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The harmonic Faber operator
(2018)

P. K. Suetin points out in the beginning of his monograph "Faber Polynomials and Faber Series" that Faber polynomials play an important role in modern approximation theory of a complex variable as they are used in representing analytic functions in simply connected domains, and many theorems on approximation of analytic functions are proved with their help [50]. In 1903, the Faber polynomials were firstly discovered by G. Faber. It was Faber's aim to find a generalisation of Taylor series of holomorphic functions in the open unit disc D in the following way. As any holomorphic function in D has a Taylor series representation f(z)=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} (z\in\D) converging locally uniformly inside D, for a simply connected domain G, Faber wanted to determine a system of polynomials (Q_n) such that each function f being holomorphic in G can be expanded into a series
f=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}b_{\nu}Q_{\nu} converging locally uniformly inside G. Having this goal in mind, Faber considered simply connected domains bounded by an analytic Jordan curve. He constructed a system of polynomials (F_n) with this property. These polynomials F_n were named after him as Faber polynomials. In the preface of [50], a detailed summary of results concerning Faber polynomials and results obtained by the aid of them is given. An important application of Faber polynomials is e.g. the transfer of known assertions concerning polynomial approximation of functions belonging to the disc algebra to results of the approximation of functions being continuous on a compact continuum K which contains at least two points and has a connected complement and being holomorphic in the interior of K. In this field, the Faber operator denoted by T turns out to be a powerful tool (for an introduction, see e.g. D. Gaier's monograph). It
assigns a polynomial of degree at most n given in the monomial basis \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} with a polynomial of degree at most n given in the basis of Faber polynomials \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}. If the Faber operator is continuous with respect to the uniform norms, it has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the disc algebra onto the space of functions being continuous on the whole compact continuum and holomorphic in its interior. For all f being element of the disc algebra and all polynomials P, via the obvious estimate for the uniform norms ||T(f)-T(P)||<= ||T|| ||f-P||, it can be seen that the original task of approximating F=T(f) by polynomials is reduced to the polynomial approximation of the function f. Therefore, the question arises under which conditions the Faber operator is continuous and surjective. A fundamental result in this regard was established by J. M. Anderson and J. Clunie who showed that if the compact continuum is bounded by a rectifiable Jordan curve with bounded boundary rotation and free from cusps, then the Faber operator with respect to the uniform norms is a topological isomorphism. Now, let f be a harmonic function in D. Similar as above, we find that f has a uniquely determined representation f=\sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}a_{\nu}p_{\nu}
converging locally uniformly inside D where p_{n}(z)=z^{n} for n\in\N_{0} and p_{-n}(z)=\overline{z}^{n} for n\in\N}. One may ask whether there is an analogue for harmonic functions on simply connected domains G. Indeed, for a domain G bounded by an analytic Jordan curve, the conjecture that each function f being harmonic in G has a uniquely determined representation f=\sum_{\nu= \infty}^{\infty}b_{\nu}F_{\nu} where F_{-n}(z)=\overline{F_{n}(z\)} for n\inN, converging locally uniformly inside G, holds true. Let now K be a compact continuum containing at least two points and having a connected complement. A main component of this thesis will be the examination of the harmonic Faber operator mapping a harmonic polynomial given in the basis of the harmonic monomials \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}p_{\nu} to a harmonic polynomial given as \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}.
If this operator, which is based on an idea of J. Müller, is continuous with respect to the uniform norms, it has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the functions being continuous on \partial\D onto the continuous functions on K being
harmonic in the interior of K. Harmonic Faber polynomials and the harmonic Faber operator will be the objects accompanying us throughout
our whole discussion. After having given an overview about notations and certain tools we will use in our consideration in the first chapter, we begin our studies with an introduction to the Faber operator and the harmonic Faber operator. We start modestly and consider domains bounded by an analytic Jordan curve. In Section 2, as a first result, we will show that, for such a domain G, the harmonic Faber operator has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the space of the harmonic functions in D onto the space
of the harmonic functions in G, and moreover, the harmonic Faber
operator is an isomorphism with respect to the topologies of locally
uniform convergence. In the further sections of this chapter, we illumine the behaviour of the (harmonic) Faber operator on certain function spaces. In the third chapter, we leave the situation of compact continua bounded by an analytic Jordan curve. Instead we consider closures of domains bounded by Jordan curves having a Dini continuous curvature. With the aid of the concept of compact operators and the Fredholm alternative, we are able to show that the harmonic Faber operator is a topological isomorphism. Since, in particular, the main result of the third chapter holds true for closures K of domains bounded by analytic Jordan curves, we can make use of it to obtain new results concerning the approximation of functions being continuous on K and harmonic in the interior of K by harmonic polynomials. To do so, we develop techniques applied by L. Frerick and J. Müller in [11] and adjust them to our setting. So, we can transfer results about the classic Faber operator to the harmonic Faber operator. In the last chapter, we will use the theory of harmonic Faber polynomials
to solve certain Dirichlet problems in the complex plane. We pursue
two different approaches: First, with a similar philosophy as in [50],
we develop a procedure to compute the coefficients of a series \sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}c_{\nu}F_{\nu} converging uniformly to the solution of a given Dirichlet problem. Later, we will point out how semi-infinite programming with harmonic Faber polynomials as ansatz functions can be used to get an approximate solution of a given Dirichlet problem. We cover both approaches first from a theoretical point of view before we have a focus on the numerical implementation of concrete examples. As application of the numerical computations, we considerably obtain visualisations of the concerned Dirichlet problems rounding out our discussion about the harmonic Faber polynomials and the harmonic Faber operator.

Let K be a compact subset of the complex plane. Then the family of polynomials P is dense in A(K), the space of all continuous functions on K that are holomorphic on the interior of K, endowed with the uniform norm, if and only if the complement of K is connected. This is the statement of Mergelyan's celebrated theorem.
There are, however, situations where not all polynomials are required to approximate every f ϵ A(K) but where there are strict subspaces of P that are still dense in A(K). If, for example, K is a singleton, then the subspace of all constant polynomials is dense in A(K). On the other hand, if 0 is an interior point of K, then no strict subspace of P can be dense in A(K).
In between these extreme cases, the situation is much more complicated. It turns out that it is mostly determined by the geometry of K and its location in the complex plane which subspaces of P are dense in A(K). In Chapter 1, we give an overview of the known results.
Our first main theorem, which we will give in Chapter 3, deals with the case where the origin is not an interior point of K. We will show that if K is a compact set with connected complement and if 0 is not an interior point of K, then any subspace Q ⊂ P which contains the constant functions and all but finitely many monomials is dense in A(K).
There is a close connection between lacunary approximation and the theory of universality. At the end of Chapter 3, we will illustrate this connection by applying the above result to prove the existence of certain universal power series. To be specific, if K is a compact set with connected complement, if 0 is a boundary point of K and if A_0(K) denotes the subspace of A(K) of those functions that satisfy f(0) = 0, then there exists an A_0(K)-universal formal power series s, where A_0(K)-universal means that the family of partial sums of s forms a dense subset of A_0(K).
In addition, we will show that no formal power series is simultaneously universal for all such K.
The condition on the subspace Q in the main result of Chapter 3 is quite restrictive, but this should not be too surprising: The result applies to the largest possible class of compact sets.
In Chapter 4, we impose a further restriction on the compact sets under consideration, and this will allow us to weaken the condition on the subspace Q. The result that we are going to give is similar to one of those presented in the first chapter, namely the one due to Anderson. In his article “Müntz-Szasz type approximation and the angular growth of lacunary integral functions”, he gives a criterion for a subspace Q of P to be dense in A(K) where K is entirely contained in some closed sector with vertex at the origin.
We will consider compact sets with connected complement that are -- with the possible exception of the origin -- entirely contained in some open sector with vertex at the origin. What we are going to show is that if K\{0} is contained in an open sector of opening angle 2α and if Λ is some subset of the nonnegative integers, then the span of {z → z^λ : λ ϵ Λ} is dense in A(K) whenever 0 ϵ Λ and some Müntz-type condition is satisfied.
Conversely, we will show that if a similar condition is not satisfied, then we can always find a compact set K with connected complement such that K\{0} is contained in some open sector of opening angle 2α and such that the span of {z → z^λ : λ ϵ Λ} fails to be dense in A(K).

Even though proper research on Cauchy transforms has been done, there are still a lot of open questions. For example, in the case of representation theorems, i.e. the question when a function can be represented as a Cauchy transform, there is 'still no completely satisfactory answer' ([9], p. 84). There are characterizations for measures on the circle as presented in the monograph [7] and for general compactly supported measures on the complex plane as presented in [27]. However, there seems to exist no systematic treatise of the Cauchy transform as an operator on $L_p$ spaces and weighted $L_p$ spaces on the real axis.
This is the point where this thesis draws on and we are interested in developing several characterizations for the representability of a function by Cauchy transforms of $L_p$ functions. Moreover, we will attack the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms of functions and measures, a topic which is only partly explored (see [43]). We will develop different approaches involving Fourier transforms and potential theory and investigate into sufficient conditions and characterizations.
For our purposes, we shall need some notation and the concept of Hardy spaces which will be part of the preliminary Chapter 1. Moreover, we introduce Fourier transforms and their complex analogue, namely Fourier-Laplace transforms. This will be of extraordinary usage due to the close connection of Cauchy and Fourier(-Laplace) transforms.
In the second chapter we shall begin our research with a discussion of the Cauchy transformation on the classical (unweighted) $L_p$ spaces. Therefore, we start with the boundary behavior of Cauchy transforms including an adapted version of the Sokhotski-Plemelj formula. This result will turn out helpful for the determination of the image of the Cauchy transformation under $L_p(\R)$ for $p\in(1,\infty).$ The cases $p=1$ and $p=\infty$ are playing special roles here which justifies a treatise in separate sections. For $p=1$ we will involve the real Hardy space $H_{1}(\R)$ whereas the case $p=\infty$ shall be attacked by an approach incorporating intersections of Hardy spaces and certain subspaces of $L_{\infty}(\R).$
The third chapter prepares ourselves for the study of the Cauchy transformation on subspaces of $L_{p}(\R).$ We shall give a short overview of the basic facts about Cauchy transforms of measures and then proceed to Cauchy transforms of functions with support in a closed set $X\subset\R.$ Our goal is to build up the main theory on which we can fall back in the subsequent chapters.
The fourth chapter deals with Cauchy transforms of functions and measures supported by an unbounded interval which is not the entire real axis. For convenience we restrict ourselves to the interval $[0,\infty).$ Bringing once again the Fourier-Laplace transform into play, we deduce complex characterizations for the Cauchy transforms of functions in $L_{2}(0,\infty).$ Moreover, we analyze the behavior of Cauchy transform on several half-planes and shall use these results for a fairly general geometric characterization. In the second section of this chapter, we focus on Cauchy transforms of measures with support in $[0,\infty).$ In this context, we shall derive a reconstruction formula for these Cauchy transforms holding under pretty general conditions as well as results on the behaviur on the left half-plane. We close this chapter by rather technical real-type conditions and characterizations for Cauchy transforms of functions in $L_p(0,\infty)$ basing on an approach in [82].
The most common case of Cauchy transforms, those of compactly supported functions or measures, is the subject of Chapter 5. After complex and geometric characterizations originating from similar ideas as in the fourth chapter, we adapt a functional-analytic approach in [27] to special measures, namely those with densities to a given complex measure $\mu.$ The chapter is closed with a study of the Cauchy transformation on weighted $L_p$ spaces. Here, we choose an ansatz through the finite Hilbert transform on $(-1,1).$
The sixth chapter is devoted to the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms. Since this topic has no comprehensive treatise in literature yet, we start with an introduction of weighted Bergman spaces and general results on the interaction of the Cauchy transformation in these spaces. Afterwards, we combine the theory of Zen spaces with Cauchy transforms by using once again their connection with Fourier transforms. Here, we shall encounter general Paley-Wiener theorems of the recent past. Lastly, we attack the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms by means of potential theory. Therefore, we derive a Fourier integral formula for the logarithmic energy in one and multiple dimensions and give applications to Fourier and hence Cauchy transforms.
Two appendices are annexed to this thesis. The first one covers important definitions and results from measure theory with a special focus on complex measures. The second appendix contains Cauchy transforms of frequently used measures and functions with detailed calculations.