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Computer simulation has become established in a two-fold way: As a tool for planning, analyzing, and optimizing complex systems but also as a method for the scientific instigation of theories and thus for the generation of knowledge. Generated results often serve as a basis for investment decisions, e.g., road construction and factory planning, or provide evidence for scientific theory-building processes. To ensure the generation of credible and reproducible results, it is indispensable to conduct systematic and methodologically sound simulation studies. A variety of procedure models exist that structure and predetermine the process of a study. As a result, experimenters are often required to repetitively but thoroughly carry out a large number of experiments. Moreover, the process is not sufficiently specified and many important design decisions still have to be made by the experimenter, which might result in an unintentional bias of the results.
To facilitate the conducting of simulation studies and to improve both replicability and reproducibility of the generated results, this thesis proposes a procedure model for carrying out Hypothesis-Driven Simulation Studies, an approach that assists the experimenter during the design, execution, and analysis of simulation experiments. In contrast to existing approaches, a formally specified hypothesis becomes the key element of the study so that each step of the study can be adapted and executed to directly contribute to the verification of the hypothesis. To this end, the FITS language is presented, which enables the specification of hypotheses as assumptions regarding the influence specific input values have on the observable behavior of the model. The proposed procedure model systematically designs relevant simulation experiments, runs, and iterations that must be executed to provide evidence for the verification of the hypothesis. Generated outputs are then aggregated for each defined performance measure to allow for the application of statistical hypothesis testing approaches. Hence, the proposed assistance only requires the experimenter to provide an executable simulation model and a corresponding hypothesis to conduct a sound simulation study. With respect to the implementation of the proposed assistance system, this thesis presents an abstract architecture and provides formal specifications of all required services.
To evaluate the concept of Hypothesis-Driven Simulation Studies, two case studies are presented from the manufacturing domain. The introduced approach is applied to a NetLogo simulation model of a four-tiered supply chain. Two scenarios as well as corresponding assumptions about the model behavior are presented to investigate conditions for the occurrence of the bullwhip effect. Starting from the formal specification of the hypothesis, each step of a Hypothesis-Driven Simulation Study is presented in detail, with specific design decisions outlined, and generated inter- mediate data as well as final results illustrated. With respect to the comparability of the results, a conventional simulation study is conducted which serves as reference data. The approach that is proposed in this thesis is beneficial for both practitioners and scientists. The presented assistance system allows for a more effortless and simplified execution of simulation experiments while the efficient generation of credible results is ensured.

Even though proper research on Cauchy transforms has been done, there are still a lot of open questions. For example, in the case of representation theorems, i.e. the question when a function can be represented as a Cauchy transform, there is 'still no completely satisfactory answer' ([9], p. 84). There are characterizations for measures on the circle as presented in the monograph [7] and for general compactly supported measures on the complex plane as presented in [27]. However, there seems to exist no systematic treatise of the Cauchy transform as an operator on $L_p$ spaces and weighted $L_p$ spaces on the real axis.
This is the point where this thesis draws on and we are interested in developing several characterizations for the representability of a function by Cauchy transforms of $L_p$ functions. Moreover, we will attack the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms of functions and measures, a topic which is only partly explored (see [43]). We will develop different approaches involving Fourier transforms and potential theory and investigate into sufficient conditions and characterizations.
For our purposes, we shall need some notation and the concept of Hardy spaces which will be part of the preliminary Chapter 1. Moreover, we introduce Fourier transforms and their complex analogue, namely Fourier-Laplace transforms. This will be of extraordinary usage due to the close connection of Cauchy and Fourier(-Laplace) transforms.
In the second chapter we shall begin our research with a discussion of the Cauchy transformation on the classical (unweighted) $L_p$ spaces. Therefore, we start with the boundary behavior of Cauchy transforms including an adapted version of the Sokhotski-Plemelj formula. This result will turn out helpful for the determination of the image of the Cauchy transformation under $L_p(\R)$ for $p\in(1,\infty).$ The cases $p=1$ and $p=\infty$ are playing special roles here which justifies a treatise in separate sections. For $p=1$ we will involve the real Hardy space $H_{1}(\R)$ whereas the case $p=\infty$ shall be attacked by an approach incorporating intersections of Hardy spaces and certain subspaces of $L_{\infty}(\R).$
The third chapter prepares ourselves for the study of the Cauchy transformation on subspaces of $L_{p}(\R).$ We shall give a short overview of the basic facts about Cauchy transforms of measures and then proceed to Cauchy transforms of functions with support in a closed set $X\subset\R.$ Our goal is to build up the main theory on which we can fall back in the subsequent chapters.
The fourth chapter deals with Cauchy transforms of functions and measures supported by an unbounded interval which is not the entire real axis. For convenience we restrict ourselves to the interval $[0,\infty).$ Bringing once again the Fourier-Laplace transform into play, we deduce complex characterizations for the Cauchy transforms of functions in $L_{2}(0,\infty).$ Moreover, we analyze the behavior of Cauchy transform on several half-planes and shall use these results for a fairly general geometric characterization. In the second section of this chapter, we focus on Cauchy transforms of measures with support in $[0,\infty).$ In this context, we shall derive a reconstruction formula for these Cauchy transforms holding under pretty general conditions as well as results on the behaviur on the left half-plane. We close this chapter by rather technical real-type conditions and characterizations for Cauchy transforms of functions in $L_p(0,\infty)$ basing on an approach in [82].
The most common case of Cauchy transforms, those of compactly supported functions or measures, is the subject of Chapter 5. After complex and geometric characterizations originating from similar ideas as in the fourth chapter, we adapt a functional-analytic approach in [27] to special measures, namely those with densities to a given complex measure $\mu.$ The chapter is closed with a study of the Cauchy transformation on weighted $L_p$ spaces. Here, we choose an ansatz through the finite Hilbert transform on $(-1,1).$
The sixth chapter is devoted to the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms. Since this topic has no comprehensive treatise in literature yet, we start with an introduction of weighted Bergman spaces and general results on the interaction of the Cauchy transformation in these spaces. Afterwards, we combine the theory of Zen spaces with Cauchy transforms by using once again their connection with Fourier transforms. Here, we shall encounter general Paley-Wiener theorems of the recent past. Lastly, we attack the issue of integrability of Cauchy transforms by means of potential theory. Therefore, we derive a Fourier integral formula for the logarithmic energy in one and multiple dimensions and give applications to Fourier and hence Cauchy transforms.
Two appendices are annexed to this thesis. The first one covers important definitions and results from measure theory with a special focus on complex measures. The second appendix contains Cauchy transforms of frequently used measures and functions with detailed calculations.

Die Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit einer neuartigen Art von Branch-and-Bound Algorithmen, deren Unterschied zu klassischen Branch-and-Bound Algorithmen darin besteht, dass
das Branching durch die Addition von nicht-negativen Straftermen zur Zielfunktion erfolgt
anstatt durch das Hinzufügen weiterer Nebenbedingungen. Die Arbeit zeigt die theoretische Korrektheit des Algorithmusprinzips für verschiedene allgemeine Klassen von Problemen und evaluiert die Methode für verschiedene konkrete Problemklassen. Für diese Problemklassen, genauer Monotone und Nicht-Monotone Gemischtganzzahlige Lineare Komplementaritätsprobleme und Gemischtganzzahlige Lineare Probleme, präsentiert die Arbeit
verschiedene problemspezifische Verbesserungsmöglichkeiten und evaluiert diese numerisch.
Weiterhin vergleicht die Arbeit die neue Methode mit verschiedenen Benchmark-Methoden
mit größtenteils guten Ergebnissen und gibt einen Ausblick auf weitere Anwendungsgebiete
und zu beantwortende Forschungsfragen.

Traditional workflow management systems support process participants in fulfilling business tasks through guidance along a predefined workflow model.
Flexibility has gained a lot of attention in recent decades through a shift from mass production to customization. Various approaches to workflow flexibility exist that either require extensive knowledge acquisition and modelling effort or an active intervention during execution and re-modelling of deviating behaviour. The pursuit of flexibility by deviation is to compensate both of these disadvantages through allowing alternative unforeseen execution paths at run time without demanding the process participant to adapt the workflow model. However, the implementation of this approach has been little researched so far.
This work proposes a novel approach to flexibility by deviation. The approach aims at supporting process participants during the execution of a workflow through suggesting work items based on predefined strategies or experiential knowledge even in case of deviations. The developed concepts combine two renowned methods from the field of artificial intelligence - constraint satisfaction problem solving with process-oriented case-based reasoning. This mainly consists of a constraint-based workflow engine in combination with a case-based deviation management. The declarative representation of workflows through constraints allows for implicit flexibility and a simple possibility to restore consistency in case of deviations. Furthermore, the combined model, integrating procedural with declarative structures through a transformation function, increases the capabilities for flexibility. For an adequate handling of deviations the methodology of case-based reasoning fits perfectly, through its approach that similar problems have similar solutions. Thus, previous made experiences are transferred to currently regarded problems, under the assumption that a similar deviation has been handled successfully in the past.
Necessary foundations from the field of workflow management with a focus on flexibility are presented first.
As formal foundation, a constraint-based workflow model was developed that allows for a declarative specification of foremost sequential dependencies of tasks. Procedural and declarative models can be combined in the approach, as a transformation function was specified that converts procedural workflow models to declarative constraints.
One main component of the approach is the constraint-based workflow engine that utilizes this declarative model as input for a constraint solving algorithm. This algorithm computes the worklist, which is proposed to the process participant during workflow execution. With predefined deviation handling strategies that determine how the constraint model is modified in order to restore consistency, the support is continuous even in case of deviations.
The second major component of the proposed approach constitutes the case-based deviation management, which aims at improving the support of process participants on the basis of experiential knowledge. For the retrieve phase, a sophisticated similarity measure was developed that integrates specific characteristics of deviating workflows and combines several sequence similarity measures. Two alternative methods for the reuse phase were developed, a null adaptation and a generative adaptation. The null adaptation simply proposes tasks from the most similar workflow as work items, whereas the generative adaptation modifies the constraint-based workflow model based on the most similar workflow in order to re-enable the constraint-based workflow engine to suggest work items.
The experimental evaluation of the approach consisted of a simulation of several types of process participants in the exemplary domain of deficiency management in construction. The results showed high utility values and a promising potential for an investigation of the transfer on other domains and the applicability in practice, which is part of future work.
Concluding, the contributions are summarized and research perspectives are pointed out.

Official business surveys form the basis for national and regional business statistics and are thus of great importance for analysing the state and performance of the economy. However, both the heterogeneity of business data and their high dynamics pose a particular challenge to the feasibility of sampling and the quality of the resulting estimates. A widely used sampling frame for creating the design of an official business survey is an extract from an official business register. However, if this frame does not accurately represent the target population, frame errors arise. Amplified by the heterogeneity and dynamics of business populations, these errors can significantly affect the estimation quality and lead to inefficiencies and biases. This dissertation therefore deals with design-based methods for optimising business surveys with respect to different types of frame errors.
First, methods for adjusting the sampling design of business surveys are addressed. These approaches integrate auxiliary information about the expected structures of frame errors into the sampling design. The aim is to increase the number of sampled businesses that are subject to frame errors. The element-specific frame error probability is estimated based on auxiliary information about frame errors observed in previous samples. The approaches discussed consider different types of frame errors and can be incorporated into predefined designs with fixed strata.
As the second main pillar of this work, methods for adjusting weights to correct for frame errors during estimation are developed and investigated. As a result of frame errors, the assumptions under which the original design weights were determined based on the sampling design no longer hold. The developed methods correct the design weights taking into account the errors identified for sampled elements. Case-number-based reweighting approaches, on the one hand, attempt to reconstruct the unknown size of the individual strata in the target population. In the context of weight smoothing methods, on the other hand, design weights are modelled and smoothed as a function of target or auxiliary variables. This serves to avoid inefficiencies in the estimation due to highly scattering weights or weak correlations between weights and target variables. In addition, possibilities of correcting frame errors by calibration weighting are elaborated. Especially when the sampling frame shows over- and/or undercoverage, the inclusion of external auxiliary information can provide a significant improvement of the estimation quality. For those methods whose quality cannot be measured using standard procedures, a procedure for estimating the variance based on a rescaling bootstrap is proposed. This enables an assessment of the estimation quality when using the methods in practice.
In the context of two extensive simulation studies, the methods presented in this dissertation are evaluated and compared with each other. First, in the environment of an experimental simulation, it is assessed which approaches are particularly suitable with regard to different data situations. In a second simulation study, which is based on the structural survey in the services sector, the applicability of the methods in practice is evaluated under realistic conditions.

Survey data can be viewed as incomplete or partially missing from a variety of perspectives and there are different ways of dealing with this kind of data in the prediction and the estimation of economic quantities. In this thesis, we present two selected research contexts in which the prediction or estimation of economic quantities is examined under incomplete survey data.
These contexts are first the investigation of composite estimators in the German Microcensus (Chapters 3 and 4) and second extensions of multivariate Fay-Herriot (MFH) models (Chapters 5 and 6), which are applied to small area problems.
Composite estimators are estimation methods that take into account the sample overlap in rotating panel surveys such as the German Microcensus in order to stabilise the estimation of the statistics of interest (e.g. employment statistics). Due to the partial sample overlaps, information from previous samples is only available for some of the respondents, so the data are partially missing.
MFH models are model-based estimation methods that work with aggregated survey data in order to obtain more precise estimation results for small area problems compared to classical estimation methods. In these models, several variables of interest are modelled simultaneously. The survey estimates of these variables, which are used as input in the MFH models, are often partially missing. If the domains of interest are not explicitly accounted for in a sampling design, the sizes of the samples allocated to them can, by chance, be small. As a result, it can happen that either no estimates can be calculated at all or that the estimated values are not published by statistical offices because their variances are too large.

Coastal erosion describes the displacement of land caused by destructive sea waves,
currents or tides. Due to the global climate change and associated phenomena such as
melting polar ice caps and changing current patterns of the oceans, which result in rising
sea levels or increased current velocities, the need for countermeasures is continuously
increasing. Today, major efforts have been made to mitigate these effects using groins,
breakwaters and various other structures.
This thesis will find a novel approach to address this problem by applying shape optimization
on the obstacles. Due to this reason, results of this thesis always contain the
following three distinct aspects:
The selected wave propagation model, i.e. the modeling of wave propagation towards
the coastline, using various wave formulations, ranging from steady to unsteady descriptions,
described from the Lagrangian or Eulerian viewpoint with all its specialties. More
precisely, in the Eulerian setting is first a steady Helmholtz equation in the form of a
scattering problem investigated and followed subsequently by shallow water equations,
in classical form, equipped with porosity, sediment portability and further subtleties.
Secondly, in a Lagrangian framework the Lagrangian shallow water equations form the
center of interest.
The chosen discretization, i.e. dependent on the nature and peculiarity of the constraining
partial differential equation, we choose between finite elements in conjunction
with a continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin method for investigations in the
Eulerian description. In addition, the Lagrangian viewpoint offers itself for mesh-free,
particle-based discretizations, where smoothed particle hydrodynamics are used.
The method for shape optimization w.r.t. the obstacle’s shape over an appropriate
cost function, constrained by the solution of the selected wave-propagation model. In
this sense, we rely on a differentiate-then-discretize approach for free-form shape optimization
in the Eulerian set-up, and reverse the order in Lagrangian computations.

Issues in Price Measurement
(2022)

This thesis focuses on the issues in price measurement and consists of three chapters. Due to outdated weighting information, a Laspeyres-based consumer price index (CPI) is prone to accumulating upward bias. Therefore, chapter 1 introduces and examines simple and transparent revision approaches that retrospectively address the source of the bias. They provide a consistent long-run time series of the CPI and require no additional information. Furthermore, a coherent decomposition of the bias into the contributions of individual product groups is developed. In a case study, the approaches are applied to a Laspeyres-based CPI. The empirical results confirm the theoretical predictions. The proposed revision approaches are adoptable not only to most national CPIs but also to other price-level measures such as the producer price index or the import and export price indices.
Chapter 2 is dedicated to the measurement of import and export price indices. Such indices are complicated by the impact of exchange rates. These indices are usually also compiled by some Laspeyres type index. Therefore, substitution bias is an issue. The terms of trade (ratio of export and import price index) are therefore also likely to be distorted. The underlying substitution bias accumulates over time. The present article applies a simple and transparent retroactive correction approach that addresses the source of the substitution bias and produces meaningful long-run time series of import and export price levels and, therefore, of the terms of trade. Furthermore, an empirical case study is conducted that demonstrates the efficacy and versatility of the correction approach.
Chapter 3 leaves the field of index revision and studies another issue in price measurement, namely, the economic evaluation of digital products in monetary terms that have zero market prices. This chapter explores different methods of economic valuation and pricing of free digital products and proposes an alternative way to calculate the economic value and a shadow price of free digital products: the Usage Cost Model (UCM). The goal of the chapter is, first of all, to formulate a theoretical framework and incorporate an alternative measure of the value of free digital products. However, an empirical application is also made to show the work of the theoretical model. Some conclusions on applicability are drawn at the end of the chapter.

Broadcast media such as television have spread rapidly worldwide in the last century. They provide viewers with access to new information and also represent a source of entertainment that unconsciously exposes them to different social norms and moral values. Although the potential impact of exposure to television content have been studied intensively in economic research in recent years, studies examining the long-term causal effects of media exposure are still rare. Therefore, Chapters 2 to 4 of this thesis contribute to the better understanding of long-term effects of television exposure.
Chapter 2 empirically investigates whether access to reliable environmental information through television can influence individuals' environmental awareness and pro-environmental behavior. Analyzing exogenous variation in Western television reception in the German Democratic Republic shows that access to objective reporting on environmental pollution can enhance concerns regarding pollution and affect the likelihood of being active in environmental interest groups.
Chapter 3 utilizes the same natural experiment and explores the relationship between exposure to foreign mass media content and xenophobia. In contrast to the state television broadcaster in the German Democratic Republic, West German television regularly confronted its viewers with foreign (non-German) broadcasts. By applying multiple measures for xenophobic attitudes, our findings indicate a persistent mitigating impact of foreign media content on xenophobia.
Chapter 4 deals with another unique feature of West German television. In contrast to East German media, Western television programs regularly exposed their audience to unmarried and childless characters. The results suggest that exposure to different gender stereotypes contained in television programs can affect marriage, divorce, and birth rates. However, our findings indicate that mainly women were affected by the exposure to unmarried and childless characters.
Chapter 5 examines the influence of social media marketing on crowd participation in equity crowdfunding. By analyzing 26,883 investment decisions on three German equity crowdfunding platforms, our results show that startups can influence the success of their equity crowdfunding campaign through social media posts on Facebook and Twitter.
In Chapter 6, we incorporate the concept of habit formation into the theoretical literature on trade unions and contribute to a better understanding of how internal habit preferences influence trade union behavior. The results reveal that such internal reference points lead trade unions to raise wages over time, which in turn reduces employment. Conducting a numerical example illustrates that the wage effects and the decline in employment can be substantial.

Let K be a compact subset of the complex plane. Then the family of polynomials P is dense in A(K), the space of all continuous functions on K that are holomorphic on the interior of K, endowed with the uniform norm, if and only if the complement of K is connected. This is the statement of Mergelyan's celebrated theorem.
There are, however, situations where not all polynomials are required to approximate every f ϵ A(K) but where there are strict subspaces of P that are still dense in A(K). If, for example, K is a singleton, then the subspace of all constant polynomials is dense in A(K). On the other hand, if 0 is an interior point of K, then no strict subspace of P can be dense in A(K).
In between these extreme cases, the situation is much more complicated. It turns out that it is mostly determined by the geometry of K and its location in the complex plane which subspaces of P are dense in A(K). In Chapter 1, we give an overview of the known results.
Our first main theorem, which we will give in Chapter 3, deals with the case where the origin is not an interior point of K. We will show that if K is a compact set with connected complement and if 0 is not an interior point of K, then any subspace Q ⊂ P which contains the constant functions and all but finitely many monomials is dense in A(K).
There is a close connection between lacunary approximation and the theory of universality. At the end of Chapter 3, we will illustrate this connection by applying the above result to prove the existence of certain universal power series. To be specific, if K is a compact set with connected complement, if 0 is a boundary point of K and if A_0(K) denotes the subspace of A(K) of those functions that satisfy f(0) = 0, then there exists an A_0(K)-universal formal power series s, where A_0(K)-universal means that the family of partial sums of s forms a dense subset of A_0(K).
In addition, we will show that no formal power series is simultaneously universal for all such K.
The condition on the subspace Q in the main result of Chapter 3 is quite restrictive, but this should not be too surprising: The result applies to the largest possible class of compact sets.
In Chapter 4, we impose a further restriction on the compact sets under consideration, and this will allow us to weaken the condition on the subspace Q. The result that we are going to give is similar to one of those presented in the first chapter, namely the one due to Anderson. In his article “Müntz-Szasz type approximation and the angular growth of lacunary integral functions”, he gives a criterion for a subspace Q of P to be dense in A(K) where K is entirely contained in some closed sector with vertex at the origin.
We will consider compact sets with connected complement that are -- with the possible exception of the origin -- entirely contained in some open sector with vertex at the origin. What we are going to show is that if K\{0} is contained in an open sector of opening angle 2α and if Λ is some subset of the nonnegative integers, then the span of {z → z^λ : λ ϵ Λ} is dense in A(K) whenever 0 ϵ Λ and some Müntz-type condition is satisfied.
Conversely, we will show that if a similar condition is not satisfied, then we can always find a compact set K with connected complement such that K\{0} is contained in some open sector of opening angle 2α and such that the span of {z → z^λ : λ ϵ Λ} fails to be dense in A(K).