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This dissertation is dedicated to the analysis of the stabilty of portfolio risk and the impact of European regulation introducing risk based classifications for investment funds.
The first paper examines the relationship between portfolio size and the stability of mutual fund risk measures, presenting evidence for economies of scale in risk management. In a unique sample of 338 fund portfolios we find that the volatility of risk numbers decreases for larger funds. This finding holds for dispersion as well as tail risk measures. Further analyses across asset classes provide evidence for the robustness of the effect for balanced and fixed income portfolios. However, a size effect did not emerge for equity funds, suggesting that equity fund managers simply scale their strategy up as they grow. Analyses conducted on the differences in risk stability between tail risk measures and volatilities reveal that smaller funds show higher discrepancies in that respect. In contrast to the majority of prior studies on the basis of ex-post time series risk numbers, this study contributes to the literature by using ex-ante risk numbers based on the actual assets and de facto portfolio data.
The second paper examines the influence of European legislation regarding risk classification of mutual funds. We conduct analyses on a set of worldwide equity indices and find that a strategy based on the long term volatility as it is imposed by the Synthetic Risk Reward Indicator (SRRI) would lead to substantial variations in exposures ranging from short phases of very high leverage to long periods of under investments that would be required to keep the risk classes. In some cases, funds will be forced to migrate to higher risk classes due to limited means to reduce volatilities after crises events. In other cases they might have to migrate to lower risk classes or increase their leverage to ridiculous amounts. Overall, we find if the SRRI creates a binding mechanism for fund managers, it will create substantial interference with the core investment strategy and may incur substantial deviations from it. Fruthermore due to the forced migrations the SRRI degenerates to a passive indicator.
The third paper examines the impact of this volatility based fund classification on portfolio performance. Using historical data on equity indices we find initially that a strategy based on long term portfolio volatility, as it is imposed by the Synthetic Risk Reward Indicator (SRRI), yields better Sharpe Ratios (SRs) and Buy and Hold Returns (BHRs) for the investment strategies matching the risk classes. Accounting for the Fama-French factors reveals no significant alphas for the vast majority of the strategies. In our simulation study where volatility was modelled through a GJR(1,1) - model we find no significant difference in mean returns, but significantly lower SRs for the volatility based strategies. These results were confirmed in robustness checks using alternative models and timeframes. Overall we present evidence which suggests that neither the higher leverage induced by the SRRI nor the potential protection in downside markets does pay off on a risk adjusted basis.

This doctoral thesis examines intergenerational knowledge, its antecedents as well as how participation in intergenerational knowledge transfer is related to the performance evaluation of employees. To answer these questions, this doctoral thesis builds on a literature review and quantitative research methods. A systematic literature study shows that empirical evidence on intergenerational knowledge transfer is limited. Building on prior literature, effects of various antecedents at the interpersonal and organizational level regarding their effects on intergenerational and intragenerational knowledge transfer are postulated. By questioning 444 trainees and trainers, this doctoral thesis also demonstrates that interpersonal antecedents impact how trainees participate in intergenerational knowledge transfer with their trainers. Thereby, the results of this study provide support that interpersonal antecedents are relevant for intergenerational knowledge transfer, yet, also emphasize the implications attached to the assigned roles in knowledge transfer (i.e., whether one is a trainee or trainer). Moreover, the results of an experimental vignette study reveal that participation in intergenerational knowledge transfer is linked to the performance evaluation of employees, yet, is susceptible to whether the employee is sharing or seeking knowledge. Overall, this doctoral thesis provides insights into this topic by covering a multitude of antecedents of intergenerational knowledge transfer, as well as how participation in intergenerational knowledge transfer may be associated with the performance evaluation of employees.

XML (Extensible Markup Language) ist ein sequentielles Format zur Speicherung und Übermittlung strukturierter Daten. Obwohl es ursprünglich für die Dokumentenverarbeitung entwickelt wurde, findet XML heute Verwendung in nahezu allen Bereichen der Datenverarbeitung, insbesondere aber im Internet. Jede XML-Dokumentenverarbeitungs-Software basiert auf einem XML-Parser. Der Parser liest ein Dokument in XML-Syntax ein und stellt es als Dokumentbaum der eigentlichen Anwendung zur Verfügung. Dokumentenverarbeitung ist dann im wesentlichen die Manipulation von Bäumen. Moderne funktionale Programmiersprachen wie SML und Haskell unterstützen Bäume als Basis-Datentypen und sind daher besonders gut für die Implementierung von Dokumentenverarbeitungs-Systemen geeignet. Um so erstaunlicher ist es, dass dieser Bereich zum größten Teil von Java-Software dominiert wird. Dies ist nicht zuletzt darauf zurückzuführen, dass noch keine vollständige Implementierung der XML-Syntax als Parser in einer funktionalen Programmiersprache vorliegt. Eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben in der Dokumentenverarbeitung ist Querying, d.h. die Lokalisierung von Teildokumenten, die eine angegebene Strukturbedingung erfüllen und in einem bestimmten Kontext stehen. Die baumartige Auffassung von Dokumenten in XML erlaubt die Realisierung des Querying mithilfe von Techniken aus der Theorie der Baumsprachen und Baumautomaten. Allerdings müssen diese Techniken an die speziellen Anforderungen von XML angepasst werden. Eine dieser Anforderungen ist, dass auch extrem große Dokumente verarbeitet werden müssen. Deshalb sollte der Querying-Algorithmus in einem einzigen Durchlauf durch das Dokument ausführbar sein, ohne den Dokumentbaum explizit im Speicher aufbauen zu müssen. Diese Arbeit besteht aus zwei Teilen. Der erste Teil beschreibt den XML- Parser fxp, der vollständig in SML programmiert wurde. Insbesondere werden die Erfahrungen mit SML diskutiert, die während der Implementierung von fxp gewonnen wurden. Es folgt eine Analyse des Laufzeit-Verhaltens von fxp und ein Vergleich mit anderen XML-Parsern, die in imperativen oder objekt- orientierten Programmiersprachen entwickelt wurden. Im zweiten Teil beschreiben wir einen Algorithmus zum Querying von XML- Dokumenten, der auf der Theorie der Waldautomaten fundiert ist. Er findet alle Treffer einer Anfrage in höchstens zwei Durchläufen durch das Dokument. Für eine wichtige Teilklasse von Anfragen kann das Querying sogar in einem einzelnen Durchlauf realisiert werden. Außerdem wird die Implementierung des Algorithmus in SML mit Hilfe von fxp dargestellt.

The vision of a future information and communication society has prompted leading politicians in the United States, the European Union and Japan to influence or even lead the economic and social transition in the context of an active technology policy. The technological development of society, however, is a product of a complex interplay of technological, economic and socio-political constraints. These constraints limit the political decision-making and implementation abilities. Moreover, facts and information are continuously changing during a paradigmatic technological, economic and social shift, which limits political decision-making abilities. This study compares political decision-making to promote computer-mediated communications in the Triad since the beginning of the 1980s, on four levels: the development of a political vision, the long-term aims and strategies, technology policy (e.g. the promotion of technological development and competition policy) and regulatory policy (e.g. universal access, protection of privacy and intellectual property). While technology policy tends to be uncontroversial, during a paradigmatic shift regulatory policy is difficult and lengthy. Nevertheless, the inclusion of interest groups, which rise during this paradigmatic shift and which are close to the technologies and their societal consequences, help to aid decision-making processes. In this context, politics in the United States has been more successful that in the European Union and especially Japan. Although this study predates the rise of eCommerce over the Internet, it addresses many of the themes underlying it. Of these themes, many remain politically unsettled, both on national, supranational and especially international levels. For example, for encryption and secure payments, which are necessary for eCommerce, no international standards do yet exist. The issue of taxation has hardly been opened for discussions. In sum, this study does not only offer a historical overview of the development of the Internet, but it also discusses issues of continuing present concern.

Spatial Queues
(2000)

In the present thesis, a theoretical framework for the analysis of spatial queues is developed. Spatial queues are a generalization of the classical concept of queues as they provide the possibility of assigning properties to the users. These properties may influence the queueing process, but may also be of interest for themselves. As a field of application, mobile communication networks are modeled by spatial queues in order to demonstrate the advantage of including user properties into the queueing model. In this application, the property of main interest is the user's position in the network. After a short introduction, the second chapter contains an examination of the class of Markov-additive jump processes, including expressions for the transition probabilities and the expectation as well as laws of large numbers. Chapter 3 contains the definition and analysis of the central concept of spatial Markovian arrival processes (shortly: SMAPs) as a special case of Markov-additive jump processes, but also as a natural generalization from the well-known concept of BMAPs. In chapters 4 and 5, SMAPs serve as arrival streams for the analyzed periodic SMAP/M/c/c and SMAP/G/infinity queues, respectively. These types of queues find application as models or planning tools for mobile communication networks. The analysis of these queues involves new methods such that even for the special cases of BMAP inputs (i.e. non-spatial queues) new results are obtained. In chapter 6, a procedure for statistical parameter estimation is proposed along with its numerical results. The thesis is concluded by an appendix which collects necessary results from the theories of Markov jump processes and stochastic point fields. For special classes of Markov jump processes, new results have been obtained, too.

The study at hand deals with madness as it is represented in English Canadian fiction. The topic seemed most interesting and fruitful for analysis due to the fact that as the ways madness has been defined, understood, described, judged and handled differ quite profoundly from society to society, from era to era, as the language, ideas and associations surrounding insanity are both strongly culture-relative and shifting, madness as a theme of myth and literature has always been a excellent vehicle to mirror the assumptions and arguments, the aspirations and nostalgia, the beliefs and values, hopes and fears of its age and society. Thus, while the overall intent of this study is to elucidate some discernible patterns of structure and style which accompany the use of madness in Canadian literature, to investigate the varying sorts of portrayal and the conventions of presentation, to interpret the use of madness as literary devices and to highlight the different statements which are made, the continuity, variation, and changes in the theme of madness provide an informing principle in terms of certain Canadian experiences and perceptions. By examining madness as it represents itself in Canadian literature and considering the respective explorations of the deranged mind within their historical context, I hope to demonstrate that literary interpretations of madness both reflect and question cultural, political, religious and psychological assumptions of their times and that certain symptoms or usages are characteristic of certain periods. Such an approach, it is hoped, might not only contribute towards an assessment of the wealth of associations which surround madness and the ambivalence with which it is viewed, but also shed some light on the Canadian imagination. As such this study can be considered not only as a history of literary madness, but a history of Canadian society and the Canadian mind.

Contents: I. History of the Korean Civil Code II. Background for Initiation of the Amendment of the Civil Code (Property Law) and their Progress III. Fundamental Direction of the Amendment of the Civil Code (Property Law) IV. Major Foreign Statutes Used as Reference for the Amendment of the Civil Code (Property Law) V. Major Details of the Amendment of the Civil Code (Property Law) VI. Concluding Remarks: Evaluation

This work is concerned with the numerical solution of optimization problems that arise in the context of ground water modeling. Both ground water hydraulic and quality management problems are considered. The considered problems are discretized problems of optimal control that are governed by discretized partial differential equations. Aspects of special interest in this work are inaccurate function evaluations and the ensuing numerical treatment within an optimization algorithm. Methods for noisy functions are appropriate for the considered practical application. Also, block preconditioners are constructed and analyzed that exploit the structure of the underlying linear system. Specifically, KKT systems are considered, and the preconditioners are tested for use within Krylov subspace methods. The project was financed by the foundation Stiftung Rheinland-Pfalz für Innovation and carried out in joint work with TGU GmbH, a company of consulting engineers for ground water and water resources.

The goal of this thesis is to transfer the logarithmic barrier approach, which led to very efficient interior-point methods for convex optimization problems in recent years, to convex semi-infinite programming problems. Based on a reformulation of the constraints into a nondifferentiable form this can be directly done for convex semi- infinite programming problems with nonempty compact sets of optimal solutions. But, by means of an involved max-term this reformulation leads to nondifferentiable barrier problems which can be solved with an extension of a bundle method of Kiwiel. This extension allows to deal with inexact objective values and subgradient information which occur due to the inexact evaluation of the maxima. Nevertheless we are able to prove similar convergence results as for the logarithmic barrier approach in the finite optimization. In the further course of the thesis the logarithmic barrier approach is coupled with the proximal point regularization technique in order to solve ill-posed convex semi-infinite programming problems too. Moreover this coupled algorithm generates sequences converging to an optimal solution of the given semi-infinite problem whereas the pure logarithmic barrier only produces sequences whose accumulation points are such optimal solutions. If there are certain additional conditions fulfilled we are further able to prove convergence rate results up to linear convergence of the iterates. Finally, besides hints for the implementation of the methods we present numerous numerical results for model examples as well as applications in finance and digital filter design.

Due to the breath-taking growth of the World Wide Web (WWW), the need for fast and efficient web applications becomes more and more urgent. In this doctoral thesis, the emphasis will be on two concrete tasks for improving Internet applications. On the one hand, a major problem of many of today's Internet applications may be described as the performance of the Client/Server-communication: servers often take a long time to respond to a client's request. There are several strategies to overcome this problem of high user-perceived latencies; one of them is to predict future user-requests. This way, time-consuming calculations on the server's side can be performed even before the corresponding request is being made. Furthermore, in certain situations, also the pre-fetching or the pre-sending of data might be appropriate. Those ideas will be discussed in detail in the second part of this work. On the other hand, a focus will be placed on the problem of proposing hyperlinks to improve the quality of rapid written texts, at first glance, an entirely different problem to predicting client requests. Ultra-modern online authoring systems that provide possibilities to check link-consistencies and administrate link management should also propose links in order to improve the usefulness of the produced HTML-documents. In the third part of this elaboration, we will describe a possibility to build a hyperlink-proposal module based on statistical information retrieval from hypertexts. These two problem categories do not seem to have much in common. It is one aim of this work to show that there are certain, similar solution strategies to look after both problems. A closer comparison and an abstraction of both methodologies will lead to interesting synergetic effects. For example, advanced strategies to foresee future user-requests by modeling time and document aging can be used to improve the quality of hyperlink-proposals too.

This work is concerned with arbitrage bounds for prices of contingent claims under transaction costs, but regardless of other conceivable market frictions. Assumptions on the underlying market are held as weak as convenient for the deduction of meaningful results that make good economic sense. In discrete time we also allow for underlying price processes with uncountable state space. In continuous time the underlying price process is modeled by a semimartingale. For the most part we could avoid any stronger assumptions. The main problems with which we deal in this work are the modelling of (proportional) transaction costs, Fundamental Theorems of Asset Pricing under transaction costs, dual characterizations of arbitrage bounds under transaction costs, Quantile-Hedging under transaction costs, alternatives to the Black-Scholes model in continuous time (under transaction costs). The results apply to stock and currency markets.

The main purpose of this dissertation is to solve the following question: How will the emergence of the Euro influence the currency composition of the NICs?monetary reserves? Taiwan and Thailand are chosen as our investigation subjects. There are two sorts of motives for central banks' reserve holdings, i.e., intervention-related motives and portfolio-related motives. The need for reserve holdings resulting from intervention-related motives are justified because of the costs resulting from exchange rate instability. On the other hand, we use the Tobin--Markowitz model to justify the need for monetary reserves held for portfolio-related motives. The operational implication of this distinction is the separation of monetary reserves into two tranches corresponding to different objectives. An analysis of a central bank's transaction balance is a money quality analysis. Such an analysis has to do with transaction costs and non-pecuniary rates of return. The facts point out, that the Euro's emergence will not change the fact that the USD will continue to be the major currency of transaction balances of the central banks in Taiwan and Thailand. In order to answer the question about diversification of monetary reserves as idle balance in the two NICs, we carry out an analysis of the portfolio approach, which is based on the basic ideas of the Tobin-Markowitz model. This analysis shows that Taiwan and/or Thailand respectively cannot reduce risk at a given rate of return or increase the rate of return at a given risk by diversifying their monetary reserves as idle balance from the USD to the Euro.

In this thesis we focus on the development and investigation of methods for the computation of confluent hypergeometric functions. We point out the relations between these functions and parabolic boundary value problems and demonstrate applications to models of heat transfer and fluid dynamics. For the computation of confluent hypergeometric functions on compact (real or complex) intervals we consider a series expansion based on the Hadamard product of power series. It turnes out that the partial sums of this expansion are easily computable and provide a better rate of convergence in comparison to the partial sums of the Taylor series. Regarding the computational accuracy the problem of cancellation errors is reduced considerably. Another important tool for the computation of confluent hypergeometric functions are recurrence formulae. Although easy to implement, such recurrence relations are numerically unstable e.g. due to rounding errors. In order to circumvent these problems a method for computing recurrence relations in backward direction is applied. Furthermore, asymptotic expansions for large arguments in modulus are considered. From the numerical point of view the determination of the number of terms used for the approximation is a crucial point. As an application we consider initial-boundary value problems with partial differential equations of parabolic type, where we use the method of eigenfunction expansion in order to determine an explicit form of the solution. In this case the arising eigenfunctions depend directly on the geometry of the considered domain. For certain domains with some special geometry the eigenfunctions are of confluent hypergeometric type. Both a conductive heat transfer model and an application in fluid dynamics is considered. Finally, the application of several heat transfer models to certain sterilization processes in food industry is discussed.

The discretization of optimal control problems governed by partial differential equations typically leads to large-scale optimization problems. We consider flow control involving the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations as state equation which is stamped by exactly this property. In order to avoid the difficulties of dealing with large-scale (discretized) state equations during the optimization process, a reduction of the number of state variables can be achieved by employing a reduced order modelling technique. Using the snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition method, one obtains a low-dimensional model for the computation of an approximate solution to the state equation. In fact, often a small number of POD basis functions suffices to obtain a satisfactory level of accuracy in the reduced order solution. However, the small number of degrees of freedom in a POD based reduced order model also constitutes its main weakness for optimal control purposes. Since a single reduced order model is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a specified control, it might be an inadequate model when the control (and consequently also the actual corresponding flow behaviour) is altered, implying that the range of validity of a reduced order model, in general, is limited. Thus, it is likely to meet unreliable reduced order solutions during a control problem solution based on one single reduced order model. In order to get out of this dilemma, we propose to use a trust-region proper orthogonal decomposition (TRPOD) approach. By embedding the POD based reduced order modelling technique into a trust-region framework with general model functions, we obtain a mechanism for updating the reduced order models during the optimization process, enabling the reduced order models to represent the flow dynamics as altered by the control. In fact, a rigorous convergence theory for the TRPOD method is obtained which justifies this procedure also from a theoretical point of view. Benefiting from the trust-region philosophy, the TRPOD method guarantees to save a lot of computational work during the control problem solution, since the original state equation only has to be solved if we intend to update our model function in the trust-region framework. The optimization process itself is completely based on reduced order information only.

Until today the effects of many chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. DDT, PCBs) against the specific organisms are still a subject of controversial discussions. It was also the case for potential endocrine effects to influence the spermatogenesis correlated with possible changes of the population's vitality. To clear this situation, three questions could be at the centre of attention: 1) Do the chemicals cause a special harmful effect on the male reproductive tract? 2) Could some particular chemical mixtures act to bind and activate the human estrogen receptor (hER)? 3) Are the life stages of an organism specially sensitive to the effects of chemicals and therefore be established as Screening-Test-System? the connected effects of DDT and Arochlor 1254 as single substance and in 1:1 mixture according to their estrogenic effectiveness on zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) were therefore investigated. the concentrations of the pesticides and their mixture ranged between 0.05-µg/l and 500-µg/l and separated by a factor of 10. It was turned out that the test concentrations of 500-µg/l were too toxic to zebrafish in all the cases. The experiment was followed up with four concentrations of DDT, A54 as well as their 1:1 mixture anew each separated by a factor of 10 and ranging between 0.05-µg/l and 50-µg/l. The bioaccumulation test within 8 days showed that the zebrafish accumulated the chemicals, but no equilibrum was reached and the concentration 0.05-µg/l was established as No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). Putting up on these analyses, the investigation of the life cycle (LC) starting with fertilized eggs demonstrated a reduction in the rate of hatchability, reproduction and length of fish emerged. These reductions involved the duration of the life cycle stages (LCS) which consequently lasted longer than expected. Exposure time and level of the tested chemicals accelerated the occurrence of these effects which were more significant when the chemical mixtures were used too. To establish whether the parameter assessed were correlated to the male reproductive tract, the quality, quantity and life span of sperm were assessed using the methods of Leong (1988) and Shapiro et al (1994). The sperm degeneration observed, led us to investigate the spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of the testes. This last experiment showed a significant reduction of the late stage of spermatogenesis and the heterophagic vacuoles which play an important role in the spermatid maturation. It could therefore be concluded that, DDT and A54 could act synergically and cause disorders of the male reproductive tract of male zebrafish and influence also their growth.

Mobile computing poses different requirements on middleware than more traditional desktop systems interconnected by fixed networks. Not only the characteristics of mobile network technologies as for example lower bandwidth and unreliability demand for customized support. Moreover, the devices employed in mobile settings usually are less powerful than their desktop counterparts. Slow processors, a fairly limited amount of memory, and smaller displays are typical properties of mobile equipment, again requiring special treatment. Furthermore, user mobility results in additional requirements on appropriate middleware support. As opposed to the quite static environments dominating the world of desktop computing, dynamic aspects gain more importance. Suitable strategies and techniques for exploring the environment e.g. in order to discover services available locally are only one example. Managing resources in a fault-tolerant manner, reducing the impact ill-behaved clients have on system stability define yet another exemplary prerequisite. Most state of the art middleware has been designed for use in the realm of static, resource rich environments and hence is not immediately applicable in mobile settings as set forth above. The work described throughout this thesis aims at investigating the suitability of different middleware technologies with regard to application design, development, and deployment in the context of mobile networks. Mostly based upon prototypes, shortcomings of those technologies are identified and possible solutions are proposed and evaluated where appropriate. Besides tailoring middleware to specific communication and device characteristics, the cellular structure of current mobile networks may and shall be exploited in favor of more scalable and robust systems. Hence, an additional topic considered within this thesis is to point out and investigate suitable approaches permitting to benefit from such cellular infrastructures. In particular, a system architecture for the development of applications in the context of mobile networks will be proposed. An evaluation of this architecture employing mobile agents as flexible, network-side representatives for mobile terminals is performed, again based upon a prototype application. In summary, this thesis aims at providing several complementary approaches regarding middleware support tailored for mobile, cellular networks, a field considered to be of rising importance in a world where mobile communication and particularly data services emerge rapidly, augmenting the globally interconnecting, wired Internet.

Hardware bugs can be extremely expensive, financially. Because microprocessors and integrated circuits have become omnipresent in our daily live and also because of their continously growing complexity, research is driven towards methods and tools that are supposed to provide higher reliability of hardware designs and their implementations. Over the last decade Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) have been well proven to serve as a data structure for the representation of combinatorial or sequential circuits. Their conciseness and their efficient algorithmic properties are responsible for their huge success in formal verification. But, due to Shannon's counting argument, OBDDs can not always guarantee the concise representation of a given design. In this thesis, Parity Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams are presented, which are a true extension of OBDDs. In addition to the regular branching nodes of an OBDD, functional nodes representing a parity operation are integrated into the data structure, thus resulting in Parity-OBDDs. Parity-OBDDs are more powerful than OBDDs are, but, they are no longer a canonical representation. Besides theoretical aspects of Parity-OBDDs, algorithms for their efficient manipulation are the main focus of this thesis. Furthermore, an analysis on the factors that influence the Parity-OBDD representation size gives way for the development of heuristic algorithms for their minimization. The results of these analyses as well as the efficiency of the data structure are also supported by experiments. Finally, the algorithmic concept of Parity-OBDDs is extended to Mod-p-Decision Diagrams (Mod-p-DDs) for the representation of functions that are defined over an arbitrary finite domain.