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Islamic Religion and Entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurship has become an essential phenomenon all over the world because it is a major driving force behind the economic growth and development of a country. It is widely accepted that entrepreneurship development in a country creates new jobs, pro-motes healthy competition through innovation, and benefits the social well being of individuals and societies. The policymakers in both developed and developing countries focus on entrepreneurship because it helps to alleviate impediments to economic development and social welfare. Therefore, policymakers and academic researchers consider the promotion of entrepreneurship as essential for the economy and research-based support is needed for further development of entrepreneurship activities. The impact of entrepreneurial activities on economic and social development also varies from country to country. The effect of entrepreneurial activities on economic and social development also varies from country to country because the level of entrepreneur-ship activities also varies from one region to another or one country to another. To under-stand these variations, policymakers have investigated the determinants of entrepreneur-ship at different levels, such as the individual, industry, and country levels. Moreover, entrepreneurship behavior is influenced by various personal and environmental level factors. However, these personal-level factors cannot be separated from the surrounding environment. The link between religion and entrepreneurship is well established and can be traced back to Weber (1930). Researchers have analyzed the relationship between religion and entrepreneurship from various perspectives, and the research related to religion and entrepreneurship is diversified and scattered across disciplines. This dissertation tries to explain the link between religion and entrepreneurship, specifically Islamic religion and entrepreneurship. Technically this dissertation comprises three parts. The first part of this dissertation consists of two chapters that discuss the definition and theories of entrepreneurship (Chapter 2) and the theoretical relationship between religion and entrepreneur-ship (Chapter 3). The second part of this dissertation (Chapter 4) provides an overview of the field with a purpose to gain a better understanding of the field’s current state of knowledge to bridge the different views and perspectives. In order to provide an overview of the field, a systematic literature search leading to a descriptive overview of the field based on 270 articles published in 163 journals Subsequently, bibliometric methods are used to identify thematic clusters, the most influential authors and articles, and how they are connected. The third part of this dissertation (Chapter 5) empirically evaluates the influence of Islamic values and Islamic religious practices on entrepreneurship intentions within the Islamic community. Using the theory of planned behavior as a theoretical lens, we also take into account that the relationship between religion and entrepreneurial intentions can be mediated by individual’s attitude towards entrepreneurship. A self-administrative questionnaire was used to collect the responses from a sample of 1895 Pakistani university students. A structured equation modeling was adopted to perform a nuanced assessment of the relationship between Islamic values and practices and entrepreneurship intentions and to account for mediating effect of attitude towards entrepreneurship. The research on religion and entrepreneurship has increased sharply during the last years and is scattered across various academic disciplines and fields. The analysis identifies and characterize the most important publications, journals, and authors in the area and map the analyzed religions and regions. The comprehensive overview of previous studies allows us to identify research gaps and derive avenues for future research in a substantiated way. Moreover, this dissertation helps the research scholars to understand the field in its entirety, identify relevant articles, and to uncover parallels and differences across religions and regions. Besides, the study reveals a lack of empirical research related to specific religions and specific regions. Therefore, scholars can take these regions and religions into consideration when conducting empirical research. Furthermore, the empirical analysis about the influence of Islamic religious values and Islamic religious practices show that Islamic values served as a guiding principle in shaping people’s attitudes towards entrepreneurship in an Islamic community; they had an indirect influence on entrepreneurship intention through attitude. Similarly, the relationship between Islamic religious practices and the entrepreneurship intentions of students was fully mediated by the attitude towards entrepreneurship. Furthermore, this dissertation contributes to prior research on entrepreneurship in Islamic communities by applying a more fine-grained approach to capture the link between religion and entrepreneurship. Moreover, it contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship intentions by showing that the influence of religion on entrepreneurship intentions is mainly due to religious values and practices, which shape the attitude towards entrepreneurship and thereby influence entrepreneurship intentions in religious communities. The entrepreneur-ship research has put a higher emphasis on assessing the influence of a diverse set of con-textual factors. This dissertation introduces Islamic values and Islamic religious practices as critical contextual factors that shape entrepreneurship in countries that are characterized by the Islamic religion.

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Author:Muhammad Farooq Rehan
Advisor:Joern Block
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of completion:2020/03/09
Publishing institution:Universität Trier
Granting institution:Universität Trier
Date of final exam:2020/02/28
Release Date:2020/03/10
Number of pages:201
Institutes:Fachbereich 4
Licence (German):License LogoCC BY: Creative-Commons-Lizenz 4.0 International

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