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Surveys are commonly tailored to produce estimates of aggregate statistics with a desired level of precision. This may lead to very small sample sizes for subpopulations of interest, defined geographically or by content, which are not incorporated into the survey design. We refer to subpopulations where the sample size is too small to provide direct estimates with adequate precision as small areas or small domains. Despite the small sample sizes, reliable small area estimates are needed for economic and political decision making. Hence, model-based estimation techniques are used which increase the effective sample size by borrowing strength from other areas to provide accurate information for small areas. The paragraph above introduced small area estimation as a field of survey statistics where two conflicting philosophies of statistical inference meet: the design-based and the model-based approach. While the first approach is well suited for the precise estimation of aggregate statistics, the latter approach furnishes reliable small area estimates. In most applications, estimates for both large and small domains based on the same sample are needed. This poses a challenge to the survey planner, as the sampling design has to reflect different and potentially conflicting requirements simultaneously. In order to enable efficient design-based estimates for large domains, the sampling design should incorporate information related to the variables of interest. This may be achieved using stratification or sampling with unequal probabilities. Many model-based small area techniques require an ignorable sampling design such that after conditioning on the covariates the variable of interest does not contain further information about the sample membership. If this condition is not fulfilled, biased model-based estimates may result, as the model which holds for the sample is different from the one valid for the population. Hence, an optimisation of the sampling design without investigating the implications for model-based approaches will not be sufficient. Analogously, disregarding the design altogether and focussing only on the model is prone to failure as well. Instead, a profound knowledge of the interplay between the sample design and statistical modelling is a prerequisite for implementing an effective small area estimation strategy. In this work, we concentrate on two approaches to address this conflict. Our first approach takes the sampling design as given and can be used after the sample has been collected. It amounts to incorporate the survey design into the small area model to avoid biases stemming from informative sampling. Thus, once a model is validated for the sample, we know that it holds for the population as well. We derive such a procedure under a lognormal mixed model, which is a popular choice when the support of the dependent variable is limited to positive values. Besides, we propose a three pillar strategy to select the additional variable accounting for the design, based on a graphical examination of the relationship, a comparison of the predictive accuracy of the choices and a check regarding the normality assumptions.rnrnOur second approach to deal with the conflict is based on the notion that the design should allow applying a wide variety of analyses using the sample data. Thus, if the use of model-based estimation strategies can be anticipated before the sample is drawn, this should be reflected in the design. The same applies for the estimation of national statistics using design-based approaches. Therefore, we propose to construct the design such that the sampling mechanism is non-informative but allows for precise design-based estimates at an aggregate level.

A huge number of clinical studies and meta-analyses have shown that psychotherapy is effective on average. However, not every patient profits from psychotherapy and some patients even deteriorate in treatment. Due to this result and the restricted generalization of clinical studies to clinical practice, a more patient-focused research strategy has emerged. The question whether a particular treatment works for an individual case is the focus of this paradigm. The use of repeated assessments and the feedback of this information to therapists is a major ingredient of patient-focused research. Improving patient outcomes and reducing dropout rates by the use of psychometric feedback seems to be a promising path. Therapists seem to differ in the degree to which they make use of and profit from such feedback systems. This dissertation aims to better understand therapist differences in the context of patient-focused research and the impact of therapists on psychotherapy. Three different studies are included, which focus on different aspects within the field:
Study I (Chapter 5) investigated how therapists use psychometric feedback in their work with patients and how much therapists differ in their usage. Data from 72 therapists treating 648 patients were analyzed. It could be shown that therapists used the psychometric feedback for most of their patients. Substantial variance in the use of feedback (between 27% and 52%) was attributable to therapists. Therapists were more likely to use feedback when they reported being satisfied with the graphical information they received. The results therefore indicated that not only patient characteristics or treatment progress affected the use of feedback.
Study II (Chapter 6) picked up on the idea of analyzing systematic differences in therapists and applied it to the criterion of premature treatment termination (dropout). To answer the question whether therapist effects occur in terms of patients’ dropout rates, data from 707 patients treated by 66 therapists were investigated. It was shown that approximately six percent of variance in dropout rates could be attributed to therapists, even when initial impairment was controlled for. Other predictors of dropout were initial impairment, sex, education, personality styles, and treatment expectations.
Study III (Chapter 7) extends the dissertation by investigating the impact of a transfer from one therapist to another within ongoing treatments. Data from 124 patients who agreed to and experienced a transfer during their treatment were analyzed. A significant drop in patient-rated as well as therapist-rated alliance levels could be observed after a transfer. On average, there seemed to be no difficulties establishing a good therapeutic alliance with the new therapist, although differences between patients were observed. There was no increase in symptom severity due to therapy transfer. Various predictors of alliance and symptom development after transfer were investigated. Impacts on clinical practice were discussed.
Results of the three studies are discussed and general conclusions are drawn. Implications for future research as well as their utility for clinical practice and decision-making are presented.

In order to investigate the psychobiological consequences of acute stress under laboratory conditions, a wide range of methods for socially evaluative stress induction have been developed. The present dissertation is concerned with evaluating a virtual reality (VR)-based adaptation of one of the most widely used of those methods, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). In the three empirical studies collected in this dissertation, we aimed to examine the efficacy and possible areas of application of the adaptation of this well-established psychosocial stressor in a virtual environment. We found that the TSST-VR reliably incites the activation of the major stress effector systems in the human body, albeit in a slightly less pronounced way than the original paradigm. Moreover, the experience of presence is discussed as one potential factor of influence in the origin of the psychophysiological stress response. Lastly, we present a use scenario for the TSST-VR in which we employed the method to investigate the effects of acute stress on emotion recognition performance. We conclude that, due to its advantages concerning versatility, standardization and economic administration, the paradigm harbors enormous potential not only for psychobiological research, but other applications such as clinical practice as well. Future studies should further explore the underlying effect mechanisms of stress in the virtual realm and the implementation of VR-based paradigms in different fields of application.

Optimal Control of Partial Integro-Differential Equations and Analysis of the Gaussian Kernel
(2018)

An important field of applied mathematics is the simulation of complex financial, mechanical, chemical, physical or medical processes with mathematical models. In addition to the pure modeling of the processes, the simultaneous optimization of an objective function by changing the model parameters is often the actual goal. Models in fields such as finance, biology or medicine benefit from this optimization step.
While many processes can be modeled using an ordinary differential equation (ODE), partial differential equations (PDEs) are needed to optimize heat conduction and flow characteristics, spreading of tumor cells in tissue as well as option prices. A partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) is a parital differential equation involving an integral operator, e.g., the convolution of the unknown function with a given kernel function. PIDEs occur for example in models that simulate adhesive forces between cells or option prices with jumps.
In each of the two parts of this thesis, a certain PIDE is the main object of interest. In the first part, we study a semilinear PIDE-constrained optimal control problem with the aim to derive necessary optimality conditions. In the second, we analyze a linear PIDE that includes the convolution of the unknown function with the Gaussian kernel.

Competitive analysis is a well known method for analyzing online algorithms.
Two online optimization problems, the scheduling problems and the list accessing problems, are considered in the thesis of Yida Zhu in the respect of this method.
For both problems, several existing online and offline algorithms are studied. Their performances are compared with the performances of corresponding offline optimal algorithms.
In particular, the list accessing algorithm BIT is carefully reviewed.
The classical proof of its worst case performance get simplified by adapting the knowledge about the optimal offline algorithm.
With regard to average case analysis, a new closed formula is developed to determine the performance of BIT on specific class of instances.
All algorithm considered in this thesis are also implemented in Julia.
Their empirical performances are studied and compared with each other directly.

Interaction between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and the Circadian Clock System in Humans
(2017)

Rotation of the Earth creates day and night cycles of 24 h. The endogenous circadian clocks sense these light/dark rhythms and the master pacemaker situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus entrains the physical activities according to this information. The circadian machinery is built from the transcriptional/translational feedback loops generating the oscillations in all nucleated cells of the body. In addition, unexpected environmental changes, called stressors, also challenge living systems. A response to these stimuli is provided immediately via the autonomic-nervous system and slowly via the hypothalamus"pituitary"adrenal (HPA) axis. When the HPA axis is activated, circulating glucocorticoids are elevated and regulate organ activities in order to maintain survival of the organism. Both the clock and the stress systems are essential for continuity and interact with each other to keep internal homeostasis. The physiological interactions between the HPA axis and the circadian clock system are mainly addressed in animal studies, which focus on the effects of stress and circadian disturbances on cardiovascular, psychiatric and metabolic disorders. Although these studies give opportunity to test in whole body, apply unwelcome techniques, control and manipulate the parameters at the high level, generalization of the results to humans is still a debate. On the other hand, studies established with cell lines cannot really reflect the conditions occurring in a living organism. Thus, human studies are absolutely necessary to investigate mechanisms involved in stress and circadian responses. The studies presented in this thesis were intended to determine the effects of cortisol as an end-product of the HPA axis on PERIOD (PER1, PER2 and PER3) transcripts as circadian clock genes in healthy humans. The expression levels of PERIOD genes were measured under baseline conditions and after stress in whole blood. The results demonstrated here have given better understanding of transcriptional programming regulated by pulsatile cortisol at standard conditions and short-term effects of cortisol increase on circadian clocks after acute stress. These findings also draw attention to inter-individual variations in stress response as well as non-circadian functions of PERIOD genes in the periphery, which need to be examined in details in the future.

The classic Capital Asset Pricing Model and the portfolio theory suggest that investors hold the market portfolio to diversify idiosyncratic risks. The theory predicts that expected return of assets is positive and that reacts linearly on the overall market. However, in reality, we observe that investors often do not have perfectly diversified portfolios. Empirical studies find that new factors influence the deviation from the theoretical optimal investment. In the first part of this work (Chapter 2) we study such an example, namely the influence of maximum daily returns on subsequent returns. Here we follow ideas of Bali et al. (2011). The goal is to find cross-sectional relations between extremely positive returns and expected average returns. We take account a larger number of markets worldwide. Bali et al. (2011) report with respect to the U.S. market a robust negative relation between MAX (the maximum daily return) and the expected return in the subsequent time. We extent substantially their database to a number of other countries, and also take more recent data into account (until end of 2009). From that we conclude that the relation between MAX and expected returns is not consistent in all countries. Moreover, we test the robustness of the results of Bali et al. (2011) in two time-periods using the same data from CRSP. The results show that the effect of extremely positive returns is not stable over time. Indeed we find a negative cross-sectional relation between the extremely positive returns and the average returns for the first half of the time series, however, we do not find significant effects for the second half. The main results of this chapter serve as a basis for an unpublished working paper Yuan and Rieger (2014b). While in Chapter 2 we have studied factors that prevent optimal diversification, we consider in Chapter 3 and 4 situations where the optimal structure of diversification was previously unknown, namely diversification of options (or structured financial products). Financial derivatives are important additional investment form with respect to diversification. Not only common call and put options, but also structured products enable investors to pursue a multitude of investment strategies to improve the risk-return profile. Since derivatives become more and more important, diversification of portfolios with dimension of derivatives is of particularly practical relevance. We investigate the optimal diversification strategies in connection with underlying stocks for classical rational investors with constant relative risk aversion (CRRA). In particular, we apply Monte Carlo method based on the Black-Scholes model and the Heston model for stochastic volatility to model the stock market processes and the pricing of the derivatives. Afterwards, we compare the benchmark portfolio which consists of derivatives on single assets with derivatives on the index of these assets. First we compute the utility improvement of an investment in the risk-free assets and plain-vanilla options for CRRA investors in various scenarios. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to several kinds of structured products, in particular capital protected notes (CPNs), discount certificates (DCs) and bonus certificates (BCs). We find that the decision of an investor between these two diversification strategies leads to remarkable differences. The difference in the utility improvement is influenced by risk-preferences of investors, stock prices and the properties of the derivatives in the portfolio. The results will be presented in Chapter 3 and are the basis for a yet unpublished working paper Yuan and Rieger (2014a). To check furthermore whether underlyings of structured products influence decisions of investors, we discuss explicitly the utility gain of a stock-based product and an index-based product for an investor whose preferences are described by cumulative prospect theory (CPT) (Chapter 4, compare to Yuan (2014)). The goal is that to investigate the dependence of structured products on their underlying where we put emphasis on the difference between index-products and single-stock-products, in particular with respect to loss-aversion and mental accounting. We consider capital protected notes and discount certificates as examples, and model the stock prices and the index of these stocks via Monte Carlo simulations in the Black-Scholes framework. The results point out that market conditions, particularly the expected returns and volatility of the stocks play a crucial role in determining the preferences of investors for stock-based CPNs and index-based CPNs. A median CPT investor prefers the index-based CPNs if the expected return is higher and the volatility is lower, while he prefers the stock-based CPNs in the other situation. We also show that index-based DCs are robustly more attractive as compared to stock-based DCs for CPT investors.

Krylov subspace methods are often used to solve large-scale linear equations arising from optimization problems involving partial differential equations (PDEs). Appropriate preconditioning is vital for designing efficient iterative solvers of this type. This research consists of two parts. In the first part, we compare two different kinds of preconditioners for a conjugate gradient (CG) solver attacking one partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) in finance, both theoretically and numerically. An analysis on mesh independence and rate of convergence of the CG solver is included. The knowledge of preconditioning the PIDE is applied to a relevant optimization problem. The second part aims at developing a new preconditioning technique by embedding reduced order models of nonlinear PDEs, which are generated by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), into deflated Krylov subspace algorithms in solving corresponding optimization problems. Numerical results are reported for a series of test problems.

This thesis discusses revue as a significantly inter-cultural genre in the history of global theatre. During the ‘modernisation’ period in Europe, America and Japan, most major urban cities experienced a boom in revue venues and performances. Few studies about revue have yet been done in theatre studies or in urban cultural studies. My thesis will attempt to reevaluate and redefine revue as a highly intercultural theatre genre by using the concept of liminality. In other words, the aim is to examine revue as a genre built on ‘modern composition of betweenness’, bridging seemingly opposing elements, such as the foreign and the domestic, the classic and the innovative, the traditional and the modern, the professional and the amateur, high and low culture, and the feminine and the masculine. The goal is to regard revue as a liminal genre constructed amidst the negotiations between these binaries, existing in a state of constant flux.
The purpose of this approach is to capture revue as a transitory phenomena in five dimensions: conceptual, spatial, temporal, categorical and physical. Over the course of six chapters, this
inter-disciplinary discussion will reveal the reasons why and the ways by which revue came to establish its prominent position in the Japanese theatre industry. The whole structure is also an attempt to provide plausible ways to apply sociological considerations to theatre studies.

Entrepreneurship is a process of discovering and exploiting opportunities, during which two crucial milestones emerge: in the very beginning when entrepreneurs start their businesses, and in the end when they determine the future of the business. This dissertation examines the establishment and exit of newly created as well as of acquired firms, in particular the behavior and performance of entrepreneurs at these two important stages of entrepreneurship. The first part of the dissertation investigates the impact of characteristics at the individual and at the firm level on an entrepreneur- selection of entry modes across new venture start-up and business takeover. The second part of the dissertation compares firm performance across different entrepreneurship entry modes and then examines management succession issues that family firm owners have to confront. This study has four main findings. First, previous work experience in small firms, same sector experience, and management experience affect an entrepreneur- choice of entry modes. Second, the choice of entry mode for hybrid entrepreneurs is associated with their characteristics, such as occupational experience, level of education, and gender, as well as with the characteristics of their firms, such as location. Third, business takeovers survive longer than new venture start-ups, and both entry modes have different survival determinants. Fourth, the family firm- decision of recruiting a family or a nonfamily manager is not only determined by a manager- abilities, but also by the relationship between the firm- economic and non-economic goals and the measurability of these goals. The findings of this study extend our knowledge on entrepreneurship entry modes by showing that new venture start-ups and business takeovers are two distinct entrepreneurship entry modes in terms of their founders" profiles, their survival rates and survival determinants. Moreover, this study contributes to the literature on top management hiring in family firms: it establishes family firm- non-economic goals as another factor that impacts the family firm- hiring decision between a family and a nonfamily manager.

Numerous RCTs demonstrate that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is effective. However, these findings are not necessarily representative of CBT under routine care conditions. Routine care studies are not usually subjected to comparable standardizations, e.g. often therapists may not follow treatment manuals and patients are less homogeneous with regard to their diagnoses and sociodemographic variables. Results on the transferability of findings from clinical trials to routine care are sparse and point in different directions. As RCT samples are selective due to a stringent application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, comparisons between routine care and clinical trials must be based on a consistent analytic strategy. The present work demonstrates the merits of propensity score matching (PSM), which offers solutions to reduce bias by balancing two samples based on a range of pretreatment differences. The objective of this dissertation is the investigation of the transferability of findings from RCTs to routine care settings.

Educational assessment tends to rely on more or less standardized tests, teacher judgments, and observations. Although teachers spend approximately half of their professional conduct in assessment-related activities, most of them enter their professional life unprepared, as classroom assessment is often not part of their educational training. Since teacher judgments matter for the educational development of students, the judgments should be up to a high standard. The present dissertation comprises three studies focusing on accuracy of teacher judgments (Study 1), consequences of (mis-)judgment regarding teacher nomination for gifted programming (Study 2) and teacher recommendations for secondary school tracks (Study 3), and individual student characteristics that impact and potentially bias teacher judgment (Studies 1 through 3). All studies were designed to contribute to a further understanding of classroom assessment skills of teachers. Overall, the results implied that, teacher judgment of cognitive ability was an important constant for teacher nominations and recommendations but lacked accuracy. Furthermore, teacher judgments of various traits and school achievement were substantially related to social background variables, especially the parents" educational background. However, multivariate analysis showed social background variables to impact nomination and recommendation only marginally if at all. All results indicated differentiated but potentially biased teacher judgments to impact their far-reaching referral decisions directly, while the influence of social background on the referral decisions itself seems mediated. Implications regarding further research practices and educational assessment strategies are discussed. The implications on the needs of teachers to be educated on judgment and educational assessment are of particular interest and importance.

Copositive programming is concerned with the problem of optimizing a linear function over the copositive cone, or its dual, the completely positive cone. It is an active field of research and has received a growing amount of attention in recent years. This is because many combinatorial as well as quadratic problems can be formulated as copositive optimization problems. The complexity of these problems is then moved entirely to the cone constraint, showing that general copositive programs are hard to solve. A better understanding of the copositive and the completely positive cone can therefore help in solving (certain classes of) quadratic problems. In this thesis, several aspects of copositive programming are considered. We start by studying the problem of computing the projection of a given matrix onto the copositive and the completely positive cone. These projections can be used to compute factorizations of completely positive matrices. As a second application, we use them to construct cutting planes to separate a matrix from the completely positive cone. Besides the cuts based on copositive projections, we will study another approach to separate a triangle-free doubly nonnegative matrix from the completely positive cone. A special focus is on copositive and completely positive programs that arise as reformulations of quadratic optimization problems. Among those we start by studying the standard quadratic optimization problem. We will show that for several classes of objective functions, the relaxation resulting from replacing the copositive or the completely positive cone in the conic reformulation by a tractable cone is exact. Based on these results, we develop two algorithms for solving standard quadratic optimization problems and discuss numerical results. The methods presented cannot immediately be adapted to general quadratic optimization problems. This is illustrated with examples.

In this thesis, we investigate the quantization problem of Gaussian measures on Banach spaces by means of constructive methods. That is, for a random variable X and a natural number N, we are searching for those N elements in the underlying Banach space which give the best approximation to X in the average sense. We particularly focus on centered Gaussians on the space of continuous functions on [0,1] equipped with the supremum-norm, since in that case all known methods failed to achieve the optimal quantization rate for important Gauss-processes. In fact, by means of Spline-approximations and a scheme based on the Best-Approximations in the sense of the Kolmogorov n-width we were able to attain the optimal rate of convergence to zero for these quantization problems. Moreover, we established a new upper bound for the quantization error, which is based on a very simple criterion, the modulus of smoothness of the covariance function. Finally, we explicitly constructed those quantizers numerically.

Geographic ranges of species and their determinants are of great interest in the field of biogeography and are often studied in terms of the species" ecological niches. In this context, the range of a species is defined by the accessibility of an area, abiotic factors and biotic interactions, which affect a species" distributions with different intensities across spatial scales. Parapatry describes a distributional pattern in which the ranges of two species meet along sharp range limits with narrow contact zones. Such parapatric range limits are determined by changing abiotic conditions along sharp environmental gradients or can result from interspecific resource competition. However, it has been shown that often the interplay of abiotic conditions and species interactions determine parapatry. The geographic ranges of the land salamanders, Salamandra salamandra and S. atra, narrowly overlap in the European Alps with only few syntopic localities and to date, the cause of parapatry is unknown. The goal of this thesis was thus to identify the importance of abiotic and biotic factors for their parapatric range limits at different spatial scales. On a broad spatial scale, the role of climate for the parapatric range limits of the species was investigated within three contact zones in Switzerland. Climatic conditions at species" records were analysed and species distribution modelling techniques were used to explore the species" climatic niches and to quantify the interspecific niche overlap. Furthermore, it was tested whether the parapatric range limit coincides with a strong climatic gradient. The results revealed distinct niches for the species as well as the presence of strong climatic gradients which could explain the parapatric range limits of the species. Yet, there was a moderate interspecific niche overlap in all contact zones indicating that the species may co-occur and interact with each other in areas where they both find adequate conditions. Comparison among contact zones revealed geographic variation in the species" niches as well as in the climatic conditions at their records suggesting that the species can occur in a much wider range of conditions than they actually do. These findings imply that climate represents a main factor for the species" parapatric range limits. Yet, interspecific niche overlap and the geographic variation provide indirect evidence that interspecific interaction may also affect their spatial distribution. To test whether competition restricts the species" ranges on the habitat scale and to understand local syntopic co-occurrence of the salamanders within their contact zones, site-occupancy modelling was used. This approach allowed to find the habitat predictors that best explain the species" local distribution. While the slope of the site positively affected the occupancy probability of S. salamandra, no tested predictor explained that of S. atra. Also, there was no effect of the occurrence of one species on the occupancy probability of the other providing no evidence for competition. Should competition occur, it does not lead to spatial segregation of the species on this scale. Because biotic interactions most significantly affect the ranges of species on small spatial scales, the microhabitat conditions at locations of the species within syntopic contact zones were compared and a null model analysis was applied to determine their niche overlap. Resource selection probability function models were used to assess those attributes that affect the species" habitat selections. The results revealed species-specific microhabitat preferences related to leaf litter cover, tree number and that the species were active at different temperatures as well as times of the day. The high degree of diurnal activity of S. atra may be due to its preference of forest floor microhabitats that long remain suitable during daytime. Besides, there was a great niche overlap for shelters indicating that the species may compete for this resource. Differential habitat selection and the use of the available shelters at different times of the day may minimize species interactions and allow their local co-occurrence within contact zones. To identify whether the potential infection with the pathogenic chytrid fungus could serve as an alternative biotic explanation for the range margins of S. atra, several populations throughout its range were screened for infection. Since the occurrence of this pathogen was detected mostly at lower altitudes of the Alps, it may confine the range of S. atra to higher elevations. Because chytrid was not detected in any of the samples, the pathogen unlikely plays a role in determining its range limits. Overall, these findings underline the complexity of mechanisms that determine the range margins of parapatric species and provide an important basis for subsequent studies regarding the determinants of the parapatric distribution of the two salamander species.

Shape optimization is of interest in many fields of application. In particular, shape optimization problems arise frequently in technological processes which are modelled by partial differential equations (PDEs). In a lot of practical circumstances, the shape under investigation is parametrized by a finite number of parameters, which, on the one hand, allows the application of standard optimization approaches, but, on the other hand, unnecessarily limits the space of reachable shapes. Shape calculus presents a way to circumvent this dilemma. However, so far shape optimization based on shape calculus is mainly performed using gradient descent methods. One reason for this is the lack of symmetry of second order shape derivatives or shape Hessians. A major difference between shape optimization and the standard PDE constrained optimization framework is the lack of a linear space structure on shape spaces. If one cannot use a linear space structure, then the next best structure is a Riemannian manifold structure, in which one works with Riemannian shape Hessians. They possess the often sought property of symmetry, characterize well-posedness of optimization problems and define sufficient optimality conditions. In general, shape Hessians are used to accelerate gradient-based shape optimization methods. This thesis deals with shape optimization problems constrained by PDEs and embeds these problems in the framework of optimization on Riemannian manifolds to provide efficient techniques for PDE constrained shape optimization problems on shape spaces. A Lagrange-Newton and a quasi-Newton technique in shape spaces for PDE constrained shape optimization problems are formulated. These techniques are based on the Hadamard-form of shape derivatives, i.e., on the form of integrals over the surface of the shape under investigation. It is often a very tedious, not to say painful, process to derive such surface expressions. Along the way, volume formulations in the form of integrals over the entire domain appear as an intermediate step. This thesis couples volume integral formulations of shape derivatives with optimization strategies on shape spaces in order to establish efficient shape algorithms reducing analytical effort and programming work. In this context, a novel shape space is proposed.

The overall objective of this thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of the antecedents, processes, and manifestations of uniqueness-driven consumer behavior. To achieve this goal, five studies have been conducted in Germany and Switzerland with a total of 1048 participants across different demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Two concepts were employed in all studies: Consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU) and general uniqueness perception (GUP). CNFU (Tian, Bearden, & Hunter, 2001), a mainly US"based consumer research concept, measures the individual need, and thus the motivation to acquire, use, and dispose consumer goods in order to develop a unique image. GUP, adapted from the two-component theory of individuality (Kampmeier, 2001), represents a global and direct measure of self-ascribed uniqueness. Study #1 looked at the interrelation of the uniqueness-driven concepts. Therefore, GUP and CNFU were employed in the study as potential psychological factors that influence and predict uniqueness-driven consumer behavior. Different behavioral measures were used: The newly developed possession of individualized products (POIP), the newly developed products for uniqueness display (PFUD), and the already established uniqueness-enhancing behaviors (UEB). Analyses showed that CNFU mediates the relationship between GUP and the behavioral measures in a German speaking setting. Thus, GUP (representing self-perception) was identified as the driver behind CNFU (representing motivation) and the actual consumer behavior. Study #2 examined further manifestations of uniqueness-driven consumer behavior. For this purpose, an extreme form of uniqueness-increasing behavior was researched: Tattooing. The influence of GUP and CNFU on tattooing behavior was investigated using a sample derived from a tattoo exhibition. To do so, a newly developed measure to determine the percentage of the body covered by tattoos was employed. It was revealed that individuals with higher GUP and CNFU levels indeed have a higher tattooing degree. Study #3 further explored the predictive possibilities and limitations of the GUP and CNFU concepts. On the one hand, study #3 specifically looked at the consumption of customized apparel products as mass customization is said to become the standard of the century (Piller & Müller, 2004). It was shown that individuals with higher CNFU levels not only purchased more customized apparel products in the last six months, but also spend more money on them. On the other hand, uniqueness-enhancing activities (UEA), such as travel to exotic places or extreme sports, were investigated by using a newly developed 30-item scale. It was revealed that CNFU partly mediates the GUP and UEA relationship, proving that CNFU indeed predicts a broad range of consumer behaviors and that GUP is the driver behind the need and the behavior. Study #4, entered a new terrain. In contrast to the previous three studies, it explored the so termed "passive" side of uniqueness-seeking in the consumer context. Individuals might feel unique because business companies treat them in a special way. Such a unique customer treatment (UCT) involves activities like customer service or customer relationship management. Study #4 investigated if individuals differ in their need for such a treatment. Hence, with the need for unique customer treatment (NFUCT) a new uniqueness-driven consumer need was introduced and its impact on customer loyalty examined. Analyses, for example, revealed that individuals with high NFUCT levels receiving a high unique customer treatment (UCT) showed the highest customer loyalty, whereas the lowest customer loyalty was found among those individuals with high NFUCT levels receiving a low unique customer treatment (UCT). Study #5 mainly examined the processes behind uniqueness-driven consumer behavior. Here, not only the psychological influences, but also situational influences were examined. This study investigated the impact of a non-personal "indirect" uniqueness manipulation on the consumption of customized apparel products by simultaneously controlling for the influence of GUP and CNFU. Therefore, two equal experimental groups were created. Afterwards, these groups either received an e-mail with a "pro-individualism" campaign or a "pro-collectivism" campaign especially developed for study #5. The conducted experiment revealed that, individuals receiving a "pro-individualism" poster campaign telling the participants that uniqueness is socially appropriate and desired were willing to spend more money on customization options compared to individuals receiving a "pro-collectivism" poster campaign. Hence, not only psychological antecedents such as GUP and CNFU influence uniqueness-driven consumer behavior, but also situational factors.

Software and interactive systems that adapt their behavior to the user are often referred to as Adaptive Systems. These systems infer the user's goals, knowledge or preferences by observing the user's actions. A synposis of 43 published studies demonstrated that only few of the existing systems are evaluated empirically. Most studies failed to show an advantage of the user model. A new framework is proposed that categorizes existing studies and defines an evaluation procedure which is able to uncover failures and maladaptations in the user model. It consists of four layers: evaluation of input data, evaluation of inference, evaluation of adaptation decision and evaluation of total interaction. Exemplary, the framework has been applied to the HTML-Tutor, an online-course that adapts to the learners' knowledge. Several empirical studies are described that test the accuracy of the user models, and explore the effects of adaptation to knowledge respectively prior knowledge. Generalization issues of the approach are discussed.

Legalisation cannot be fully explained by interest politics. If that were the case, the attitudes towards legalisation would be expected to be based on objective interests and actual policies in France and Germany would be expected to be more similar. Nor can it be explained by institutional agency, because there are no hints that states struggle with different normative traditions. Rather, political actors seek to make use of the structures that already exist to guar-antee legitimacy for their actions. If the main concern of governmental actors really is to accumulate legitimacy, as stated in the introduction, then politicians have a good starting position in the case of legalisation of illegal foreigners. Citizens" negative attitudes towards legalisation cannot be explained by imagined labour market competition; income effects play only a secondary role. The most important explanatory factor is the educational level of each individual. Objective interests do not trigger attitudes towards legalisation, but rather a basic men-tal predisposition for or against illegal immigrants who are eligible for legalisation. Politics concerning amnesties are thus not tied to an objectively given structure like the socio-economic composition of the electorate, but are open for political discretion. Attitudes on legalising illegal immigrants can be regarded as being mediated by beliefs and perceptions, which can be used by political agents or altered by political developments. However, politicians must adhere to a national frame of legitimating strategies that cannot be neglected without consequences. It was evident in the cross-country comparison of political debates that there are national systems of reference that provide patterns of interpretation. Legalisation is seen and incorporated into immigration policy in a very specific way that differs from one country to the next. In both countries investigated in this study, there are fundamental debates about which basic principles apply to legalisation and which of these should be held in higher esteem: a legal system able to work, humanitarian rights, practical considerations, etc. The results suggest that legalisation is "technicized" in France by describing it as an unusual but possible pragmatic instrument for the adjustment of the inefficient rule of law. In Germany, however, legalisation is discussed at a more normative level. Proponents of conservative immigration policies regard it as a substantial infringement on the rule of law, so that even defenders of a humanitarian solution for illegal immigrants are not able to challenge this view without significant political harm. But the arguments brought to bear in the debate on legalisation are not necessarily sound because they are not irrefutable facts, but instruments to generate legitimacy, and there are enough possibilities for arguing and persuading because socio-economic factors play a minor role. One of the most important arguments, the alleged pull effect of legalisation, has been subjected to an empirical investigation. In the political debate, it does not make any dif-ference whether this is true or not, insofar as it is not contested by incontrovertible findings. In reality, the results suggest that amnesties indeed exert a small attracting influence on illegal immigration, which has been contested by immigration friendly politicians in the French par-liament. The effect, however, is not large; therefore, some conservative politicians may put too much stress on this argument. Moreover, one can see legalisation as an instrument to restore legitimacy that has slipped away from immigration politics because of a high number of illegally residing foreigners. This aspect explains some of the peculiarities in the French debate on legalisation, e.g. the idea that the coherence of the law is secured by creating exceptional rules for legalising illegal immigrants. It has become clear that the politics of legalisation are susceptible to manipulation by introducing certain interpretations into the political debate, which become predominant and supersede other views. In this study, there are no signs of a systematic misuse of this constellation by any certain actor. However, the history of immigration policy is full of examples of symbolic politics in which a certain measure has been initiated while the actors are totally aware of its lack of effect. Legalisation has escaped this fate so far because it is a specific instrument that is the result of neglecting populist mechanisms rather than an ex-ample of a superficial measure. This result does not apply to policies concerning illegal immi-gration in general, both with regard to concealing a lack of control and flexing the state- muscles.

The presented research aims at providing a first empirical investigation on lexical structure in Chinese with appropriate quantitative methods. The research objects contain individual properties of words (part of speech, polyfunctionality, polysemy, word length), the relationships between properties (part of speech and polyfunctionality, polyfunctionality and polysemy, polysemy and word length) and the lexical structure composed by those properties. Some extant hypotheses in QL, such as distributions of polysemy and the relationship between word length and polysemy, are tested on the data of Chinese, which enrich the applicability of the laws with a language not tested yet. Several original hypotheses such as the distribution of polyfunctionality and the relationship between polyfunctionality and polysemy are set up and inspected.

A big challenge for agriculture in the 21st century is the provision of food safety to fast growing world- population, which not only demands the well utilisation of the available agricultural resources but also to develop new advancements in the mass production of food crops. Wheat is the third largest food crop of the world and Pakistan is the eighth largest wheat producing country globally. Rice is the second most important staple food of Pakistan after wheat, grown in all provinces of the country. Maize is the world- top ranking food crop followed by wheat and rice. The harvested produts have to be stored in different types of storage structures on small or large scale for food as well as seed purpose. In Pakistan, the harvested grains are stored for the whole year till the introduction of fresh produce in order to ensure the regular food supply throughout the year. However, it is this extended storage period making the commodity more vulnerable to insect attacks. Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Liposcelis spp. (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) are the major and most damaging insect pests of stored products all around the world. Various management strategies have been adopted for stored grain insect pests mostly relying upon the use of a broad spectrum of insecticides, but the injudicious use of these chemicals raised various environmental and human health related issues, which necessitate the safe use of the prevailing control measures and evaluation of new and alternative control methods. The application of new chemical insecticides, microbial insecticides (particularly entomopathogenic fungi) and the use of inert dusts (diatomaceous earths) is believed amongst the potential alternatives to generally used insecticides in stored grain insect management system. In the current investigations, laboratory bioassays conducted to evaluate the effects of combining Imidacloprid (new chemistry insecticide) with and without Protect-It (diatomaceous earth formulation) against R. dominica, L. paeta, C. ferrugineus and T. castaneum, on three different grain commodities (i.e. wheat, maize and rice) revealed differences in adult mortality levels among grains and insect species tested. Individually, Imidacloprid was more effective as compared with Protect-It alone and the highest numbers of dead adults were recorded in wheat. The insecticidal efficacy of B. bassiana with Protect-It and DEBBM was also assessed against all test insect species under laboratory conditions. The findings of these studies revealed that the more extended exposure period and the higher combined application rate of B. bassiana and DEs provided the highest mortality of the test insect species. The progeny emergence of each insect species was also greatly suppressed where the highest dose rates of the combined treatments were applied. The residual efficacy of all three control measures Imidacloprid, B. bassiana and DEBBM formulation was also evaluated against all test insect species. The bioassays were carried out after grain treatments and monthly for 6 months. The results indicated that the adult mortality of each test insect species was decreased within the six month storage period, and the integarted application of the test grain protectants enhanced the mortality rates than their alone treatments. The maximum mortality was noted in the combined treatment of DEBBM with Imidacloprid. At the end, the effectiveness of B. bassiana, DEBBM and Imidacloprid applied alone as well as in combinations, against all above mentioned test insect species was also evaluated under field conditions in trials conducted in four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. For each district, a significant difference was observed between treatments, while the combined treatments gave better control of test species as compared with them alone. The least number of surviving adults and minimum percentage of grain damage was observed for the DEBBM and Imidacloprid combination, but DEBBM with B. bassiana provided the best long-term protection as compared with the remaining treatments.

Sample surveys are a widely used and cost effective tool to gain information about a population under consideration. Nowadays, there is an increasing demand not only for information on the population level but also on the level of subpopulations. For some of these subpopulations of interest, however, very small subsample sizes might occur such that the application of traditional estimation methods is not expedient. In order to provide reliable information also for those so called small areas, small area estimation (SAE) methods combine auxiliary information and the sample data via a statistical model.
The present thesis deals, among other aspects, with the development of highly flexible and close to reality small area models. For this purpose, the penalized spline method is adequately modified which allows to determine the model parameters via the solution of an unconstrained optimization problem. Due to this optimization framework, the incorporation of shape constraints into the modeling process is achieved in terms of additional linear inequality constraints on the optimization problem. This results in small area estimators that allow for both the utilization of the penalized spline method as a highly flexible modeling technique and the incorporation of arbitrary shape constraints on the underlying P-spline function.
In order to incorporate multiple covariates, a tensor product approach is employed to extend the penalized spline method to multiple input variables. This leads to high-dimensional optimization problems for which naive solution algorithms yield an unjustifiable complexity in terms of runtime and in terms of memory requirements. By exploiting the underlying tensor nature, the present thesis provides adequate computationally efficient solution algorithms for the considered optimization problems and the related memory efficient, i.e. matrix-free, implementations. The crucial point thereby is the (repetitive) application of a matrix-free conjugated gradient method, whose runtime is drastically reduced by a matrx-free multigrid preconditioner.

Optimal control problems are optimization problems governed by ordinary or partial differential equations (PDEs). A general formulation is given byrn \min_{(y,u)} J(y,u) with subject to e(y,u)=0, assuming that e_y^{-1} exists and consists of the three main elements: 1. The cost functional J that models the purpose of the control on the system. 2. The definition of a control function u that represents the influence of the environment of the systems. 3. The set of differential equations e(y,u) modeling the controlled system, represented by the state function y:=y(u) which depends on u. These kind of problems are well investigated and arise in many fields of application, for example robot control, control of biological processes, test drive simulation and shape and topology optimization. In this thesis, an academic model problem of the form \min_{(y,u)} J(y,u):=\min_{(y,u)}\frac{1}{2}\|y-y_d\|^2_{L^2(\Omega)}+\frac{\alpha}{2}\|u\|^2_{L^2(\Omega)} subject to -\div(A\grad y)+cy=f+u in \Omega, y=0 on \partial\Omega and u\in U_{ad} is considered. The objective is tracking type with a given target function y_d and a regularization term with parameter \alpha. The control function u takes effect on the whole domain \Omega. The underlying partial differential equation is assumed to be uniformly elliptic. This problem belongs to the class of linear-quadratic elliptic control problems with distributed control. The existence and uniqueness of an optimal solution for problems of this type is well-known and in a first step, following the paradigm 'first optimize, then discretize', the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions are derived by means of the adjoint equation which ends in a characterization of the optimal solution in form of an optimality system. In a second step, the occurring differential operators are approximated by finite differences and the hence resulting discretized optimality system is solved with a collective smoothing multigrid method (CSMG). In general, there are several optimization methods for solving the optimal control problem: an application of the implicit function theorem leads to so-called black-box approaches where the PDE-constrained optimization problem is transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem and the reduced gradient for these reduced functional is computed via the adjoint approach. Another possibilities are Quasi-Newton methods, which approximate the Hessian by a low-rank update based on gradient evaluations, Krylov-Newton methods or (reduced) SQP methods. The use of multigrid methods for optimization purposes is motivated by its optimal computational complexity, i.e. the number of required computer iterations scales linearly with the number of unknowns and the rate of convergence, which is independent of the grid size. Originally multigrid methods are a class of algorithms for solving linear systems arising from the discretization of partial differential equations. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the investigation of the implementability and the efficiency of the CSMG on commodity graphics cards. GPUs (graphic processing units) are designed for highly parallelizable graphics computations and possess many cores of SIMD-architecture, which are able to outperform the CPU regarding to computational power and memory bandwidth. Here they are considered as prototype for prospective multi-core computers with several hundred of cores. When using GPUs as streamprocessors, two major problems arise: data have to be transferred from the CPU main memory to the GPU main memory, which can be quite slow and the limited size of the GPU main memory. Furthermore, only when the streamprocessors are fully used to capacity, a remarkable speed-up comparing to a CPU is achieved. Therefore, new algorithms for the solution of optimal control problems are designed in this thesis. To this end, a nonoverlapping domain decomposition method is introduced which allows the exploitation of the computational power of many GPUs resp. CPUs in parallel. This algorithm is based on preliminary work for elliptic problems and enhanced for the application to optimal control problems. For the domain decomposition into two subdomains the linear system for the unknowns on the interface is solved with a Schur complement method by using a discrete approximation of the Steklov-Poincare operator. For the academic optimal control problem, the arising capacitance matrix can be inverted analytically. On this basis, two different algorithms for the nonoverlapping domain decomposition for the case of many subdomains are proposed in this thesis: on the one hand, a recursive approach and on the other hand a simultaneous approach. Numerical test compare the performance of the CSMG for the one domain case and the two approaches for the multi-domain case on a GPU and CPU for different variants.

Nonlocal operators are used in a wide variety of models and applications due to many natural phenomena being driven by nonlocal dynamics. Nonlocal operators are integral operators allowing for interactions between two distinct points in space. The nonlocal models investigated in this thesis involve kernels that are assumed to have a finite range of nonlocal interactions. Kernels of this type are used in nonlocal elasticity and convection-diffusion models as well as finance and image analysis. Also within the mathematical theory they arouse great interest, as they are asymptotically related to fractional and classical differential equations.
The results in this thesis can be grouped according to the following three aspects: modeling and analysis, discretization and optimization.
Mathematical models demonstrate their true usefulness when put into numerical practice. For computational purposes, it is important that the support of the kernel is clearly determined. Therefore nonlocal interactions are typically assumed to occur within an Euclidean ball of finite radius. In this thesis we consider more general interaction sets including norm induced balls as special cases and extend established results about well-posedness and asymptotic limits.
The discretization of integral equations is a challenging endeavor. Especially kernels which are truncated by Euclidean balls require carefully designed quadrature rules for the implementation of efficient finite element codes. In this thesis we investigate the computational benefits of polyhedral interaction sets as well as geometrically approximated interaction sets. In addition to that we outline the computational advantages of sufficiently structured problem settings.
Shape optimization methods have been proven useful for identifying interfaces in models governed by partial differential equations. Here we consider a class of shape optimization problems constrained by nonlocal equations which involve interface-dependent kernels. We derive the shape derivative associated to the nonlocal system model and solve the problem by established numerical techniques.

For the first time, the German Census 2011 will be conducted via a new method the register based census. In contrast to a traditional census, where all inhabitants are surveyed, the German government will mainly attempt to count individuals using population registers of administrative authorities, such as the municipalities and the Federal Employment Agency. Census data that cannot be collected from the registers, such as information on education, training, and occupation, will be collected by an interview-based sample survey. Moreover, the new method reduces citizens' obligations to provide information and helps reduce costs significantly. The use of sample surveys is limited if results with a detailed regional or subject-matter breakdown have to be prepared. Classical estimation methods are sometimes criticized, since estimation is often problematic for small samples. Fortunately, model based small area estimators serve as an alternative. These methods help to increase the information, and hence the effective sample size. In the German Census 2011 it is possible to embed areas on a map in a geographical context. This may offer additional information, such as neighborhood relations or spatial interactions. Standard small area models, like Fay-Herriot or Battese-Harter-Fuller, do not account for such interactions explicitly. The aim of our work is to extend the classical models by integrating the spatial information explicitly into the model. In addition, the possible gain in efficiency will be analyzed.

In this thesis, in order to shed light on the biological function of the membrane-bound Glucocorticoid Receptor (mGR), proteomic changes induced by 15 min in vivo acute stress and by short in vitro activation of the mGR were analyzed in T-lymphocytes. The numerous overlaps between the two datasets suggest that the mGR mediates physiologically relevant actions and participates in the early stress response, triggering rapid early priming events that pave the way for the slower genomic GC activities. In addition, a new commercially available method with suitable sensitivity to detect the human mGR is reported and the transcriptional origin of this protein investigated. Our results indicates that specific GR-transcripts, containing exon 1C and 1D, are associated with the expression of this membrane isoform.

Today obesity has been recognized as a disease. Evidence suggests that obesity often has Genetic, environmental, psychological and other factors. Growing evidence points to heredity as a strong determining factor of obesity. The characterization of uncoupling proteins (UCP) represents a major breakthrough of genetic factors towards understanding the molecular basis for energy expenditure and therefore likely to have important implication for the cause and treatment of human obesity. UCPs as mitochondrial anion carriers which creates a pathway that allows dissipation of the proton electrochemical gradient therefore which when deregulated are key risk factors in the development of obesity and other eating disorders. In order to better understand the roles of both UCP2 and UCP3 which considered as prime candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, this study elucidate (1) Genomic organization: The human UCP2 (3) gene spans over 8.7 kb (7.5 kb) distributed on 8 (7) exons. Three UCP genes may have evolved from a common ancestor or are the result from gene duplication events. Two mRNA transcripts are generated from hUCP3 gene, the long and short form of hUCP3 is differing by the presence or absence of 37 amino acid residues at the C-terminus. (2) Mutational analysis revealed a mutation in exon 4 of hUCP2 resulting in the substitution of an alanine by a valine at codon 55 and an insertion polymorphism in exon 8 consisted of a 45 bp repeat located 150 bp downstream of the stop codon in the 3'-UTR. The allele frequencies of both polymorphisms were not significantly elevated in a subgroup of children characterized by low Resting Metabolic Rates (RMR). (3) Promoter Analysis showed that the promoter region of hUCP2 lacks a classical TATA or CAAT box. Functional characterization of hUCP2 promoter showed that minimal promoter activity was observed within 65 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. 75 bp further upstream a strong cis-acting regulatory element was identified which significantly enhanced basal promoter activity. The regulation of human UCP2 gene expression involves complex interactions among positive and negative regulatory elements. the 5"-flanking region of the hUCP3 gene were characterized in which contains both TATA and CAAT boxes as well as consensus motifs for PPRE, TRE, CRE and muscle-specific MyoD and MEF2 sites. Functional characterization identified a cis-acting negative regulatory element between - 2983 and -982 while the region between -982 and -284 showed greatly increased basal promoter activity suggesting the presence of a strong enhancer element. Promoter activity was particularly enhanced in the murine skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 reflecting the tissue-selective expression pattern of UCP3.

Cortisol exhibits typical ultradian and circadian rhythm and disturbances in its secretory pattern have been described in stress-related pathology. The aim of this thesis was to dissect the underlying structure of cortisol pulsatility and to develop tools to investigate the effects of this pulsatility on immune cell trafficking and the responsiveness of the neuroendocrine system and GR target genes to stress. Deconvolution modeling was set up as a tool for investigation of the pulsatile secretion underlying the ultradian cortisol rhythm. This further allowed us to investigate the role of the single cortisol pulses on the immune cell trafficking and the role of induced cortisol pulses on the kinetics of expression of GR target genes. The development of these three tools, would allow to induce and investigate in future the significance of single cortisol pulses for health and disease.

The skin is continuously challenged by environmental antigens that may penetrate and elicit a skin sensitization, which can develop into allergic contact dermatitis. Medical treatment for allergic contact dermatitis is limited - in fact only acute symptoms can be cured and for secondary prevention of the disease a lifelong avoidance of the allergen(s) is necessary. Therefore, the screening of the sensitization potential of substance used in commercially available products is indispensable to prevent such diseases. Hence, risk assessment is deduced from data obtained by murine local lymph node assay predominantly, but there exists a need to develop methods capable of providing the same information that do not require the use of animals in view of legislative initiatives such as REACH (registration, evaluation, authorization of chemicals) as well as the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive (2003/15/EC). Therefore, a number of promising in silico and in vitro approaches are being developed to address this need. In vitro test systems using the response of dendritic cells, which are the key player in the elicitation process of contact dermatitis, are established, but, although these novel methods for hazard identification might find application in the context of screening, it is not clear whether these approaches are useful for the purposes of risk assessment and risk management to predict allergic potency. Therefore, it was investigated whether on the one hand in vitro generated dendritic cells from primary blood monocytes (MoDC) and on the other hand a continuous monocytic cell line, the THP-1 cells, suggested as dendritic cell surrogate, react to a presumably weak allergen. Ascaridol, predicted as one of the possible causes for tea tree oil contact dermatitis, was studied and its effects in these two in vitro skin sensitization models were explored. Thus, the surface expression of CD86, HLADR, CD54, and CD40, which are known as activation markers in both in vitro models, were measured via flow cytometry. For MoDC, an augmented CD86 and HLADR surface expression in comparison to untreated cells were determined after 24 h exposure with ascaridol. An increased CD54 and CD40 surface expression were found only in some donors. After long term incubation of 96 h, ascaridol-treated MoDC still up-regulated CD86 and additionally an augmented CD40 expression was measured in all studied donors. An enhanced CD54 expression was determined for 50 percentage of all investigated donors. Furthermore, CD80, CD83 and CD209 protein expression were up-regulated in MoDC after 96 h of ascaridol incubation. In addition, it was determined that after 24 h ascaridol-treated MoDC showed an increased capacity to uptake antigens, whereas after 96 h this capacity got lost and antigen-capturing devices were reduced in comparison to non-treated MoDC. Moreover, the cytokine release of ascaridol-treated MoDC were measured after 24 h. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL 6 secretion were determined in some donors. Furthermore, IL-8 release was clearly increased after 24 h ascaridol treatment. By the same token, THP-1 cells were analyzed after ascaridol treatment for several activation markers. We found a similar response pattern as measured in MoDC. Ascaridol induced CD86 expression as well as CD54 after 24 h incubation. Additionally, the impact of ascaridol on phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which had been shown to be involved in increased expression of activation markers like CD86 by others, were studied via Western blot analysis. A phosphorylation of p38 was determined after 15 min of ascaridol stimulation. Moreover, an augmented CD40 and HLADR surface expression were measured in a dose-response manner after 24 h ascaridol treatment. Also similar to MoDC an enhanced IL-8 secretion after ascaridol stimulation was observed in THP-1 cells. Hence, for the first time it was shown that ascaridol has immuno-modulating effects. The obtained data from both in vitro systems, MoDC and THP-1 cells, identified ascaridol as a sensitizer. Although for both systems there remain significant challenges to overcome for potency assessment, ascaridol is presumed to be a weak sensitizer probably. Interestingly, ascaridol treatment of THP-1 cells resulted also in an increased augmentation of CD184 and CCR2, two chemokine receptors expressed on monocyte. Therefore, these data encouraged the exploration of chemokine receptors as tools in skin sensitization prediction. Consequently, the combination of chemical assays with in vitro techniques may provide a useful surrogate to animal testing for skin sensitization. Due to the continuously changing environmental conditions, it is necessary to regularly monitor and update the spectrum of sensitizers that elicit contact dermatitis. Therefore, both debated in vitro test systems will become indispensable tools.

Matching problems with additional resource constraints are generalizations of the classical matching problem. The focus of this work is on matching problems with two types of additional resource constraints: The couple constrained matching problem and the level constrained matching problem. The first one is a matching problem which has imposed a set of additional equality constraints. Each constraint demands that for a given pair of edges either both edges are in the matching or none of them is in the matching. The second one is a matching problem which has imposed a single equality constraint. This constraint demands that an exact number of edges in the matching are so-called on-level edges. In a bipartite graph with fixed indices of the nodes, these are the edges with end-nodes that have the same index. As a central result concerning the couple constrained matching problem we prove that this problem is NP-hard, even on bipartite cycle graphs. Concerning the complexity of the level constrained perfect matching problem we show that it is polynomially equivalent to three other combinatorial optimization problems from the literature. For different combinations of fixed and variable parameters of one of these problems, the restricted perfect matching problem, we investigate their effect on the complexity of the problem. Further, the complexity of the assignment problem with an additional equality constraint is investigated. In a central part of this work we bring couple constraints into connection with a level constraint. We introduce the couple and level constrained matching problem with on-level couples, which is a matching problem with a special case of couple constraints together with a level constraint imposed on it. We prove that the decision version of this problem is NP-complete. This shows that the level constraint can be sufficient for making a polynomially solvable problem NP-hard when being imposed on that problem. This work also deals with the polyhedral structure of resource constrained matching problems. For the polytope corresponding to the relaxation of the level constrained perfect matching problem we develop a characterization of its non-integral vertices. We prove that for any given non-integral vertex of the polytope a corresponding inequality which separates this vertex from the convex hull of integral points can be found in polynomial time. Regarding the calculation of solutions of resource constrained matching problems, two new algorithms are presented. We develop a polynomial approximation algorithm for the level constrained matching problem on level graphs, which returns solutions whose size is at most one less than the size of an optimal solution. We then describe the Objective Branching Algorithm, a new algorithm for exactly solving the perfect matching problem with an additional equality constraint. The algorithm makes use of the fact that the weighted perfect matching problem without an additional side constraint is polynomially solvable. In the Appendix, experimental results of an implementation of the Objective Branching Algorithm are listed.

We will consider discrete dynamical systems (X,T) which consist of a state space X and a linear operator T acting on X. Given a state x in X at time zero, its state at time n is determined by the n-th iteration T^n(x). We are interested in the long-term behaviour of this system, that means we want to know how the sequence (T^n (x))_(n in N) behaves for increasing n and x in X. In the first chapter, we will sum up the relevant definitions and results of linear dynamics. In particular, in topological dynamics the notions of hypercyclic, frequently hypercyclic and mixing operators will be presented. In the setting of measurable dynamics, the most important definitions will be those of weakly and strongly mixing operators. If U is an open set in the (extended) complex plane containing 0, we can define the Taylor shift operator on the space H(U) of functions f holomorphic in U as Tf(z) = (f(z)- f(0))/z if z is not equal to 0 and otherwise Tf(0) = f'(0). In the second chapter, we will start examining the Taylor shift on H(U) endowed with the topology of locally uniform convergence. Depending on the choice of U, we will study whether or not the Taylor shift is weakly or strongly mixing in the Gaussian sense. Next, we will consider Banach spaces of functions holomorphic on the unit disc D. The first section of this chapter will sum up the basic properties of Bergman and Hardy spaces in order to analyse the dynamical behaviour of the Taylor shift on these Banach spaces in the next part. In the third section, we study the space of Cauchy transforms of complex Borel measures on the unit circle first endowed with the quotient norm of the total variation and then with a weak-* topology. While the Taylor shift is not even hypercyclic in the first case, we show that it is mixing for the latter case. In Chapter 4, we will first introduce Bergman spaces A^p(U) for general open sets and provide approximation results which will be needed in the next chapter where we examine the Taylor shift on these spaces on its dynamical properties. In particular, for 1<=p<2 we will find sufficient conditions for the Taylor shift to be weakly mixing or strongly mixing in the Gaussian sense. For p>=2, we consider specific Cauchy transforms in order to determine open sets U such that the Taylor shift is mixing on A^p(U). In both sections, we will illustrate the results with appropriate examples. Finally, we apply our results to universal Taylor series. The results of Chapter 5 about the Taylor shift allow us to consider the behaviour of the partial sums of the Taylor expansion of functions in general Bergman spaces outside its disc of convergence.

The main aim of "Her Idoll Selfe"? Shaping Identity in Early Modern Women- Self-Writings is to offer fresh readings of as yet little-read early modern women- texts. I look at a variety of texts that are either explicitly concerned with the constitution of the writer- self, such as the autobiographies by Lady Grace Mildmay and Martha Moulsworth, or in which the preoccupation with the self is of a more indirect nature, as in the mothers" advice books by Elizabeth Grymeston, Dorothy Leigh, Elizabeth Richardson or the anonymous M. R., or even in women- poetry, drama and religious verse. I situate the texts in the context of early modern discourses of femininity and subjectivity to pursue the question in how far it was possible for early modern women to achieve a sense of agency in spite of their culturally marginal position. In that, my readings aim to contribute to the ongoing critical process of decentring the early modern period. At the same time, I draw on contemporary theory as a methodological tool that can open up further dimensions of the texts, especially in places where the texts provide clues and parallels that lend themselves to a theoretical approach. Conversely, the texts themselves shed interesting light on feminist and poststructuralist theory and can serve as testing grounds for the current critical fascination with fragmentation and hybridity. Having outlined the theoretical and methodological framework of my study, I then analyse the women- writings with reference to a matrix of paradigmatic dimensions that encompass their most prominently recurring themes: the notion of writing the self, relationships between self and other, demarcations of private and public, the women- notorious preoccupation with self-loss and death, as well as the recurrent theme of the "golden meane". I suggest that this motif can provide the vital cue to early modern women- constitution of self. The idea of a precarious "golden meane" links in with to parallel discourses of moderation and balance at the time, but reinterprets them in a manner that can present a workable and innovative paradigm of subjectivity. Instead of subscribing to a model of decentred selfhood, early modern women- presentations of self suggest that a concluding but contested compromise is a workable strategy to achieve a form of selfhood that can responsibly be lived with.

Cortisol is a stress hormone that acts on the central nervous system in order to support adaptation and time-adjusted coping processes. Whereas previous research has focused on slow emerging, genomic effects of cortisol likely mediated by protein synthesis, there is only limited knowledge about rapid, non-genomic cortisol effects on in vivo neuronal cell activity in humans. Three independent placebo-controlled studies in healthy men were conducted to test effects of 4 mg cortisol on central nervous system activity, occurring within 15 minutes after intravenous administration. Two of the studies (N = 26; N = 9) used continuous arterial spin labeling as a magnetic resonance imaging sequence, and found rapid bilateral thalamic perfusion decrements. The third study (N = 14) revealed rapid cortisol-induced changes in global signal strength and map complexity of the electroencephalogram. The observed changes in neuronal functioning suggest that cortisol may act on the thalamic relay of non-relevant background as well as on task specific sensory information in order to facilitate the adaptation to stress challenges. In conclusion, these results are the first to coherently suggest that a physiologically plausible amount of cortisol profoundly affects functioning and perfusion of the human CNS in vivo by a rapid, non-genomic mechanism.

Design and structural optimization has become a very important field in industrial applications over the last years. Due to economical and ecological reasons, the efficient use of material is of highly industrial interest. Therefore, computational tools based on optimization theory have been developed and studied in the last decades. In this work, different structural optimization methods are considered. Special attention lies on the applicability to three-dimensional, large-scale, multiphysic problems, which arise from different areas of the industry. Based on the theory of PDE-constraint optimization, descent methods in structural optimization require knowledge of the (partial) derivatives with respect to shape or topology variations. Therefore, shape and topology sensitivity analysis is introduced and the connection between both sensitivities is given by the Topological-Shape Sensitivity Method. This method leads to a systematic procedure to compute the topological derivative by terms of the shape sensitivity. Due to the framework of moving boundaries in structural optimization, different interface tracking techniques are presented. If the topology of the domain is preserved during the optimization process, explicit interface tracking techniques, combined with mesh-deformation, are used to capture the interface. This techniques fit very well the requirements in classical shape optimization. Otherwise, an implicit representation of the interface is of advantage if the optimal topology is unknown. In this case, the level set method is combined with the concept of the topological derivative to deal with topological perturbation. The resulting methods are applied to different industrial problems. On the one hand, interface shape optimization for solid bodies subject to a transient heat-up phase governed by both linear elasticity and thermal stresses is considered. Therefore, the shape calculus is applied to coupled heat and elasticity problems and a generalized compliance objective function is studied. The resulting thermo-elastic shape optimization scheme is used for compliance reduction of realistic hotplates. On the other hand, structural optimization based on the topological derivative for three-dimensional elasticity problems is observed. In order to comply typical volume constraints, a one-shot augmented Lagrangian method is proposed. Additionally, a multiphase optimization approach based on mesh-refinement is used to reduce the computational costs and the method is illustrated by classical minimum compliance problems. Finally, the topology optimization algorithm is applied to aero-elastic problems and numerical results are presented.

Hydrodynamic processes play a fundamental role in the distribution of salt within mangrove-fringed estuaries and mangrove forests. In this thesis, two hydrodynamic processes and their ecological implications were examined. (1) Passive Irrigation and Functional Morphology of Crustacean Burrows in Rhizophora-forests. The mangrove Rhizophora excludes more than 90% of the seawater salt at water intake at the roots. By means of conductivity methods and resin casting, it was found that crustacean burrows play a key role in the removal of excess salt from the root zone. Salt diffuses from the roots into the burrows, and is efficiently flushed from the burrows by rainwater infiltration and tidal irrigation. The burrows contribute significantly to favourable conditions for the growth of Rhizophora trees. (2) Trapping of Mangrove Propagules due to Density-driven Secondary Circulation in Tropical Estuaries. In North East Australian estuaries, mangrove propagules are drifted upstream by density-driven axial surface convergences. Propagules accumulate in hydrodynamic traps upstream from suitable habitat, where they are trapped at least for the entire tropical dry season. Axial convergences may provide an efficient barrier for propagule exchange across estuaries. In such estuaries, mangrove populations can be regarded as floristically isolated, not unlike island communities, even though the populations lie on a continuous coastline. This effect may contribute to the disjunct distribution observed in some mangrove species. The outcomes of this work contribute to the understanding of the importance of salt as a growth and habitat-restricting factor in the mangrove environment.

During the last decade, anatomic and physiological neuroscience research has yielded extensive information on the physiological regulators of short-term satiety, visceral and interoceptive sensation. Distinct neural circuits regulate the elements of food ingestion physiologically. The general aim of the current studies is to elucidate the peripheral neural pathways to the brain in healthy subjects to establish the groundwork for the study of the pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa (BN). We aimed to define the central activation pattern during non-nutritive gastric distension in humans, and aimed to define the cognitive responses to this mechanical gastric distension. We estimated regional cerebral blood flow with 15O-water positron emission tomography during intragastric balloon inflation and deflation in 18 healthy young women of normal weight. The contrast between inflated minus deflated in the exploratory analysis revealed activation in more than 20 brain regions. The analysis confirmed several well known areas in the central nervous system that contribute to visceral processing: the inferior frontal cortex, representing a zone of convergence for food related stimuli; the insula and operculum referred to as "visceral cortex"; the anterior cingulate gyrus (and insula), processing affective information; and the brainstem, a site of vagal relay for visceral afferent stimuli. Brain activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was reproducible. This area is well known for higher cognitive processing, especially reward-related stimuli. The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex with the insular regions may provide a link between the affective and rewarding components of eating and disordered eating as observed in BN and binge-eating obesity. Gastric distension caused a significant rapid, reversible, and reproducible increase in the feelings of fullness, sleepiness, and gastric discomfort as well as a significant rapid, reversible, and reproducible decrease in the feeling of hunger. We showed that mechanical activation of the neurocircuitry involved in meal termination led to the described phenomena. The current brain activation studies of non-painful, proximal gastric distension could provide groundwork in the field of abnormal eating behavior by suggesting a link between visceral sensation and abnormal eating patterns. A potential treatment for disordered eating and obesity could alter the conscious and unconscious perception and interoceptive awareness of gastric distension contributing to meal termination.

The main research question of this thesis was to set up a framework to allow for the identification of land use changes in drylands and reveal their underlying drivers. The concept of describing land cover change processes in a framework of global change syndrome was introduced by Schellnhuber et al. (1997). In a first step the syndrome approach was implemented for semi-natural areas of the Iberian Peninsula based on time series analysis of the MEDOKADS archive. In the subsequent study the approach was expanded and adapted to other land cover strata. Furthermore, results of an analysis of the relationship of annual NDVI and rainfall data were incorporated to designate areas that show a significant relationship indicating that at least a part of the variability found in NDVI time series was caused by precipitation. Additionally, a first step was taken towards the integration of socio-economic data into the analysis; population density changes between 1961 and 2008 were utilized to support the identification of processes related to land abandonment accompanied by cessation of agricultural practices on the one hand and urbanization on the other. The main findings of the studies comprise three major land cover change processes caused by human interaction: (i) shrub and woody vegetation encroachment in the wake of land abandonment of marginal areas, (ii) intensification of non-irrigated and irrigated, intensively used fertile regions and (iii) urbanization trends along the coastline caused by migration and the increase of mass tourism. Land abandonment of cultivated fields and the give-up of grazing areas in marginal mountainous areas often lead to the encroachment of shrubs and woody vegetation in the course of succession or reforestation. Whereas this cover change has positive effects concerning soil stabilization and carbon sequestration the increase of biomass involves also negative consequences for ecosystem goods and services; these include decreased water yield as a result of increased evapotranspiration, increasing fire risk, decreasing biodiversity due to landscape homogenization and loss of aesthetic value. Arable land in intensively used fertile zones of Spain was further intensified including the expansion of irrigated arable land. The intensification of agriculture has also generated land abandonment in these areas because less people are needed in the agricultural labour sector due to mechanization. Urbanization effects due to migration and the growth of the tourism sector were mapped along the eastern Mediterranean coast. Urban sprawl was only partly detectable by means of the MEDOKADS archive as the changes of urbanization are often too subtle to be detected by data with a spatial resolution of 1 km-². This is in line with a comparison of a Landsat TM time series and the NOAA AVHRR archive for a study area in the Greece that showed that small scale changes cannot be detected based on this approach, even though they might be of high relevance for local management of resources. This underlines the fact that land degradation processes are multi-scale problems and that data of several spatial and temporal scales are mandatory to build a comprehensive dryland observation system. Further land cover processes related to a decrease of greenness did not play an important role in the observation period. Thus, only few patches were identified, suggesting that no large-scale land degradation processes are taking place in the sense of decline of primary productivity after disturbances. Nevertheless, the land cover processes detected impact ecosystem functioning and using the example of shrub encroachment, bear risks for the provision of goods and services which can be valued as land degradation in the sense of a decline of important ecosystem goods and services. This risk is not only confined to the affected ecosystem itself but can also impact adjacent ecosystems due to inter-linkages. In drylands water availability is of major importance and the management of water resources is an important political issue. In view of climate change this topic will become even more important because aridity in Spain did increase within the last decades and is likely to further do so. In addition, the land cover changes detected by the syndrome approach could even augment water scarcity problems. Whereas the water yield of marginal areas, which often serve as headwaters of rivers, decreases with increasing biomass, water demand of agriculture and tourism is not expected to decline. In this context it will be of major importance to evaluate the trade-offs between different land uses and to take decisions that maintain the future functioning of the ecosystems for human well-being.

The human brain is characterised by two apparently symmetrical cerebral hemispheres. However, the functions attributed to each half of the brain are very distinct with a relative specialisation of the left hemisphere for language processing. Most laterality research has been performed on a behavioural level, using techniques such as visual half-field presentation. The visual half-field technique involves the presentation of stimuli in the left or right visual field for a very short time (about 200 ms). During the presentation of lateralized stimuli, the gaze of the participants is fixated on a centrally presented fixation cross. This technique takes advantage of the anatomy of the visual pathway as the temporal hemiretinae project ipsilateral, while the nasal hemiretinae project contralateral. Thus, stimuli presented in the left or right visual field are initially processed in the contralateral hemisphere. Language organisation can also be directly investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both behavioural and neuroimaging studies showed that about 95% of right-handed men have a left hemispheric specialisation for language. In contrast, data on language organisation in women are ambiguous. It is supposed that this ambivalent picture might be associated with changes in gonadal steroid levels in blood during the menstrual cycle. However, gonadal steroid effects are complex and their role in functional cerebral lateralization is still open to discussion. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate, using fMRI: (1) the processing of linguistic information initially received in the specialised, non-specialised or both hemispheres; (2) linking the associated brain activation pattern with progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle. Firstly, brain activation was measured in 16 right-handed, healthy males during processing of different components of language (orthography, phonology and semantics) after reception in the left, right or both hemispheres. Secondly, to investigate changes in language organisation during the menstrual cycle, we conducted an event-related fMRI study during semantic and phonological processing also using visual half-field and central presentation of linguistic stimuli. Our results revealed higher BOLD signal intensity change in the visual cortex contralateral to the visual field of stimulus presentation compared to the ipsilateral visual cortex reflecting the crossing of visual pathways. We also found support for the hypothesis that the superiority of word recognition in the left VWFA is the result of a reduced activity in the right VWFA under left hemispheric control. Further, linguistic information received in the subdominant RH, is interhemispheric transferred to the left hemisphere for phonological processing. Semantic processing in contrast occurs in the specialised and in the non-specialised hemisphere. For the group of women, data analysis revealed that during semantic processing, salivary progesterone levels correlated positively with brain activity of the left superior frontal gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyri and bilateral fusiform gyrus. In contrast, the brain activation pattern for phonological processing did not change significantly across the menstrual cycle. In conclusion, the effect of serum progesterone levels on brain activity is task and region specific.

Today, usage of complex circuit designs in computers, in multimedia applications and communication devices is widespread and still increasing. At the same time, due to Moore's Law we do not expect to see an end in the growth of the complexity of digital circuits. The decreasing ability of common validation techniques -- like simulation -- to assure correctness of a circuit design enlarges the need for formal verification techniques. Formal verification delivers a mathematical proof that a given implementation of a design fulfills its specification. One of the basic and during the last years widely used data structure in formal verification are the so called Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) introduced by R. Bryant in 1986. The topic of this thesis is integration of structural high-level information in the OBDD-based formal verification of sequential systems. This work consist of three major parts, covering different layers of formal verification applications: At the application layer, an assertion checking methodology, integrated in the verification flow of the high-level design and verification tool Protocol Compiler is presented. At the algorithmic layer, new approaches for partitioning of transition relations of complex finite state machines, that significantly improve the performance of OBDD-based sequential verification are introduced. Finally, at the data structure level, dynamic variable reordering techniques that drastically reduce the time required for reordering without a trade-off in OBDD-size are described. Overall, this work demonstrates how a tighter integration of applications by using structural information can significantly improve the efficiency of formal verification applications in an industrial setting.

This thesis presents a study of tsunami deposits created by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at the Thai Andaman coast. The outcomes of a study are the characteristics of tsunami deposit for paleo-tsunami database, the identification of major sediment layers in tsunami deposit and the reconstructing tsunami run-ups from the characteristics of tsunami deposit for a coastal development program. The investigations of tsunami deposit are made almost 3 years after the event. Field investigations characterize the tsunami deposit as a distinct sediment layer variable in thickness of gray sand deposited with an erosional basis on a pre-existing soil. The best location for the observation of recent tsunami deposit is the area located about 50-200 m inland from the coastline. In most cases, the deposit layer is normally graded. In some cases, the deposit contains rip-up clasts of muddy soils and/or organic matters. The tsunami deposits are compared with three deposits from coastal sub-environments. The mean grain-size and standard deviation of deposits show that the shoreface deposits are fine to very fine sand, poorly to moderately well sorted; the swash zone deposits are coarse to fine sand, poorly to well sorted; the berm/dune deposits are medium to fine sand, poorly to well sorted; and the tsunami deposits are coarse to very fine sand, poorly to moderately well sorted. The plots of deposit mean grain-size versus sorting indicate that the tsunami deposits are composed of shoreface deposits, swash zone deposits and berm/dune deposits as well. The vertical variation of the texture of tsunami deposit shows that the mean grain-size fines upward and fining landward. The analysis and interpretation of the run-up numbers from the characteristics of tsunami deposits get three run-ups for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at the Thai Andaman coast. It corresponds to field observations from the eye-witness reports and local people- affirmations. The total deposition is a major transportation pattern of onshore tsunami sediments. The sediments must fine in the direction of transport. In general, the major origins of the sediment are the swash zone and berm/dune zone where coarse to medium sand is a significant material, the minor origin of tsunami sediment is a shoreface where a significant material is fine to very fine sand. Only at an area with flat slope shorface, the major origin of tsunami sediment is the shoreface. The thicknesses, the mean grain-sizes, and the standard deviations of tsunami deposits are used to evaluate the influences of coastal morphology on the sediment characteristics. The evaluations show that the tsunami affected areas were attacked by the variable energy waves. Wave energies at the direct tsunami wave affected areas are higher than at the indirect tsunami wave affected areas. Tsunami wave energy is highly dissipated at an area with steep slope shoreface. In the same way, tsunami run-up energy is highly dissipated at an area with steep slope onshore. A channel paralleled to the coastline decreases the run-up velocity, slightly dissipates run-up energy. The road and pond highly influence the characteristics of tsunami deposit and tsunami run-up. A road obstructs the run-up velocity, dissipates run-up energy. A pond decreases run-up velocity, dissipates run-up energy. The characteristics of tsunami deposit can be interpreted for reconstructing the characteristics of tsunami run-up such as a run-up height and a flow velocity. Soulsby et al.(2007)- model is applied for reconstructing tsunami run-up at the study areas. The input parameters are sediment grain-size and sediment inundation distance. Ao Kheuy beach and Khuk Khak beach, Phang Nga province, Thailand are the areas listed for reconstructing tsunami run-up. The evaluated run-up heights are 4.2-4.9 m at Ao Kheuy beach, and 5.4-9.4 m at Khuk Khak beach. The evaluated run-up velocities are 12.8-19.2 m/s (maximum) and 0.2-1.9 m/s (mean) at the coastline and onshore, respectively. Hence, a reasonably good agreement between the evaluated and observed run-up is found. Tsunami run-up height and velocity can be used for coastal development and risk management in the tsunami affected areas. The case studies from the Thai Andaman coast suggest that in the area from coastline to about 70-140 m inland was flooded by the high velocity (high energy) run-ups, and those run-up energies were dissipated there. That area ought to be a non-residential area or a physical protection construction area (flood barrier, forest planting, etc.).

The economic growth theory analyses which factors affect economic growth and tries to analyze how it can last. A popular neoclassical growth model is the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, which aims to determine how much of its income a nation or an economy should save in order to maximize its welfare. In this thesis, we present and analyze an extended capital accumulation equation of a spatial version of the Ramsey model, balancing diffusive and agglomerative effects. We model the capital mobility in space via a nonlocal diffusion operator which allows for jumps of the capital stock from one location to an other. Moreover, this operator smooths out heterogeneities in the factor distributions slower, which generated a more realistic behavior of capital flows. In addition to that, we introduce an endogenous productivity-production operator which depends on time and on the capital distribution in space. This operator models the technological progress of the economy. The resulting mathematical model is an optimal control problem under a semilinear parabolic integro-differential equation with initial and volume constraints, which are a nonlocal analog to local boundary conditions, and box-constraints on the state and the control variables. In this thesis, we consider this problem on a bounded and unbounded spatial domain, in both cases with a finite time horizon. We derive existence results of weak solutions for the capital accumulation equations in both settings and we proof the existence of a Ramsey equilibrium in the unbounded case. Moreover, we solve the optimal control problem numerically and discuss the results in the economic context.

Service innovation has increasingly gained acknowledgement to contribute to economic growth and well-being. Despite this increased relevance in practice, service innovation is a developing research field. To advance literature on service innovation, this work analyzes with a qualitative study how firms manage service innovation activities in their organization differently. In addition, it evaluates the influence of top management commitment and corporate service innovativeness on service innovation capabilities of a firm and their implications for firm-level performance by conducting a quantitative study. Accordingly, the main overall research questions of this dissertation are: 1.) How and why do firms manage service innovation activities in their organization differently? 2.) What influence do top management commitment and corporate service innovativeness have on service innovation capabilities of a firm and what are the implications for firm-level performance? To respond to the first research question the way firms manage service innovation activities in their organization is investigated and by whom and how service innovations are developed. Moreover, it is examined why firms implement their service innovation activities differently. To achieve this a qualitative empirical study is conducted which included 22 semi-structured interviews with 15 firms in the sectors of construction, financial services, IT services, and logistics. Addressing the second research question, the aim is to improve the understanding about factors that enhance firm-level performance through service innovations. Deploying a dynamic capabilities perspective, a quantitative study is performed which underlines the importance of service innovation capabilities. More specifically, a theoretical framework is developed that proposes a positive relationship of top management commitment and corporate service innovativeness with service innovation capabilities and a positive relationship between service innovation capabilities and the firm-level performance indicators market performance, competitive advantage, and efficiency. A survey with double respondents from 87 companies from the sectors construction, financial services, IT services, and logistics was conducted to test the proposed theoretical framework by applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

This thesis presents a study of the visual change detection mechanism. This mechanism is thought to be responsible for the detection of sudden and unexpected changes in our visual environment. As the brain is a capacity limited system and has to deal with a continuous stream of information from its surroundings only a part of the vast amount of information can be completely processed and be brought to conscious awareness. This information, which passes through attentional filters, is used for goal-directed behaviour. Therefore, the change detection mechanism is a very useful aid to cope with important information which is outside the focus of our attention. rnIt is thought that a neural memory trace of repetitive visual information is stored. Each new information input is compared to this existing memory trace by a so-called change or mismatch detection system. Following a sudden change, the comparison process leads to a mismatch and the detection system elicits a warning signal, to which an orienting response can follow. This involves a change in the focus of attention towards this sudden environmental change which can then be evaluated for potential danger and allows for a behavioural adaptation to the new situation. rnTo this purpose a paradigm was developed combining a 2-choice response time task with in the background a mismatch detection task of which the subjects were not aware. This paradigm was implemented in an ERP and an fMRI study and was used to study the the change detection mechanism and its relationship with impulsivity.rnIn previous studies a change detection system for auditory information had already been established. As the brain is a very efficient system it was thought to be unlikely that this change detection system is only available for the processing of auditory information. rnIndeed, a modality specific mismatch response at the sensory specific occipital cortex and a more general response at the frontocentral midline, both resembling the components shown in auditory research, were found in the ERP study.rnAdditionally, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a possible functional network of regions, which responded specifically to the processing of a deviant. These regions included the occipital gyrus, premotor cortex, inferior frontal cortex, thalamas, insula, and parts of the cingular cortex. rnThe relationship between impulsivity measures and visual change detection was established in an additional study. More impulsive subjects showed less detection of deviant stimuli, which was most likely due to too fast and imprecise information processing.rnIn summary it can be said, that the work presented in this thesis demonstrates that visual mismatch negativity was established, a number of regions could be associated with change detection and additionally the relevance of change detection in information processing was shown.rn

At any given moment, our senses are assaulted with a flood of information from the environment around us. We need to pick our way through all this information in order to be able to effectively respond to that what is relevant to us. In most cases we are usually able to select information relevant to our intentions from what is not relevant. However, what happens to the information that is not relevant to us? Is this irrelevant information completely ignored so that it does not affect our actions? The literature suggests that even though we mayrnignore an irrelevant stimulus, it may still interfere with our actions. One of the ways in which irrelevant stimuli can affect actions is by retrieving a response with which it was associated. An irrelevant stimulus that is presented in close temporal contiguity with a relevant stimulus can be associated with the response made to the relevant stimulus " an observation termed distractor-response binding (Rothermund, Wentura, & De Houwer, 2005). The studies presented in this work take a closer look at such distractor-response bindings, and therncircumstances in which they occur. Specifically, the study reported in chapter 6 examined whether only an exact repetition of the distractor can retrieve the response with which it was associated, or whether even similar distractors may cause retrieval. The results suggested that even repeating a similar distractor caused retrieval, albeit less than an exact repetition. In chapter 7, the existence of bindings between a distractor and a response were tested beyond arnperceptual level, to see whether they exist at an (abstract) conceptual level. Similar to perceptual repetition, distractor-based retrieval of the response was observed for the repetition of concepts. The study reported in chapter 8 of this work examined the influence of attention on the feature-response binding of irrelevant features. The results pointed towards a stronger binding effects when attention was directed towards the irrelevant feature compared to whenrnit was not. The study in chapter 9 presented here looked at the processes underlying distractor-based retrieval and distractor inhibition. The data suggest that motor processes underlie distractor-based retrieval and cognitive process underlie distractor inhibition. Finally, the findings of all four studies are also discussed in the context of learning.

The search for relevant determinants of knowledge acquisition has a long tradition in educational research, with systematic analyses having started over a century ago. To date, a variety of relevant environmental and learner-related characteristics have been identified, providing a wide body of empirical evidence. However, there are still some gaps in the literature, which are highlighted in the current dissertation. The dissertation includes two meta-analyses summarizing the evidence on the effectiveness of electrical brain stimulation and the effects of prior knowledge on later learning outcomes and one empirical study employing latent profile transition analysis to investigate the changes in conceptual knowledge over time. The results from the three studies demonstrate how learning outcomes can be advanced by input from the environment and that they are highly related to the students" level of prior knowledge. It is concluded that the effects of environmental and learner-related variables impact both the biological and cognitive processes underlying knowledge acquisition. Based on the findings from the three studies, methodological and practical implications are provided, followed by an outline of four recommendations for future research on knowledge acquisition.

The subject of this thesis is a homological approach to the splitting theory of PLS-spaces, i.e. to the question for which topologically exact short sequences 0->X->Y->Z->0 of PLS-spaces X,Y,Z the right-hand map admits a right inverse. We show that the category (PLS) of PLS-spaces and continuous linear maps is an additive category in which every morphism admits a kernel and a cokernel, i.e. it is pre-abelian. However, we also show that it is neither quasi-abelian nor semi-abelian. As a foundation for our homological constructions we show the more general result that every pre-abelian category admits a largest exact structure in the sense of Quillen. In the pre-abelian category (PLS) this exact structure consists precisely of the topologically exact short sequences of PLS-spaces. Using a construction of Ext-functors due to Yoneda, we show that one can define for each PLS-space A and every natural number k the k-th abelian-group valued covariant and contravariant Ext-functors acting on the category (PLS) of PLS-spaces, which induce for every topologically exact short sequence of PLS-spaces a long exact sequence of abelian groups and group morphisms. These functors are studied in detail and we establish a connection between the Ext-functors of PLS-spaces and the Ext-functors for LS-spaces. Through this connection we arrive at an analogue of a result for Fréchet spaces which connects the first derived functor of the projective limit with the first Ext-functor and also gives sufficient conditions for the vanishing of the higher Ext-functors. Finally, we show that Ext^k(E,F) = 0 for a k greater or equal than 1, whenever E is a closed subspace and F is a Hausdorff-quotient of the space of distributions, which generalizes a result of Wengenroth that is itself a generalization of results due to Domanski and Vogt.

This work investigates the industrial applicability of graphics and stream processors in the field of fluid simulations. For this purpose, an explicit Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method in arbitrarily high order is implemented completely for the hardware architecture of GPUs. The same functionality is simultaneously realized for CPUs and compared to GPUs. Explicit time steppings as well as established implicit methods are under consideration for the CPU. This work aims at the simulation of inviscid, transsonic flows over the ONERA M6 wing. The discontinuities which typically arise in hyperbolic equations are treated with an artificial viscosity approach. It is further investigated how this approach fits into the explicit time stepping and works together with the special architecture of the GPU. Since the treatment of artificial viscosity is close to the simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is reviewed how GPU-accelerated methods could be applied for computing viscous flows. This work is based on a nodal discontinuous Galerkin approach for linear hyperbolic problems. Here, it is extended to non-linear problems, which makes the application of numerical quadrature obligatory. Moreover, the representation of complex geometries is realized using isoparametric mappings. Higher order methods are typically very sensitive with respect to boundaries which are not properly resolved. For this purpose, an approach is presented which fits straight-sided DG meshes to curved geometries which are described by NURBS surfaces. The mesh is modeled as an elastic body and deformed according to the solution of closest point problems in order to minimize the gap to the original spline surface. The sensitivity with respect to geometry representations is reviewed in the end of this work in the context of shape optimization. Here, the aerodynamic drag of the ONERA M6 wing is minimized according to the shape gradient which is implicitly smoothed within the mesh deformation approach. In this context a comparison to the classical Laplace-Beltrami operator is made in a Stokes flow situation.

In addition to the well-recognised effects of both, genes and adult environment, it is now broadly accepted that adverse conditions during pregnancy contribute to the development of mental and somatic disorders in the offspring, such as cardiovascular disorders, endocrinological disorders, metabolic disorders, schizophrenia, anxious and depressive behaviour and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early life events may have long lasting impact on tissue structure and function and these effects appear to underlie the developmental origins of vulnerability to chronic diseases. The assumption that prenatal adversity, such as maternal emotional states during pregnancy, may have adverse effects on the developing infant is not new. Accordant references can be found in an ancient Indian text (ca. 1050 before Christ), in biblical texts and in documents originating during the Middle Ages. Even Hippocrates stated possible effects of maternal emotional states on the developing fetus. Since the mid-1950s, research examining the effects of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appeared in the literature. Extensive research in this field has been conducted since the early 1990s. Thus, the relationship between early life events and long-term health outcomes was already postulated over 20 years ago. David Barker and colleagues demonstrated that children of lower birth weight - which represents a crude marker of an adverse intrauterine environment - were at increased risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disorders, and type-2 diabetes later in life. These provocative findings led to a large amount of subsequent research, initially focussing on the role of undernutrition in determining fetal outcomes. The phenomenon of prenatal influences that determine in part the risk of suffering from chronic disease later in life has been named the "fetal origins of health and disease" paradigm. The concept of "prenatal programming" has now been extended to many other domains, such as the effects of prenatal maternal stress, prenatal tobacco exposure, alcohol intake, medication, toxins, as well as maternal infection and diseases. During the process of prenatal programming, environmental agents are transmitted across the placenta and act on specific fetal tissues during sensitive periods of development. Thus, developmental trajectories are changed and the organisation and function of tissue structure and organ system is altered. The biological purpose of those "early life programming" may consist in evolutionary advantages. The offspring adapts its development to the expected extrauterine environment which is forecast by the clues available during fetal life. If the fetus receives signals of a challenging environment, e.g. due to maternal stress hormones or maternal undernutrition, its survival may be promoted due to developmental adaptation processes. However, if the expected environment does not match with the real environment, maladapation and later disease risk may result. For example, a possible indicator of a "response ready" trait, such as hyperactivity/inattention may have been advantageous in an adverse ancient environment. However, it is of disadvantage when the postnatal environment demands oppositional skills, such as attention and concentration " e.g. in the classroom, at school, to achieve academic success. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, characterized by impulsivity, affective instability, dysfunctional interpersonal relationships and identity disturbance. Although many studies report different risk factors, the exact etiologic mechanisms are not yet understood. In addition to the well-recognised effects of genetic components and adverse childhood experiences, BPD may potentially be co-determined by further environmental influences, acting very early in life: during pre- and perinatal period. There are several hints that may suggest possible prenatal programming processes in BPD. For example, patients with BPD are characterized by elevated stress sensitivity and reactivity and dysfunctions of the neuroendocrine stress system, such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Furthermore, patients with BPD show a broad range of somatic comorbidities " especially those disorders for which prenatal programming processes have been described. During infancy and childhood, BPD patients already show behavioural and emotional abnormalities as well as pronounced temperamental traits, such as impulsivity, emotional dysregulation and inattention that may potentially be co-determined by prenatal programming processes. Such temperamental traits - similar to those, seen in patients with ADHD - have been described to be associated with low birthweight which indicates a suboptimal intrauterine environment. Moreover, the functional and structural alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with BPD might also be mediated in part by prenatal agents, such as prenatal tobacco exposure. Prenatal adversity may thus constitute a further, additional component in the multifactorial genesis of BPD. The association between BPD and prenatal risk factors has not yet been studied in such detail. We are not aware of any further study that assessed pre- and perinatal risk factors, such as maternal psychoscocial stress, smoking, alcohol intake, obstetric complications and lack of breastfeeding in patients with BPD.

In this thesis we focus on the development and investigation of methods for the computation of confluent hypergeometric functions. We point out the relations between these functions and parabolic boundary value problems and demonstrate applications to models of heat transfer and fluid dynamics. For the computation of confluent hypergeometric functions on compact (real or complex) intervals we consider a series expansion based on the Hadamard product of power series. It turnes out that the partial sums of this expansion are easily computable and provide a better rate of convergence in comparison to the partial sums of the Taylor series. Regarding the computational accuracy the problem of cancellation errors is reduced considerably. Another important tool for the computation of confluent hypergeometric functions are recurrence formulae. Although easy to implement, such recurrence relations are numerically unstable e.g. due to rounding errors. In order to circumvent these problems a method for computing recurrence relations in backward direction is applied. Furthermore, asymptotic expansions for large arguments in modulus are considered. From the numerical point of view the determination of the number of terms used for the approximation is a crucial point. As an application we consider initial-boundary value problems with partial differential equations of parabolic type, where we use the method of eigenfunction expansion in order to determine an explicit form of the solution. In this case the arising eigenfunctions depend directly on the geometry of the considered domain. For certain domains with some special geometry the eigenfunctions are of confluent hypergeometric type. Both a conductive heat transfer model and an application in fluid dynamics is considered. Finally, the application of several heat transfer models to certain sterilization processes in food industry is discussed.

Memory consists of multiple anatomically and functionally distinct systems. Animal studies suggest that stress modulates multiple memory systems in a manner that favors nucleus caudatus-based stimulus-response learning at the expense of hippocampus-based spatial learning. The present work aimed (i) to translate these findings to humans, (ii) to determine the involvement of the stress hormone cortisol in this effect, and (iii) to assess whether the use of stimulus-response and spatial strategies is a long lasting person characteristic. To address these issues we developed a new paradigm that differentiates the use of spatial and stimulus-response learning in humans. Our findings indicate that (i) psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test) modulates the use of spatial and stimulus-response learning in humans, (ii) cortisol plays a key role in this modulatory effect of stress, and (iii) the use of spatial and stimulus-response learning is affected by situational rather than long lasting person factors.