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- Analysis (1)
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Nonlocal operators are used in a wide variety of models and applications due to many natural phenomena being driven by nonlocal dynamics. Nonlocal operators are integral operators allowing for interactions between two distinct points in space. The nonlocal models investigated in this thesis involve kernels that are assumed to have a finite range of nonlocal interactions. Kernels of this type are used in nonlocal elasticity and convection-diffusion models as well as finance and image analysis. Also within the mathematical theory they arouse great interest, as they are asymptotically related to fractional and classical differential equations.
The results in this thesis can be grouped according to the following three aspects: modeling and analysis, discretization and optimization.
Mathematical models demonstrate their true usefulness when put into numerical practice. For computational purposes, it is important that the support of the kernel is clearly determined. Therefore nonlocal interactions are typically assumed to occur within an Euclidean ball of finite radius. In this thesis we consider more general interaction sets including norm induced balls as special cases and extend established results about well-posedness and asymptotic limits.
The discretization of integral equations is a challenging endeavor. Especially kernels which are truncated by Euclidean balls require carefully designed quadrature rules for the implementation of efficient finite element codes. In this thesis we investigate the computational benefits of polyhedral interaction sets as well as geometrically approximated interaction sets. In addition to that we outline the computational advantages of sufficiently structured problem settings.
Shape optimization methods have been proven useful for identifying interfaces in models governed by partial differential equations. Here we consider a class of shape optimization problems constrained by nonlocal equations which involve interface-dependent kernels. We derive the shape derivative associated to the nonlocal system model and solve the problem by established numerical techniques.

Hybrid Modelling in general, describes the combination of at least two different methods to solve one specific task. As far as this work is concerned, Hybrid Models describe an approach to combine sophisticated, well-studied mathematical methods with Deep Neural Networks to solve parameter estimation tasks. To combine these two methods, the data structure of artifi- cially generated acceleration data of an approximate vehicle model, the Quarter-Car-Model, is exploited. Acceleration of individual components within a coupled dynamical system, can be described as a second order ordinary differential equation, including velocity and dis- placement of coupled states, scaled by spring - and damping-coefficient of the system. An appropriate numerical integration scheme can then be used to simulate discrete acceleration profiles of the Quarter-Car-Model with a random variation of the parameters of the system. Given explicit knowledge about the data structure, one can then investigate under which con- ditions it is possible to estimate the parameters of the dynamical system for a set of randomly generated data samples. We test, if Neural Networks are capable to solve parameter estima- tion problems in general, or if they can be used to solve several sub-tasks, which support a state-of-the-art parameter estimation method. Hybrid Models are presented for parameter estimation under uncertainties, including for instance measurement noise or incompleteness of measurements, which combine knowledge about the data structure and several Neural Networks for robust parameter estimation within a dynamical system.