in 2006 and 0.46 and 0.41, respectively, in 2007. The coefficient of determination between the observed and simulated LAI was 0.83 and 0.97, respectively, in 2006 and 2007. The Pearson- correlation coefficient was 0.913 and 0.988 in 2006 and 2007, respectively, with a significant positive correlation between the simulated and observed LAI. The difference between the observed and simulated yield was 776.72 kg/ha and 259.98 kg/ha in 2006 and 2007, respectively. (3) Cotton cultivation in 2014 was obtained using three Landsat-8 OLI imagesâ€”DOY136 (May), DOY 168 (June) and DOY 200 (July)â€”based on the phenological differences in cotton and other vegetation types. (4) The yield estimation after the assimilation closely approximated the field-observed values, and the coefficient of determination was as high as 0.82, after recalibration of the APSIM/OZCOT model for ten cotton fields. The difference between the observed and assimilated yields for the ten fields ranged from 18.2 to 939.7 kg/ha. The RMSE and MAE between the assimilated and observed yield was 417.5 and 303.1 kg/ha, respectively. These findings provide scientific evidence for the feasibility of coupled remote sensing and APSIM/OZCOT model at the field level. (5) Upscaling from field level to regional level, the assimilation algorithm and scheme are both especially important. Although the PSO method is very efficient, the computational efficiency is also the shortcoming of the assimilation strategy on a regional scale. Comparisons between the PSO and general-purpose optimization method (based on the Nelder-Mead algorithm) were implemented from the RSME, LAI curve and computational time. The general-purpose optimization method (based on the Nelder-Mead algorithm) was used for the regional assimilation between remote sensing and the APSIM/OZCOT model. Meanwhile, the basic unit for regional assimilation was also determined as cotton field rather than pixel. Moreover, the crop growth simulation was also divided into two phases (vegetative growth and reproductive growth) for regional assimilation. (6) The regional assimilation at the vegetative growth stage between the remote sensing derived and APSIM/OZCOT model-simulated LAI was implemented by adjusting two parameters: row spacing and sowing density per row. The results showed that the sowing density of cotton was higher in the southern part than in the northern part of the study area. The spatial pattern of cotton density was also consistent with the reclamation from 2001 to 2013. Cotton fields after early reclamation were mainly located in the southern part while the recent reclamation was located in the northern part. Poor soil quality, lack of irrigation facilities and woodland belts of cotton fields in the northern part caused the low density of cotton. Regarding the row spacing, the northern part was larger than the southern part due to the variation of two agronomic modes from military and private companies. (7) The irrigation and fertilization amount were both used as key parameters to be adjusted for regional assimilation during the reproductive growth period. The result showed that the irrigation per time ranged from 58.14 to 89.99 mm in the study area. The spatial distribution of the irrigation amount is higher in the northern part while lower in southern study area. The application of urea fertilization ranged from 500.35 to 1598.59 kg/ha in the study area. The spatial distribution of fertilization was lower in the northern part and higher in the southern part. More fertilization applied in the southern study area aims to increase the boll weight and number for pursuing higher yields of cotton. The frequency of the RSME during the second assimilation was mainly located in the range of 0.4"0.6 m2/m2. The estimated cotton yield ranged from 1489 to 8895 kg/ha. The spatial distribution of the estimated yield is also higher in the southern part than the northern study area.

Background: Psychotherapy is successful for the majority of patients , but not for every patient. Hence, further knowledge is needed on how treatments should be adapted for those who do not profit or deteriorate. In the last years prediction tools as well as feedback interventions were part of a trend to more personalized approaches in psychotherapy. Research on psychometric prediction and feedback into ongoing treatment has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes, especially for patients with an increased risk of treatment failure or drop-out.rnMethods/design: The research project investigates in a randomized controlled trial the effectiveness as well as moderating and mediating factors of psychometric feedback to therapists. In the intended study a total of 423 patients, who applied for a cognitive-behavioral therapy at the psychotherapy clinic of the University Trier and suffer from a depressive and/or an anxietyrndisorder (SCID interviews), will be included. The patients will be randomly assigned either to one therapist as well as to one of two intervention groups (CG, IG2). An additional intervention group (IG1) will be generated from an existing archival data set via propensity score matching. Patients of the control group (CG; n = 85) will be monitored concerning psychological impairment but therapists will not be provided with any feedback about the patients assessments. In both intervention groups (IG1: n = 169; IG2: n = 169) the therapists are provided with feedback about the patients self-evaluation in a computerized feedback portal. Therapists of the IG2 will additionally be provided with clinical support tools, which will be developed in thisrnproject, on the basis of existing systems. Therapists will also be provided with a personalized treatment recommendation based on similar patients (Nearest Neighbors) at the beginning of treatment. Besides the general effectiveness of feedback and the clinical support tools for negatively developing patients, further mediating and moderating variables on this feedback effectrnshould be examined: treatment length, frequency of feedback use, therapist effects, therapist- experience, attitude towards feedback as well as congruence of therapist-andpatient- evaluation concerning the progress. Additional procedures will be implemented to assess treatment adherence as well as the reliability of diagnosis and to include it into the analyses.rnDiscussion: The current trial tests a comprehensive feedback system which combines precision mental health predictions with routine outcome monitoring and feedback tools in routine outpatient psychotherapy. It also adds to previous feedback research a stricter design by investigating another repeated measurement CG as well as a stricter control of treatment integrity. It also includes a structured clinical interview (SCID) and controls for comorbidity (within depression and anxiety). This study also investigates moderators (attitudes towards, use of the feedback system, diagnoses) and mediators (therapists" awareness of negative change and treatment length) in one study.

This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1"5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2"12.5 -µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K"0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0"10.25 -µm and 10.25"12.5 -µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1"3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

Dry tropical forests undergo massive conversion and degradation processes. This also holds true for the extensive Miombo forests that cover large parts of Southern Africa. While the largest proportional area can be found in Angola, the country still struggles with food shortages, insufficient medical and educational supplies, as well as the ongoing reconstruction of infrastructure after 27 years of civil war. Especially in rural areas, the local population is therefore still heavily dependent on the consumption of natural resources, as well as subsistence agriculture. This leads, on one hand, to large areas of Miombo forests being converted for cultivation purposes, but on the other hand, to degradation processes due to the selective use of forest resources. While forest conversion in south-central rural Angola has already been quantitatively described, information about forest degradation is not yet available. This is due to the history of conflicts and the therewith connected research difficulties, as well as the remote location of this area. We apply an annual time series approach using Landsat data in south-central Angola not only to assess the current degradation status of the Miombo forests, but also to derive past developments reaching back to times of armed conflicts. We use the Disturbance Index based on tasseled cap transformation to exclude external influences like inter-annual variation of rainfall. Based on this time series, linear regression is calculated for forest areas unaffected by conversion, but also for the pre-conversion period of those areas that were used for cultivation purposes during the observation time. Metrics derived from linear regression are used to classify the study area according to their dominant modification processes.rnWe compare our results to MODIS latent integral trends and to further products to derive information on underlying drivers. Around 13% of the Miombo forests are affected by degradation processes, especially along streets, in villages, and close to existing agriculture. However, areas in presumably remote and dense forest areas are also affected to a significant extent. A comparison with MODIS derived fire ignition data shows that they are most likely affected by recurring fires and less by selective timber extraction. We confirm that areas that are used for agriculture are more heavily disturbed by selective use beforehand than those that remain unaffected by conversion. The results can be substantiated by the MODIS latent integral trends and we also show that due to extent and location, the assessment of forest conversion is most likely not sufficient to provide good estimates for the loss of natural resources.

Numerous RCTs demonstrate that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is effective. However, these findings are not necessarily representative of CBT under routine care conditions. Routine care studies are not usually subjected to comparable standardizations, e.g. often therapists may not follow treatment manuals and patients are less homogeneous with regard to their diagnoses and sociodemographic variables. Results on the transferability of findings from clinical trials to routine care are sparse and point in different directions. As RCT samples are selective due to a stringent application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, comparisons between routine care and clinical trials must be based on a consistent analytic strategy. The present work demonstrates the merits of propensity score matching (PSM), which offers solutions to reduce bias by balancing two samples based on a range of pretreatment differences. The objective of this dissertation is the investigation of the transferability of findings from RCTs to routine care settings.

Avoiding aerial microfibre contamination of environmental samples is essential for reliable analyses when it comes to the detection of ubiquitous microplastics. Almost all laboratories have contamination problems which are largely unavoidable without investments in clean-air devices. Therefore, our study supplies an approach to assess background microfibre contamination of samples in the laboratory under particle-free air conditions. We tested aerial contamination of samples indoor, in a mobile laboratory, within a laboratory fume hood and on a clean bench with particles filtration during the examining process of a fish. The used clean bench reduced aerial microfibre contamination in our laboratory by 96.5%. This highlights the value of suitable clean-air devices for valid microplastic pollution data. Our results indicate, that pollution levels by microfibres have been overestimated and actual pollution levels may be many times lower. Accordingly, such clean-air devices are recommended for microplastic laboratory applications in future research work to significantly lower error rates.

Global human population growth is associated with many problems, such asrnfood and water provision, political conflicts, spread of diseases, and environmental destruction. The mitigation of these problems is mirrored in several global conventions and programs, some of which, however, are conflicting. Here, we discuss the conflicts between biodiversity conservation and disease eradication. Numerous health programs aim at eradicating pathogens, and many focus on the eradication of vectors, such as mosquitos or other parasites. As a case study, we focus on the "Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign," which aims at eradicating a pathogen (Trypanosoma) as well as its vector, the entire group of tsetse flies (Glossinidae). As the distribution of tsetse flies largely overlaps with the African hotspots of freshwater biodiversity, we argue for a strong consideration of environmental issues when applying vector control measures, especially the aerial applications of insecticides.rnFurthermore, we want to stimulate discussions on the value of speciesrnand whether full eradication of a pathogen or vector is justified at all. Finally, we call for a stronger harmonization of international conventions. Proper environmental impact assessments need to be conducted before control or eradication programs are carried out to minimize negative effects on biodiversity.

Flexibility and spatial mobility of labour are central characteristics of modern societies which contribute not only to higher overall economic growth but also to a reduction of interregional employment disparities. For these reasons, there is the political will in many countries to expand labour market areas, resulting especially in an overall increase in commuting. The picture of the various, unintended long-term consequences of commuting on individuals is, however, relatively unclear. Therefore, in recent years, the journey to work has gained high attention especially in the study of health and well-being. Empirical analyses based on longitudinal as well as European data on how commuting may affect health and well-being are nevertheless rare. The principle aim of this thesis is, thus, to address this question with regard to Germany using data from the Socio-Economic Panel. Chapter 2 empirically investigates the causal impact of commuting on absence from work due to sickness-related reasons. Whereas an exogenous change in commuting distance does not affect the number of absence days of those individuals who commute short distances to work, it increases the number of absence days of those employees who commute middle (25 " 49 kilometres) or long distances (50 kilometres and more). Moreover, our results highlight that commuting may deteriorate an individual- health. However, this effect is not sufficient to explain the observed impact of commuting on absence from work. Chapter 3 explores the relationship between commuting distance and height-adjusted weight and sheds some light on the mechanisms through which commuting might affect individual body weight. We find no evidence that commuting leads to excess weight. Compensating health behaviour of commuters, especially healthy dietary habits, could explain the non-relationship of commuting and height-adjusted weight. In Chapter 4, a multivariate probit approach is used to estimate recursive systems of equations for commuting and health-related behaviours. Controlling for potential endogeneity of commuting, the results show that long distance commutes significantly decrease the propensity to engage in health-related activities. Furthermore, unobservable individual heterogeneity can influence both the decision to commute and healthy lifestyle choices. Chapter 5 investigates the relationship between commuting and several cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being. The results suggest that commuting is related to lower levels of satisfaction with family life and leisure time which can largely be ascribed to changes in daily time use patterns, influenced by the work commute.

In recent decades, the Arctic has been undergoing a wide range of fast environmental changes. The sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean not only reacts rapidly to these changes, but also influences and alters the physical properties of the atmospheric boundary layer and the underlying ocean on various scales. In that regard, polynyas, i.e. regions of open water and thin ice within thernclosed pack ice, play a key role as being regions of enhanced atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions and extensive new ice formation during winter. A precise long-term monitoring and increased efforts to employ long-term and high-resolution satellite data is therefore of high interest for the polar scientific community. The retrieval of thin-ice thickness (TIT) fields from thermal infrared satellite data and atmospheric reanalysis, utilizing a one-dimensional energy balance model, allows for the estimation of the heat loss to the atmosphere and hence, ice-production rates. However, an extended application of this approach is inherently connected with severe challenges that originate predominantly from the disturbing influence of clouds and necessary simplifications in the model set-up, which all need to be carefully considered and compensated for. The presented thesis addresses these challenges and demonstrates the applicability of thermal infrared TIT distributions for a long-term polynya monitoring, as well as an accurate estimation of ice production in Arctic polynyas at a relatively high spatial resolution. Being written in a cumulative style, the thesis is subdivided into three parts that show the consequent evolution and improvement of the TIT retrieval, based on two regional studies (Storfjorden and North Water (NOW) polynya) and a final large-scale, pan-Arctic study. The first study on the Storfjorden polynya, situated in the Svalbard archipelago, represents the first long-term investigation on spatial and temporal polynya characteristics that is solely based on daily TIT fields derived from MODIS thermal infrared satellite data and ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data. Typical quantities such as polynya area (POLA), the TIT distribution, frequencies of polynya events as well as the total ice production are derived and compared to previous remote sensing and modeling studies. The study includes a first basic approach that aims for a compensation of cloud-induced gaps in daily TIT composites. This coverage-correction (CC) is a mathematically simple upscaling procedure that depends solely on the daily percentage of available MODIS coverage and yields daily POLA with an error-margin of 5 to 6 %. The NOW polynya in northern Baffin Bay is the main focus region of the second study, which follows two main goals. First, a new statistics-based cloud interpolation scheme (Spatial Feature Reconstruction - SFR) as well as additional cloud-screening procedures are successfully adapted and implemented in the TIT retrieval for usage in Arctic polynya regions. For a 13-yr period, results on polynya characteristics are compared to the CC approach. Furthermore, an investigation on highly variable ice-bridge dynamics in Nares Strait is presented. Second, an analysis of decadal changes of the NOW polynya is carried out, as the additional use of a suite of passive microwave sensors leads to an extended record of 37 consecutive winter seasons, thereby enabling detailed inter-sensor comparisons. In the final study, the SFR-interpolated daily TIT composites are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 17 circumpolar polynya regions in the Arctic for 2002/2003 to 2014/2015. All polynya regions combined cover an average thin-ice area of 226.6 -± 36.1 x 10-³ km-² during winter (November to March) and yield an average total wintertime accumulated ice production of about 1811 -± 293 km-³. Regional differences in derived ice production trends are noticeable. The Laptev Sea on the Siberian shelf is presented as a focus region, as frequently appearing polynyas along the fast-ice edge promote high rates of new ice production. New affirming results on a distinct relation to sea-ice area export rates and hence, the Transpolar Drift, are shown. This new high-resolution pan-Arctic data set can be further utilized and build upon in a variety of atmospheric and oceanographic applications, while still offering room for further improvements such as incorporating high-resolution atmospheric data sets and an optimized lead-detection.

Determining the exact position of a forest inventory plotâ€”and hence the position of the sampled treesâ€”is often hampered by a poor Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal quality beneath the forest canopy. Inaccurate geo-references hamper the performance of models that aim to retrieve useful information from spatially high remote sensing data (e.g., species classification or timber volume estimation). This restriction is even more severe on the level of individual trees. The objective of this study was to develop a post-processing strategy to improve the positional accuracy of GNSS-measured sample-plot centers and to develop a method to automatically match trees within a terrestrial sample plot to aerial detected trees. We propose a new method which uses a random forest classifier to estimate the matching probability of each terrestrial-reference and aerial detected tree pair, which gives the opportunity to assess the reliability of the results. We investigated 133 sample plots of the Third German National Forest Inventory (BWI, 2011"2012) within the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. For training and objective validation, synthetic forest stands have been modeled using the Waldplaner 2.0 software. Our method has achieved an overall accuracy of 82.7% for co-registration and 89.1% for tree matching. With our method, 60% of the investigated plots could be successfully relocated. The probabilities provided by the algorithm are an objective indicator of the reliability of a specific result which could be incorporated into quantitative models to increase the performance of forest attribute estimations.

Academic self-concept (ASC) is comprised of individual perceptions of one- own academic ability. In a cross-sectional quasi-representative sample of 3,779 German elementary school children in grades 1 to 4, we investigated (a) the structure of ASC, (b) ASC profile formation, an aspect of differentiation that is reflected in lower correlations between domain-specific ASCs with increasing grade level, (c) the impact of (internal) dimensional comparisons of one- own ability in different school subjects for profile formation of ASC, and (d) the role played by differences in school grades between subjects for these dimensional comparisons. The nested Marsh/Shavelson model, with general ASC at the apex and math, writing, and reading ASC as specific factors nested under general ASC fitted the data at all grade levels. A first-order factor model with math, writing, reading, and general ASCs as correlated factors provided a good fit, too. ASC profile formation became apparent during the first two to three years of school. Dimensional comparisons across subjects contributed to ASC profile formation. School grades enhanced these comparisons, especially when achievement profiles were uneven. In part, findings depended on the assumed structural model of ASCs. Implications for further research are discussed with special regard to factors influencing and moderating dimensional comparisons.

Dysfunctional eating behavior is a major risk factor for developing all sorts of eating disorders. Food craving is a concept that may help to understand better why and how these and other eating disorders become chronic conditions through non homeastatically-driven mechanisms. As obesity affects people worldwide, cultural differences must be acknowledged to apply proper therapeutic strategies. In this work, we adapted the Food Craving Inventory (FCI) to the German population. We performed a factor analysis of an adaptation of the original FCI in a sample of 326 men and women. We could replicate the factor structure of the FCI on a German population.rnThe factor extraction procedure produced a factor solution that reproduces the fourfactors described in the original inventory, the FCI. Our instrument presents high internal consistency, as well as a significant correlation with measures of convergent and discriminant validity. The FCI-Deutsch (FCI-DE) is a valid instrument to assess craving for particular foods in Germany, and it could, therefore, prove useful in the clinical and research practice in the field of obesity and eating behaviors.

Earth observation (EO) is a prerequisite for sustainable land use management, and the open-data Landsat mission is at the forefront of this development. However, increasing data volumes have led to a "digital-divide", and consequently, it is key to develop methods that account for the most data-intensive processing steps, then used for the generation and provision of analysis-ready, standardized, higher-level (Level 2 and Level 3) baseline products for enhanced uptake in environmental monitoring systems. Accordingly, the overarching research task of this dissertation was to develop such a framework with a special emphasis on the yet under-researched drylands of Southern Africa. A fully automatic and memory-resident radiometric preprocessing streamline (Level 2) was implemented. The method was applied to the complete Angolan, Zambian, Zimbabwean, Botswanan, and Namibian Landsat record, amounting 58,731 images with a total data volume of nearly 15 TB. Cloud/shadow detection capabilities were improved for drylands. An integrated correction of atmospheric, topographic and bidirectional effects was implemented, based on radiative theory with corrections for multiple scatterings, and adjacency effects, as well as including a multilayered toolset for estimating aerosol optical depth over persistent dark targets or by falling back on a spatio-temporal climatology. Topographic and bidirectional effects were reduced with a semi-empirical C-correction and a global set of correction parameters, respectively. Gridding and reprojection were already included to facilitate easy and efficient further processing. The selection of phenologically similar observations is a key monitoring requirement for multi-temporal analyses, and hence, the generation of Level 3 products that realize phenological normalization on the pixel-level was pursued. As a prerequisite, coarse resolution Land Surface Phenology (LSP) was derived in a first step, then spatially refined by fusing it with a small number of Level 2 images. For this purpose, a novel data fusion technique was developed, wherein a focal filter based approach employs multi-scale and source prediction proxies. Phenologically normalized composites (Level 3) were generated by coupling the target day (i.e. the main compositing criterion) to the input LSP. The approach was demonstrated by generating peak, end and minimum of season composites, and by comparing these with static composites (fixed target day). It was shown that the phenological normalization accounts for terrain- and land cover class-induced LSP differences, and the use of Level 2 inputs enables a wide range of monitoring options, among them the detection of within state processes like forest degradation. In summary, the developed preprocessing framework is capable of generating several analysis-ready baseline EO satellite products. These datasets can be used for regional case studies, but may also be directly integrated into more operational monitoring systems " e.g. in support of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) incentive. In reference to IEEE copyrighted material which is used with permission in this thesis, the IEEE does not endorse any of Trier University's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. If interested in reprinting/republishing IEEE copyrighted material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution, please go to http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/rights_link.html to learn how to obtain a License from RightsLink.

Monetary Policy During Times of Crisis - Frictions and Non-Linearities in the Transmission Mechanism
(2017)

For a long time it was believed that monetary policy would be able to maintain price stability and foster economic growth during all phases of the business cycle. The era of the Great Moderation, often also called the Volcker-Greenspan period, beginning in the mid 1980s was characterized by a decline in volatility of output growth and inflation among the industrialized countries. The term itself is first used by Stock and Watson (2003). Economist have long studied what triggered the decline in volatility and pointed out several main factors. An important research strand points out structural changes in the economy, such as a decline of volatility in the goods producing sector through better inventory controls and developments in the financial sector and government spending (McConnell2000, Blanchard2001, Stock2003, Kim2004, Davis2008). While many believed that monetary policy was only 'lucky' in terms of their reaction towards inflation and exogenous shocks (Stock2003, Primiceri2005, Sims2006, Gambetti2008), others reveal a more complex picture of the story. Rule based monetary policy (Taylor1993) that incorporates inflation targeting (Svensson1999) has been identified as a major source of inflation stabilization by increasing transparency (Clarida2000, Davis2008, Benati2009, Coibion2011). Apart from that, the mechanics of monetary policy transmission have changed. Giannone et al. (2008) compare the pre-Great Moderation era with the Great Modertation and find that the economies reaction towards monetary shocks has decreased. This finding is supported by Boivin et al. (2011). Similar to this, Herrera and Pesavento (2009) show that monetary policy during the Volcker-Greenspan period was very effective in dampening the effects of exogenous oil price shocks on the economy, while this cannot be found for the period thereafter. Yet, the subprime crisis unexpectedly hit worldwide economies and ended the era of Great Moderation. Financial deregulation and innovation has given banks opportunities for excessive risk taking, weakened financial stability (Crotty2009, Calomiris2009) and led to the build-up of credit-driven asset price bubbles (SchularickTaylor2012). The Federal Reserve (FED), that was thought to be the omnipotent conductor of price stability and economic growth during the Great Moderation, failed at preventing a harsh crisis. Even more, it did intensify the bubble with low interest rates following the Dotcom crisis of the early 2000s and misjudged the impact of its interventions (Taylor2009, Obstfeld2009). New results give a more detailed explanation on the question of latitude for monetary policy raised by Bernanke and suggest the existence of non-linearities in the transmission of monetary policy. Weise (1999), Garcia and Schaller (2002), Lo and Piger (2005), Mishkin (2009), Neuenkirch (2013) and Jannsen et al. (2015) find that monetary policy is more potent during times of financial distress and recessions. Its effectiveness during 'normal times' is much weaker or even insignificant. This prompts the question if these non-linearities limit central banks ability to lean against bubbles and financial imbalances (White2009, Walsh2009, Boivin2010, Mishkin2011).

This dissertation looked at both design-based and model-based estimation for rare and clustered populations using the idea of the ACS design. The ACS design (Thompson, 2012, p. 319) starts with an initial sample that is selected by a probability sampling method. If any of the selected units meets a pre-specified condition, its neighboring units are added to the sample and observed. If any of the added units meets the pre-specified condition, its neighboring units are further added to the sample and observed. The procedure continues until there are no more units that meet the pre-specified condition. In this dissertation, the pre-specified condition is the detection of at least one animal in a selected unit. In the design-based estimation, three estimators were proposed under three specific design setting. The first design was stratified strip ACS design that is suitable for aerial or ship surveys. This was a case study in estimating population totals of African elephants. In this case, units/quadrant were observed only once during an aerial survey. The Des Raj estimator (Raj, 1956) was modified to obtain an unbiased estimate of the population total. The design was evaluated using simulated data with different levels of rarity and clusteredness. The design was also evaluated on real data of African elephants that was obtained from an aerial census conducted in parts of Kenya and Tanzania in October (dry season) 2013. In this study, the order in which the samples were observed was maintained. Re-ordering the samples by making use of the Murthy's estimator (Murthy, 1957) can produce more efficient estimates. Hence a possible extension of this study. The computation cost resulting from the n! permutations in the Murthy's estimator however, needs to be put into consideration. The second setting was when there exists an auxiliary variable that is negatively correlated with the study variable. The Murthy's estimator (Murthy, 1964) was modified. Situations when the modified estimator is preferable was given both in theory and simulations using simulated and two real data sets. The study variable for the real data sets was the distribution and counts of oryx and wildbeest. This was obtained from an aerial census that was conducted in parts of Kenya and Tanzania in October (dry season) 2013. Temperature was the auxiliary variable for two study variables. Temperature data was obtained from R package raster. The modified estimator provided more efficient estimates with lower bias compared to the original Murthy's estimator (Murthy, 1964). The modified estimator was also more efficient compared to the modified HH and the modified HT estimators of (Thompson, 2012, p. 319). In this study, one auxiliary variable is considered. A fruitful area for future research would be to incorporate multi-auxiliary information at the estimation phase of an ACS design. This could, in principle, be done by using for instance a multivariate extension of the product estimator (Singh, 1967) or by using the generalized regression estimator (Särndal et al., 1992). The third case under design-based estimation, studied the conjoint use of the stopping rule (Gattone and Di Battista, 2011) and the use of the without replacement of clusters (Dryver and Thompson, 2007). Each of these two methods was proposed to reduce the sampling cost though the use of the stopping rule results in biased estimates. Despite this bias, the new estimator resulted in higher efficiency gain in comparison to the without replacement of cluster design. It was also more efficient compared to the stratified design which is known to reduce final sample size when networks are truncated at stratum boundaries. The above evaluation was based on simulated and real data. The real data was the distribution and counts of hartebeest, elephants and oryx obtained in the same census as above. The bias attributed by the stopping rule has not been evaluated analytically. This may not be direct since the truncated network formed depends on the initial unit sampled (Gattone et al., 2016a). This and the order of the bias however, deserves further investigation as it may help in understanding the effect of the increase in the initial sample size together with the population characteristics on the efficiency of the proposed estimator. Chapter four modeled data that was obtained using the stratified strip ACS (as described in sub-section (3.1)). This was an extension of the model of Rapley and Welsh (2008) by modeling data that was obtained from a different design, the introduction of an auxiliary variable and the use of the without replacement of clusters mechanism. Ideally, model-based estimation does not depend on the design or rather how the sample was obtained. This is however, not the case if the design is informative; such as the ACS design. In this case, the procedure that was used to obtain the sample was incorporated in the model. Both model-based and design-based simulations were conducted using artificial and real data. The study and the auxiliary variable for the real data was the distribution and counts of elephants collected during an aerial census in parts of Kenya and Tanzania in October (dry season) and April (wet season) 2013 respectively. Areas of possible future research include predicting the population total of African elephants in all parks in Kenya. This can be achieved in an economical and reliable way by using the theory of SAE. Chapter five compared the different proposed strategies using the elephant data. Again the study variable was the elephant data from October (dry season) 2013 and the auxiliary variable was the elephant data from April (wet season) 2013. The results show that the choice of particular strategy to use depends on the characteristic of the population under study and the level and the direction of the correlation between the study and the auxiliary variable (if present). One general area of the ACS design that is still behind, is the implementation of the design in the field especially on animal populations. This is partly attributed by the challenges associated with the field implementation, some of which were discussed in section 2.3. Green et al. (2010) however, provides new insights in undertaking the ACS design during an aerial survey such as how the aircraft should turn while surveying neighboring units. A key point throughout the dissertation is the reduction of cost during a survey which can be seen by the reduction in the number of units in the final sample (through the use of stopping rule, use of stratification and truncating networks at stratum boundaries) and ensuring that units are observed only once (by using the without replacement of cluster sampling technique). The cost of surveying an edge unit(s) is assumed to be low in which case the efficiency of the ACS design relative to the non-adaptive design is achieved (Thompson and Collins, 2002). This is however not the case in aerial surveys as the aircraft flies at constant speed and height (Norton-Griffiths, 1978). Hence the cost of surveying an edge unit is the same as the cost of surveying a unit that meets the condition of interest. The without replacement of cluster technique plays a greater role of reducing the cost of sampling in such surveys. Other key points that motivated the sections in the dissertation include gains in efficiency (in all sections) and practicability of the designs in the specific setting. Even though the dissertation focused on animal populations, the methods can as well be implemented in any population that is rare and clustered such as in the study of forestry, plants, pollution, minerals and so on.

The development of our society contributed to increased occurrence of emerging substances (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, etc.) in wastewater. Because of their potential hazard on ecosystems and humans, Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) need to adapt to better remove these compounds. Technology or policy development should however comply with sustainable development, e.g. based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) metrics. Nevertheless, the reliability or consistency of LCA results can sometimes be debatable. The main objective of this work was to explore how LCA can better support the implementation of innovative wastewater treatment options, in particular including removal benefits. The method was applied to support solutions for pharmaceuticals elimination from wastewater, regarding: (i) UV technology design, (ii) choice of advanced technology and (iii) centralized or decentralized treatment policy. The assessment approach followed by previous authors based on net impacts calculation seemed very promising to consider both environmental effects induced by treatment plant operation and environmental benefits obtained from pollutants removal. It was therefore applied to compare UV configuration types. LCA outcomes were consistent with degradation kinetics analysis. For the comparison of advanced technologies and policy scenarios, the common practice (net impacts based on EDIP method) was compared to other assessments, to better consider elimination benefits. First, USEtox consensus was applied for the avoided (eco)toxicity impacts, in combination with the recent method ReCiPe for generated impacts. Then, an eco-efficiency indicator (EFI) was developed to weigh the treatment efforts (generated impacts based on EDIP and ReCiPe methods) by the average removal efficiency (overcoming (eco)toxicity uncertainty issues). In total, the four types of comparative assessment showed the same trends: (i) ozonation and activated carbon perform better than UV irradiation, and (ii) no clear advantage distinguished between policy scenarios. It cannot be however concluded that advanced treatment of pharmaceuticals is not necessary because other criteria should be considered (risk assessment, bacterial resistance, etc.) and large uncertainties were embedded in calculations. Indeed, a significant part of this work was dedicated to the discussion of uncertainty and limitations of the LCA outcomes. At the inventory level, it was difficult to model technology operation at development stage. For impact assessment, the newly developed characterization factors for pharmaceuticals (eco)toxicity showed large uncertainties, mainly due to the lack of data and quality for toxicity tests. The use of information made available under REACH framework to develop CFs for detergent ingredients tried to cope with this issue but the benefits were limited due to the mismatch of information between REACH and USEtox method. The highlighted uncertainties were treated with sensitivity analyses to understand their effects on LCA results. This research work finally presents perspectives on the use of transparently generated data (technology inventory and (eco)toxicity factors) and further development of EFI indicator. Also, an accent is made on increasing the reliability of LCA outcomes, in particular through the implementation of advanced techniques for uncertainty management. To conclude, innovative technology/product development (e.g. based on circular economy approach) needs the involvement of all types of actors and the support from sustainability metrics.

Educational assessment tends to rely on more or less standardized tests, teacher judgments, and observations. Although teachers spend approximately half of their professional conduct in assessment-related activities, most of them enter their professional life unprepared, as classroom assessment is often not part of their educational training. Since teacher judgments matter for the educational development of students, the judgments should be up to a high standard. The present dissertation comprises three studies focusing on accuracy of teacher judgments (Study 1), consequences of (mis-)judgment regarding teacher nomination for gifted programming (Study 2) and teacher recommendations for secondary school tracks (Study 3), and individual student characteristics that impact and potentially bias teacher judgment (Studies 1 through 3). All studies were designed to contribute to a further understanding of classroom assessment skills of teachers. Overall, the results implied that, teacher judgment of cognitive ability was an important constant for teacher nominations and recommendations but lacked accuracy. Furthermore, teacher judgments of various traits and school achievement were substantially related to social background variables, especially the parents" educational background. However, multivariate analysis showed social background variables to impact nomination and recommendation only marginally if at all. All results indicated differentiated but potentially biased teacher judgments to impact their far-reaching referral decisions directly, while the influence of social background on the referral decisions itself seems mediated. Implications regarding further research practices and educational assessment strategies are discussed. The implications on the needs of teachers to be educated on judgment and educational assessment are of particular interest and importance.

The main achievement of this thesis is an analysis of the accuracy of computations with Loader's algorithm for the binomial density. This analysis in later progress of work could be used for a theorem about the numerical accuracy of algorithms that compute rectangle probabilities for scan statistics of a multinomially distributed random variable. An example that shall illustrate the practical use of probabilities for scan statistics is the following, which arises in epidemiology: Let n patients arrive at a clinic in d = 365 days, each of the patients with probability 1/d at each of these d days and all patients independently from each other. The knowledge of the probability, that there exist 3 adjacent days, in which together more than k patients arrive, helps deciding, after observing data, if there is a cluster which we would not suspect to have occurred randomly but for which we suspect there must be a reason. Formally, this epidemiological example can be described by a multinomial model. As multinomially distributed random variables are examples of Markov increments, which is a fact already used implicitly by Corrado (2011) to compute the distribution function of the multinomial maximum, we can use a generalized version of Corrado's Algorithm to compute the probability described in our example. To compute its result, the algorithm for rectangle probabilities for Markov increments always uses transition probabilities of the corresponding Markov Chain. In the multinomial case, the transition probabilities of the corresponding Markov Chain are binomial probabilities. Therefore, we start an analysis of accuracy of Loader's algorithm for the binomial density, which for example the statistical software R uses. With the help of accuracy bounds for the binomial density we would be able to derive accuracy bounds for the computation of rectangle probabilities for scan statistics of multinomially distributed random variables. To figure out how sharp derived accuracy bounds are, in examples these can be compared to rigorous upper bounds and rigorous lower bounds which we obtain by interval-arithmetical computations.

It is generally assumed that the temperature increase associated with global climate change will lead to increased thunderstorm intensity and associated heavy precipitation events. In the present study it is investigated whether the frequency of thunderstorm occurrences will in- or decrease and how the spatial distribution will change for the A1B scenario. The region of interest is Central Europe with a special focus on the Saar-Lor-Lux region (Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg) and Rhineland-Palatinate.Daily model data of the COSMO-CLM with a horizontal resolution of 4.5â€‰km is used. The simulations were carried out for two different time slices: 1971"2000 (C20), and 2071"2100 (A1B). Thunderstorm indices are applied to detect thunderstorm-prone conditions and differences in their frequency of occurrence in the two thirty years timespans. The indices used are CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy), SLI (Surface Lifted Index), and TSP (Thunderstorm Severity Potential).The investigation of the present and future thunderstorm conducive conditions show a significant increase of non-thunderstorm conditions. The regional averaged thunderstorm frequencies will decrease in general, but only in the Alps a potential increase in thunderstorm occurrences and intensity is found. The comparison between time slices of 10 and 30 years length show that the number of gridpoints with significant signals increases only slightly. In order to get a robust signal for severe thunderstorm, an extension to more than 75 years would be necessary.

Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling is a mechanism thought to facilitate communication between neuronal ensembles. The mechanism could underlie the implementation of complex cognitive processes, like executive functions, in the brain. This thesis contributes to answering the question, whether phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling " assessed via electroencephalography (EEG) " is a mechanism by which executive functioning is implemented in the brain and whether an assumed performance effect of stress on executive functioning is reflected in phase-amplitude coupling strength. A huge body of studies shows that stress can influence executive functioning, in essence having detrimental effects. In two independent studies, each being comprised of two core executive function tasks (flexibility and behavioural inhibition as well as cognitive inhibition and working memory), beta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling was robustly detected in the left and right prefrontal hemispheres. No systematic pattern of coupling strength modulation by either task demands or acute stress was detected. Beta-gamma coupling might also be present in more basic attention processes. This is the first investigation of the relationship between stress, executive functions and phase-amplitude coupling. Therefore, many aspects have not been explored yet. For example, studying phase precision instead of coupling strength as an indicator for phase-amplitude coupling modulations. Furthermore, data was analysed in source space (independent component analysis); comparability to sensor space has still to be determined. These as well as other aspects should be investigated, due to the promising finding of very robust and strong beta-gamma coupling for all executive functions. Additionally, this thesis tested the performance of two widely used phase-amplitude coupling measures (mean vector length and modulation index). Both measures are specific and sensitive to coupling strength and coupling width. The simulation study also drew attention to several confounding factors, which influence phase-amplitude coupling measures (e. g. data length, multimodality).

Besides well-known positive aspects of conservation tillage combined with mulching, a drawback may be the survival of phytopathogenic fungi like Fusarium species on plant residues. This may endanger the health of the following crop by increasing the infection risk for specific plant diseases. In infected plant organs, these pathogens are able to produce mycotoxins like deoxynivalenol (DON). Mycotoxins like DON persist during storage, are heat resistant and of major concern for human and animal health after consumption of contaminated food and feed, respectively. Among fungivorous soil organisms, there are representatives of the soil fauna which are obviously antagonistic to a Fusarium infection and the contamination with mycotoxins. Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and nematodes (Aphelenchoides saprophilus) provide a wide range of ecosystem services including the stimulation of decomposition processes which may result in the regulation of plant pathogens and the degradation of environmental contaminants. Several investigations under laboratory conditions and in the field were conducted to test the following hypotheses: (1) Fusarium-infected and DON-contaminated wheat straw provides a more attractive food substrate than non-infected control straw (2) the introduced soil fauna reduce the biomass of F. culmorum and the content of DON in infected wheat straw under laboratory and field conditions (3) the species interaction of the introduced soil fauna enhances the degradation of Fusarium biomass and DON concentration in wheat straw; (4) the degradation efficiency of soil fauna is affected by soil texture. The results of the present thesis pointed out that the degradation performance of the introduced soil fauna must be considered as an important contribution to the biological control of plant diseases and environmental pollutants. As in particular L. terrestris revealed to be the driver of the degradation process, earthworms contribute to a sustainable control of fungal pathogens like Fusarium and its mycotoxins in wheat straw, thus reducing the risk of plant diseases and environmental pollution as ecosystem services.

Shape optimization is of interest in many fields of application. In particular, shape optimization problems arise frequently in technological processes which are modelled by partial differential equations (PDEs). In a lot of practical circumstances, the shape under investigation is parametrized by a finite number of parameters, which, on the one hand, allows the application of standard optimization approaches, but, on the other hand, unnecessarily limits the space of reachable shapes. Shape calculus presents a way to circumvent this dilemma. However, so far shape optimization based on shape calculus is mainly performed using gradient descent methods. One reason for this is the lack of symmetry of second order shape derivatives or shape Hessians. A major difference between shape optimization and the standard PDE constrained optimization framework is the lack of a linear space structure on shape spaces. If one cannot use a linear space structure, then the next best structure is a Riemannian manifold structure, in which one works with Riemannian shape Hessians. They possess the often sought property of symmetry, characterize well-posedness of optimization problems and define sufficient optimality conditions. In general, shape Hessians are used to accelerate gradient-based shape optimization methods. This thesis deals with shape optimization problems constrained by PDEs and embeds these problems in the framework of optimization on Riemannian manifolds to provide efficient techniques for PDE constrained shape optimization problems on shape spaces. A Lagrange-Newton and a quasi-Newton technique in shape spaces for PDE constrained shape optimization problems are formulated. These techniques are based on the Hadamard-form of shape derivatives, i.e., on the form of integrals over the surface of the shape under investigation. It is often a very tedious, not to say painful, process to derive such surface expressions. Along the way, volume formulations in the form of integrals over the entire domain appear as an intermediate step. This thesis couples volume integral formulations of shape derivatives with optimization strategies on shape spaces in order to establish efficient shape algorithms reducing analytical effort and programming work. In this context, a novel shape space is proposed.

Exposure to fine and ultra-fine environmental particles is still a problem of concern in many industrialized parts of the world and the intensified use of nanotechnology may further increase exposure to small particles. Since many years air pollution is recognized as a critical problem in western countries, which led to rigorous regulation of air quality and the introduction of strict guidelines. However, the upper thresholds for particulates in ambient air recommended by the world health organization are often exceeded several times in newly industrialized countries. Such high levels of air pollution have the potential to induce adverse effects on human health. The response triggered by air pollutants is not limited to local effects of the respiratory system but is often systemic, resulting in endothelial dysfunction or atherosclerotic malady. The link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is now accepted by the scientific community but the underlying mechanisms responsible for the pro-atherogenic potential still need to be unraveled in detail. Based on the results from in- vivo and in vitro studies the production of reactive oxygen species due to exposure to particles is the most important mechanism to explain the observed adverse effects. However, the doses that were applied in many in vivo and in vitro studies are far beyond the range of what humans are exposed to and there is the need for more realistic exposure studies. Complex in vitro coculture systems may be valuable tools to study particle-induced processes and to extrapolate effects of particles on the lung. One of the objectives of this PhD thesis was the establishment and further improvement of a complex coculture system initially described by Alfaro-Moreno et al. [1]. The system is composed of an alveolar type-II cell line (A549), differentiated macrophage-like cells (THP-1), mast cells (HMC-1) and endothelial cells (EA.hy 926), seeded in a 3D-orientation on a microporous membrane to mimic the cell response of the alveolar surface in vitro in conjunction with native aerosol exposure (VitrocellTM chamber). The tetraculture system was carefully characterized to ensure its performance and repeatability of results. The spatial distribution of the cells in the tetraculture was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), showing a confluent layer of endothelial and epithelial cells on both sides of the Transwellâ„¢. Macrophage-like cells and mast cells can be found on top of the epithelial cells. The latter cells formed colonies under submerged conditions, which disappeared at the air-liquid-interface (ALI). The VitrocellTM aerosol exposure system was not significantly influencing the viability. Using this system, cells were exposed to an aerosol of 50 nm SiO2-Rhodamine nanoparticles (NPs) in PBS. The distribution of the NPs in the tetraculture after exposure was evaluated by CLSM. Fluorescence from internalized particles was detected in CD11b-positive THP-1 cells only. Furthermore, all cell lines were found to be able to respond to xenobiotic model compounds, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) with the upregulation of CYP1 mRNA. With this tetraculture system the response of the endothelial part of the alveolar barrier was studied in- vitro in a still realistic exposure scenario representing the conditions for a polluted situation without direct exposure of endothelial cells. After exposure to diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEPM) the expression of different anti-oxidant target genes and inflammatory genes such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), as well as the nuclear translocation nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2) was evaluated. In addition, the potential of DEPM to induce the upregulation of CYP1A1 mRNA in the endothelium was analyzed. DEPM exposure led not to an upregulation of the anti-oxidant or inflammatory target genes, but to clear nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The endothelial cells responded to the DEPM treatment also with the upregulation of CYP1A1 mRNA and nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Overall, DEPM triggered a response in the endothelial cells after indirect exposure of the tetraculture system to low doses of DEPM, underlining the sensitivity of ALI exposure systems. The use of the tetraculture together with the native aerosol exposure equipment may finally lead to a more realistic judgment regarding the hazard of new compounds and/or new nano-scaled materials in the future. For the first time, it was possible to study the response of the endothelial cells of the alveolar barrier in vitro in a realistic exposure scenario avoiding direct exposure of endothelial cells to high amounts of particulates.

The present work considers the normal approximation of the binomial distribution and yields estimations of the supremum distance of the distribution functions of the binomial- and the corresponding standardized normal distribution. The type of the estimations correspond to the classical Berry-Esseen theorem, in the special case that all random variables are identically Bernoulli distributed. In this case we state the optimal constant for the Berry-Esseen theorem. In the proof of these estimations several inequalities regarding the density as well as the distribution function of the binomial distribution are presented. Furthermore in the estimations mentioned above the distribution function is replaced by the probability of arbitrary, not only unlimited intervals and in this new situation we also present an upper bound.

The equity premium (Mehra and Prescott, 1985) is still a puzzle in the sense that there are still no convincing explanations for the size of the equity premium. In this dissertation, we study this long-standing puzzle and several possible behavioral explanations. First, we apply the IRR methodology proposed by Fama and French (1999) to achieve large firm level data on the equity premia for N = 28,256 companies in 54 countries around the world. Second, by using preferences data from the INTRA study (Rieger et. al., 2014), we could test the relevant risk factors together with time cognition to explain the equity premium. We document the failure of the Myopic Loss Aversion hypothesis by Benartzi and Thaler (1995) but provides rigorous empirical evidence to support the behavioral theory of ambiguity aversion to account for the equity premium. The observations shed some light on the new approach of integrating risk and ambiguity (together with time preferences) into a more general model of uncertainty, in which both risk premium and ambiguity premium play roles in asset pricing models.