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- Erhebungsverfahren (2)
- Calibration (1)
- Decision-making behavior (1)
- Entrepreneurial Finance (1)
- Faber operator, Faber set, Polynomial approximation, Harmonic approximation, Dirichlet-problem (1)
- Faber-Operator, Faber-Menge, Polynomielle Approximation, Harmonische Approximation, Dirichlet-Problem (1)
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- Later-stage ventures (1)
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The dissertation deals with methods to improve design-based and model-assisted estimation techniques for surveys in a finite population framework. The focus is on the development of the statistical methodology as well as their implementation by means of tailor-made numerical optimization strategies. In that regard, the developed methods aim at computing statistics for several potentially conflicting variables of interest at aggregated and disaggregated levels of the population on the basis of one single survey. The work can be divided into two main research questions, which are briefly explained in the following sections.
First, an optimal multivariate allocation method is developed taking into account several stratification levels. This approach results in a multi-objective optimization problem due to the simultaneous consideration of several variables of interest. In preparation for the numerical solution, several scalarization and standardization techniques are presented, which represent the different preferences of potential users. In addition, it is shown that by solving the problem scalarized with a weighted sum for all combinations of weights, the entire Pareto frontier of the original problem can be generated. By exploiting the special structure of the problem, the scalarized problems can be efficiently solved by a semismooth Newton method. In order to apply this numerical method to other scalarization techniques as well, an alternative approach is suggested, which traces the problem back to the weighted sum case. To address regional estimation quality requirements at multiple stratification levels, the potential use of upper bounds for regional variances is integrated into the method. In addition to restrictions on regional estimates, the method enables the consideration of box-constraints for the stratum-specific sample sizes, allowing minimum and maximum stratum-specific sampling fractions to be defined.
In addition to the allocation method, a generalized calibration method is developed, which is supposed to achieve coherent and efficient estimates at different stratification levels. The developed calibration method takes into account a very large number of benchmarks at different stratification levels, which may be obtained from different sources such as registers, paradata or other surveys using different estimation techniques. In order to incorporate the heterogeneous quality and the multitude of benchmarks, a relaxation of selected benchmarks is proposed. In that regard, predefined tolerances are assigned to problematic benchmarks at low aggregation levels in order to avoid an exact fulfillment. In addition, the generalized calibration method allows the use of box-constraints for the correction weights in order to avoid an extremely high variation of the weights. Furthermore, a variance estimation by means of a rescaling bootstrap is presented.
Both developed methods are analyzed and compared with existing methods in extensive simulation studies on the basis of a realistic synthetic data set of all households in Germany. Due to the similar requirements and objectives, both methods can be successively applied to a single survey in order to combine their efficiency advantages. In addition, both methods can be solved in a time-efficient manner using very comparable optimization approaches. These are based on transformations of the optimality conditions. The dimension of the resulting system of equations is ultimately independent of the dimension of the original problem, which enables the application even for very large problem instances.

External capital plays an important role in financing entrepreneurial ventures, due to limited internal capital sources. An important external capital provider for entrepreneurial ventures are venture capitalists (VCs). VCs worldwide are often confronted with thousands of proposals of entrepreneurial ventures per year and must choose among all of these companies in which to invest. Not only do VCs finance companies at their early stages, but they also finance entrepreneurial companies in their later stages, when companies have secured their first market success. That is why this dissertation focuses on the decision-making behavior of VCs when investing in later-stage ventures. This dissertation uses both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods in order to provide answer to how the decision-making behavior of VCs that invest in later-stage ventures can be described.
Based on qualitative interviews with 19 investment professionals, the first insight gained is that for different stages of venture development, different decision criteria are applied. This is attributed to different risks and goals of ventures at different stages, as well as the different types of information available. These decision criteria in the context of later-stage ventures contrast with results from studies that focus on early-stage ventures. Later-stage ventures possess meaningful information on financials (revenue growth and profitability), the established business model, and existing external investors that is not available for early-stage ventures and therefore constitute new decision criteria for this specific context.
Following this identification of the most relevant decision criteria for investors in the context of later-stage ventures, a conjoint study with 749 participants was carried out to understand the relative importance of decision criteria. The results showed that investors attribute the highest importance to 1) revenue growth, (2) value-added of products/services for customers, and (3) management team track record, demonstrating differences when compared to decision-making studies in the context of early-stage ventures.
Not only do the characteristics of a venture influence the decision to invest, additional indirect factors, such as individual characteristics or characteristics of the investment firm, can influence individual decisions. Relying on cognitive theory, this study investigated the influence of various individual characteristics on screening decisions and found that both investment experience and entrepreneurial experience have an influence on individual decision-making behavior. This study also examined whether goals, incentive structures, resources, and governance of the investment firm influence decision making in the context of later-stage ventures. This study particularly investigated two distinct types of investment firms, family offices and corporate venture capital funds (CVC), which have unique structures, goals, and incentive systems. Additional quantitative analysis showed that family offices put less focus on high-growth firms and whether reputable investors are present. They tend to focus more on the profitability of a later-stage venture in the initial screening. The analysis showed that CVCs place greater importance on product and business model characteristics than other investors. CVCs also favor later-stage ventures with lower revenue growth rates, indicating a preference for less risky investments. The results provide various insights for theory and practice.

Sample surveys are a widely used and cost effective tool to gain information about a population under consideration. Nowadays, there is an increasing demand not only for information on the population level but also on the level of subpopulations. For some of these subpopulations of interest, however, very small subsample sizes might occur such that the application of traditional estimation methods is not expedient. In order to provide reliable information also for those so called small areas, small area estimation (SAE) methods combine auxiliary information and the sample data via a statistical model.
The present thesis deals, among other aspects, with the development of highly flexible and close to reality small area models. For this purpose, the penalized spline method is adequately modified which allows to determine the model parameters via the solution of an unconstrained optimization problem. Due to this optimization framework, the incorporation of shape constraints into the modeling process is achieved in terms of additional linear inequality constraints on the optimization problem. This results in small area estimators that allow for both the utilization of the penalized spline method as a highly flexible modeling technique and the incorporation of arbitrary shape constraints on the underlying P-spline function.
In order to incorporate multiple covariates, a tensor product approach is employed to extend the penalized spline method to multiple input variables. This leads to high-dimensional optimization problems for which naive solution algorithms yield an unjustifiable complexity in terms of runtime and in terms of memory requirements. By exploiting the underlying tensor nature, the present thesis provides adequate computationally efficient solution algorithms for the considered optimization problems and the related memory efficient, i.e. matrix-free, implementations. The crucial point thereby is the (repetitive) application of a matrix-free conjugated gradient method, whose runtime is drastically reduced by a matrx-free multigrid preconditioner.

A basic assumption of standard small area models is that the statistic of interest can be modelled through a linear mixed model with common model parameters for all areas in the study. The model can then be used to stabilize estimation. In some applications, however, there may be different subgroups of areas, with specific relationships between the response variable and auxiliary information. In this case, using a distinct model for each subgroup would be more appropriate than employing one model for all observations. If no suitable natural clustering variable exists, finite mixture regression models may represent a solution that „lets the data decide“ how to partition areas into subgroups. In this framework, a set of two or more different models is specified, and the estimation of subgroup-specific model parameters is performed simultaneously to estimating subgroup identity, or the probability of subgroup identity, for each area. Finite mixture models thus offer a fexible approach to accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Therefore, in this thesis, finite mixtures of small area models are proposed to account for the existence of latent subgroups of areas in small area estimation. More specifically, it is assumed that the statistic of interest is appropriately modelled by a mixture of K linear mixed models. Both mixtures of standard unit-level and standard area-level models are considered as special cases. The estimation of mixing proportions, area-specific probabilities of subgroup identity and the K sets of model parameters via the EM algorithm for mixtures of mixed models is described. Eventually, a finite mixture small area estimator is formulated as a weighted mean of predictions from model 1 to K, with weights given by the area-specific probabilities of subgroup identity.

The harmonic Faber operator
(2018)

P. K. Suetin points out in the beginning of his monograph "Faber Polynomials and Faber Series" that Faber polynomials play an important role in modern approximation theory of a complex variable as they are used in representing analytic functions in simply connected domains, and many theorems on approximation of analytic functions are proved with their help [50]. In 1903, the Faber polynomials were firstly discovered by G. Faber. It was Faber's aim to find a generalisation of Taylor series of holomorphic functions in the open unit disc D in the following way. As any holomorphic function in D has a Taylor series representation f(z)=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} (z\in\D) converging locally uniformly inside D, for a simply connected domain G, Faber wanted to determine a system of polynomials (Q_n) such that each function f being holomorphic in G can be expanded into a series
f=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}b_{\nu}Q_{\nu} converging locally uniformly inside G. Having this goal in mind, Faber considered simply connected domains bounded by an analytic Jordan curve. He constructed a system of polynomials (F_n) with this property. These polynomials F_n were named after him as Faber polynomials. In the preface of [50], a detailed summary of results concerning Faber polynomials and results obtained by the aid of them is given. An important application of Faber polynomials is e.g. the transfer of known assertions concerning polynomial approximation of functions belonging to the disc algebra to results of the approximation of functions being continuous on a compact continuum K which contains at least two points and has a connected complement and being holomorphic in the interior of K. In this field, the Faber operator denoted by T turns out to be a powerful tool (for an introduction, see e.g. D. Gaier's monograph). It
assigns a polynomial of degree at most n given in the monomial basis \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} with a polynomial of degree at most n given in the basis of Faber polynomials \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}. If the Faber operator is continuous with respect to the uniform norms, it has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the disc algebra onto the space of functions being continuous on the whole compact continuum and holomorphic in its interior. For all f being element of the disc algebra and all polynomials P, via the obvious estimate for the uniform norms ||T(f)-T(P)||<= ||T|| ||f-P||, it can be seen that the original task of approximating F=T(f) by polynomials is reduced to the polynomial approximation of the function f. Therefore, the question arises under which conditions the Faber operator is continuous and surjective. A fundamental result in this regard was established by J. M. Anderson and J. Clunie who showed that if the compact continuum is bounded by a rectifiable Jordan curve with bounded boundary rotation and free from cusps, then the Faber operator with respect to the uniform norms is a topological isomorphism. Now, let f be a harmonic function in D. Similar as above, we find that f has a uniquely determined representation f=\sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}a_{\nu}p_{\nu}
converging locally uniformly inside D where p_{n}(z)=z^{n} for n\in\N_{0} and p_{-n}(z)=\overline{z}^{n} for n\in\N}. One may ask whether there is an analogue for harmonic functions on simply connected domains G. Indeed, for a domain G bounded by an analytic Jordan curve, the conjecture that each function f being harmonic in G has a uniquely determined representation f=\sum_{\nu= \infty}^{\infty}b_{\nu}F_{\nu} where F_{-n}(z)=\overline{F_{n}(z\)} for n\inN, converging locally uniformly inside G, holds true. Let now K be a compact continuum containing at least two points and having a connected complement. A main component of this thesis will be the examination of the harmonic Faber operator mapping a harmonic polynomial given in the basis of the harmonic monomials \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}p_{\nu} to a harmonic polynomial given as \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}.
If this operator, which is based on an idea of J. Müller, is continuous with respect to the uniform norms, it has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the functions being continuous on \partial\D onto the continuous functions on K being
harmonic in the interior of K. Harmonic Faber polynomials and the harmonic Faber operator will be the objects accompanying us throughout
our whole discussion. After having given an overview about notations and certain tools we will use in our consideration in the first chapter, we begin our studies with an introduction to the Faber operator and the harmonic Faber operator. We start modestly and consider domains bounded by an analytic Jordan curve. In Section 2, as a first result, we will show that, for such a domain G, the harmonic Faber operator has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the space of the harmonic functions in D onto the space
of the harmonic functions in G, and moreover, the harmonic Faber
operator is an isomorphism with respect to the topologies of locally
uniform convergence. In the further sections of this chapter, we illumine the behaviour of the (harmonic) Faber operator on certain function spaces. In the third chapter, we leave the situation of compact continua bounded by an analytic Jordan curve. Instead we consider closures of domains bounded by Jordan curves having a Dini continuous curvature. With the aid of the concept of compact operators and the Fredholm alternative, we are able to show that the harmonic Faber operator is a topological isomorphism. Since, in particular, the main result of the third chapter holds true for closures K of domains bounded by analytic Jordan curves, we can make use of it to obtain new results concerning the approximation of functions being continuous on K and harmonic in the interior of K by harmonic polynomials. To do so, we develop techniques applied by L. Frerick and J. Müller in [11] and adjust them to our setting. So, we can transfer results about the classic Faber operator to the harmonic Faber operator. In the last chapter, we will use the theory of harmonic Faber polynomials
to solve certain Dirichlet problems in the complex plane. We pursue
two different approaches: First, with a similar philosophy as in [50],
we develop a procedure to compute the coefficients of a series \sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}c_{\nu}F_{\nu} converging uniformly to the solution of a given Dirichlet problem. Later, we will point out how semi-infinite programming with harmonic Faber polynomials as ansatz functions can be used to get an approximate solution of a given Dirichlet problem. We cover both approaches first from a theoretical point of view before we have a focus on the numerical implementation of concrete examples. As application of the numerical computations, we considerably obtain visualisations of the concerned Dirichlet problems rounding out our discussion about the harmonic Faber polynomials and the harmonic Faber operator.

The economic growth theory analyses which factors affect economic growth and tries to analyze how it can last. A popular neoclassical growth model is the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, which aims to determine how much of its income a nation or an economy should save in order to maximize its welfare. In this thesis, we present and analyze an extended capital accumulation equation of a spatial version of the Ramsey model, balancing diffusive and agglomerative effects. We model the capital mobility in space via a nonlocal diffusion operator which allows for jumps of the capital stock from one location to an other. Moreover, this operator smooths out heterogeneities in the factor distributions slower, which generated a more realistic behavior of capital flows. In addition to that, we introduce an endogenous productivity-production operator which depends on time and on the capital distribution in space. This operator models the technological progress of the economy. The resulting mathematical model is an optimal control problem under a semilinear parabolic integro-differential equation with initial and volume constraints, which are a nonlocal analog to local boundary conditions, and box-constraints on the state and the control variables. In this thesis, we consider this problem on a bounded and unbounded spatial domain, in both cases with a finite time horizon. We derive existence results of weak solutions for the capital accumulation equations in both settings and we proof the existence of a Ramsey equilibrium in the unbounded case. Moreover, we solve the optimal control problem numerically and discuss the results in the economic context.