### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (210)
- Article (21)
- Book (11)
- Conference Proceedings (9)
- Other (3)
- Habilitation (2)
- Master's Thesis (1)
- retrodigitization (1)
- Working Paper (1)

#### Language

- English (259) (remove)

#### Keywords

- Stress (21)
- Cortisol (11)
- Fernerkundung (11)
- Hydrocortison (11)
- cortisol (9)
- n.a. (9)
- Modellierung (8)
- Optimierung (7)
- stress (7)
- Physiologische Psychologie (6)

#### Institute

- Psychologie (69)
- Geographie und Geowissenschaften (58)
- Mathematik (43)
- Wirtschaftswissenschaften (23)
- Anglistik (15)
- Informatik (15)
- Rechtswissenschaft (14)
- Fachbereich 4 (5)
- Fachbereich 6 (3)
- Medienwissenschaft (3)

In the context of accelerated global socio-environmental change, the Water-Energy-Food Nexus has received increasing attention within science and international politics by promoting integrated resource governance. This study explores the scientific nexus debates from a discourse analytical perspective to reveal knowledge and power relations as well as geographical settings of nexus research. We also investigate approaches to socio-nature relations that influence nexus research and subsequent political implications. Our findings suggest that the leading nexus discourse is dominated by natural scientific perspectives and a neo-Malthusian framing of environmental challenges. Accordingly, the promoted cross-sectoral nexus approach to resource governance emphasizes efficiency, security, future sustainability, and poverty reduction. Water, energy, and food are conceived as global trade goods that require close monitoring, management and control, to be achieved via quantitative assessments and technological interventions. Within the less visible discourse, social scientific perspectives engage with the social, political, and normative elements of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. These perspectives criticize the dominant nexus representation for itsmanagerial, neoliberal, and utilitarian approach to resource governance. The managerial framing is critiqued for masking power relations and social inequalities, while alternative framings acknowledge the political nature of resource governance and socio-nature relations. The spatial dimensions of the nexus debate are also discussed. Notably, the nexus is largely shaped by western knowledge, yet applied mainly in specific regions of the Global South. In order for the nexus to achieve integrative solutions for sustainability, the debate needs to overcome its current discursive and spatial separations. To this end, we need to engage more closely with alternative nexus discourses, embrace epistemic pluralism and encourage multi-perspective debates about the socio-nature relations we actually intend to promote.

A basic assumption of standard small area models is that the statistic of interest can be modelled through a linear mixed model with common model parameters for all areas in the study. The model can then be used to stabilize estimation. In some applications, however, there may be different subgroups of areas, with specific relationships between the response variable and auxiliary information. In this case, using a distinct model for each subgroup would be more appropriate than employing one model for all observations. If no suitable natural clustering variable exists, finite mixture regression models may represent a solution that „lets the data decide“ how to partition areas into subgroups. In this framework, a set of two or more different models is specified, and the estimation of subgroup-specific model parameters is performed simultaneously to estimating subgroup identity, or the probability of subgroup identity, for each area. Finite mixture models thus offer a fexible approach to accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Therefore, in this thesis, finite mixtures of small area models are proposed to account for the existence of latent subgroups of areas in small area estimation. More specifically, it is assumed that the statistic of interest is appropriately modelled by a mixture of K linear mixed models. Both mixtures of standard unit-level and standard area-level models are considered as special cases. The estimation of mixing proportions, area-specific probabilities of subgroup identity and the K sets of model parameters via the EM algorithm for mixtures of mixed models is described. Eventually, a finite mixture small area estimator is formulated as a weighted mean of predictions from model 1 to K, with weights given by the area-specific probabilities of subgroup identity.

Acute social and physical stress interact to influence social behavior: the role of social anxiety
(2018)

Stress is proven to have detrimental effects on physical and mental health. Due to different tasks and study designs, the direct consequences of acute stress have been found to be wide-reaching: while some studies report prosocial effects, others report increases in antisocial behavior, still others report no effect. To control for specific effects of different stressors and to consider the role of social anxiety in stress-related social behavior, we investigated the effects of social versus physical stress on behavior in male participants possessing different levels of social anxiety. In a randomized, controlled two by two design we investigated the impact of social and physical stress on behavior in healthy young men. We found significant influences on various subjective increases in stress by physical and social stress, but no interaction effect. Cortisol was significantly increased by physical stress, and the heart rate was modulated by physical and social stress as well as their combination. Social anxiety modulated the subjective stress response but not the cortisol or heart rate response. With respect to behavior, our results show that social and physical stress interacted to modulate trust, trustworthiness, and sharing. While social stress and physical stress alone reduced prosocial behavior, a combination of the two stressor modalities could restore prosociality. Social stress alone reduced nonsocial risk behavior regardless of physical stress. Social anxiety was associated with higher subjective stress responses and higher levels of trust. As a consequence, future studies will need to investigate further various stressors and clarify their effects on social behavior in health and social anxiety disorders.

The forward effect of testing refers to the finding that retrieval practice of previously studied information increases retention of subsequently studied other information. It has recently been hypothesized that the forward effect (partly) reflects the result of a reset-of-encoding (ROE) process. The proposal is that encoding efficacy decreases with an increase in study material, but testing of previously studied information resets the encoding process and makes the encoding of the subsequently studied information as effective as the encoding of the previously studied information. The goal of the present study was to verify the ROE hypothesis on an item level basis. An experiment is reported that examined the effects of testing in comparison to restudy on items’ serial position curves. Participants studied three lists of items in each condition. In the testing condition, participants were tested immediately on non-target lists 1 and 2, whereas in the restudy condition, they restudied lists 1 and 2. In both conditions, participants were tested immediately on target list 3. Influences of condition and items’ serial learning position on list 3 recall were analyzed. The results showed the forward effect of testing and furthermore that this effect varies with items’ serial list position. Early target list items at list primacy positions showed a larger enhancement effect than middle and late target list items at non-primacy positions. The results are consistent with the ROE hypothesis on an item level basis. The generalizability of the ROE hypothesis across different experimental tasks, like the list-method directed-forgetting task, is discussed.

Background: The growing production and use of engineered AgNP in industry and private households make
increasing concentrations of AgNP in the environment unavoidable. Although we already know the harmful effects
of AgNP on pivotal bacterial driven soil functions, information about the impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on the
soil bacterial community structure is rare. Hence, the aim of this study was to reveal the long-term effects of AgNP
on major soil bacterial phyla in a loamy soil. The study was conducted as a laboratory incubation experiment over a
period of 1 year using a loamy soil and AgNP concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg AgNP/kg soil. Effects were
quantified using the taxon-specific 16S rRNA qPCR.
Results: The short-term exposure of AgNP at environmentally relevant concentration of 0.01 mg AgNP/kg caused
significant positive effects on Acidobacteria (44.0%), Actinobacteria (21.1%) and Bacteroidetes (14.6%), whereas beta-
Proteobacteria population was minimized by 14.2% relative to the control (p ≤ 0.05). After 1 year of exposure to
0.01 mg AgNP/kg diminished Acidobacteria (p = 0.007), Bacteroidetes (p = 0.005) and beta-Proteobacteria (p = 0.000) by
14.5, 10.1 and 13.9%, respectively. Actino- and alpha-Proteobacteria were statistically unaffected by AgNP treatments
after 1-year exposure. Furthermore, a statistically significant regression and correlation analysis between silver toxicity
and exposure time confirmed loamy soils as a sink for silver nanoparticles and their concomitant silver ions.
Conclusions: Even very low concentrations of AgNP may cause disadvantages for the autotrophic ammonia oxidation
(nitrification), the organic carbon transformation and the chitin degradation in soils by exerting harmful effects
on the liable bacterial phyla.

Species can show strong variation of local abundance across their ranges. Recent analyses suggested that variation in abundance can be related to environmental suitability, as the highest abundances are often observed in populations living in the most suitable areas. However, there is limited information on the mechanisms through which variation in environmental suitability determines abundance. We analysed populations of the microendemic salamander Hydromantes flavus, and tested several hypotheses on potential relationships linking environmental suitability to population parameters. For multiple populations across the whole species range, we assessed suitability using species distribution models, and measured density, activity level, food intake and body condition index. In high-suitability sites, the density of salamanders was up to 30-times higher than in the least suitable ones. Variation in activity levels and population performance can explain such variation of abundance. In high-suitability sites, salamanders were active close to the surface, and showed a low frequency of empty stomachs. Furthermore, when taking into account seasonal variation, body condition was better in the most suitable sites. Our results show that the strong relationship between environmental suitability and population abundance can be mediated by the variation of parameters strongly linked to individual performance and fitness.

Stiftungsunternehmen sind Unternehmen, die sich ganz oder teilweise im Eigentum einer gemeinnützigen oder privaten Stiftung befinden. Die Anzahl an Stiftungsunternehmen in Deutschland ist in den letzten Jahren deutlich gestiegen. Bekannte deutsche Unternehmen wie Aldi, Bosch, Bertelsmann, LIDL oder Würth befinden sich im Eigentum von Stiftungen. Einige von ihnen, wie beispielsweise Fresenius, ZF Friedrichshafen oder Zeiss, sind sogar an der Börse notiert. Die Mehrzahl der Stiftungsunternehmen entsteht dadurch, dass Unternehmensgründer oder Unternehmerfamilien ihr Unternehmen in eine Stiftung einbringen, anstatt es zu vererben oder zu verkaufen.
Die Motive hierfür sind vielfältig und können familiäre Gründe (z. B. Kinderlosigkeit, Vermeidung von Familienstreit), unternehmensbezogene Gründe (z. B. Möglichkeit der langfristigen Planung durch stabile Eigentümerstruktur) und steuerliche Gründe (Vermeidung oder Reduzierung der Erbschaftssteuer) haben oder sind durch die Person des Gründers motiviert (Möglichkeit, das Unternehmen auch nach dem eigenen Tod über die Stiftung noch weiterhin zu prägen). Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Stiftungsunternehmen zumeist aus Familienunternehmen hervorgehen, wird in der Forschung häufig nicht zwischen Familien- und Stiftungsunternehmen differenziert. Aus diesem Grund werden in dieser Dissertation zu Beginn anhand des Drei-Kreis-Modells für Familienunternehmen die Unterschiede zwischen Stiftungs- und Familienunternehmen dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass nur eine sehr geringe Anzahl von Stiftungsunternehmen eine große Ähnlichkeit zu klassischen Familienunternehmen aufweist. Die meisten Stiftungsunternehmen unterscheiden sich zum Teil sehr stark von Familienunternehmen. Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass Stiftungsunternehmen als separates Forschungsfeld betrachtet werden sollten.
Da innerhalb der Gruppe der Stiftungsunternehmen ebenfalls eine starke Heterogenität herrscht, werden im Anschluss Performanceunterschiede innerhalb der Gruppe der Stiftungsunternehmen untersucht. Hierzu wurden die Daten von 142 deutschen Stiftungsunternehmen für die Jahre 2006-2016 erhoben und mittels einer lineareren Regression ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass zwischen den verschiedenen Typen signifikante Unterschiede herrschen. Unternehmen, die von einer gemeinnützigen Stiftung gehalten werden, weisen eine signifikant schlechtere Performance auf, als Unternehmen die eine private Stiftung als Shareholder haben.
Im nächsten Schritt wird die Gruppe der börsennotierten Stiftungsunternehmen untersucht. Mittels einer Ereignisstudie wird getestet, wie sich die Stiftung als Eigentümer eines börsennotierten Unternehmens auf den Shareholder Value auswirkt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Anteilsverringerung einer Stiftung einen positiven Einfluss auf den Shareholder Value hat. Stiftungen werden vom Kapitalmarkt dementsprechend negativ bewertet. Aufgrund der divergierenden Ziele von Stiftung und Unternehmen birgt die Verbindung zwischen Stiftung und Unternehmen potentielle Konflikte und Herausforderungen für die beteiligten Personen. Mittels eines qualitativen explorativen Ansatzes, wird basierend auf Interviews, ein Modell entwickelt, welches die potentiellen Konflikte in Stiftungsunternehmen anhand des Beispiels der Doppelstiftung aufzeigt.
Im letzten Schritt werden Handlungsempfehlungen in Form eines Entwurfs für einen Corporate Governance Kodex erarbeitet, die (potentiellen) Stifterinnen und Stiftern helfen sollen, mögliche Konflikte entweder zu vermeiden oder bereits bestehende Probleme zu lösen.
Die Ergebnisse dieser Dissertation sind relevant für Theorie und Praxis. Aus theoretischer Sicht liegt der Wert dieser Untersuchungen darin, dass Forscher künftig besser zwischen Stiftungs- und Familienunternehmen unterscheiden können. Zudem bringt diese Arbeit den aktuellen Forschungsstand zum Thema Stiftungsunternehmen weiter. Außerdem bietet diese Dissertation insbesondere potentiellen Stiftern einen Überblick über die verschiedenen Ausgestaltungsmöglichkeiten und die Vor- und Nachteile, die diese Konstruktionen mit sich bringen. Die Handlungsempfehlungen ermöglichen es Stiftern, vorab potentielle Gefahren erkennen zu können und diese zu umgehen.

The changing views on the evolutionary relationships of extant Salamandridae (Amphibia: Urodela)
(2018)

The phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Salamandridae have been repeatedly investigated over the last 90 years, with changing character and taxon sampling. We review the changing composition and the phylogenetic position of salamandrid genera and species groups and add a new phylogeny based exclusively on sequences of nuclear genes. Salamandrina often changed its position depending on the characters used. It was included several times in a clade together with the primitive newts (Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, Tylototriton) due to their seemingly ancestral morphology. The latter were often inferred as a monophyletic clade. Respective monophyly was almost consistently established in all molecular studies for true salamanders (Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, Mertensiella, Salamandra), modern Asian newts (Cynops, Laotriton, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton) and modern New World newts (Notophthalmus, Taricha). Reciprocal non-monophyly has been established through molecular studies for the European mountain newts (Calotriton, Euproctus) and the modern European newts (Ichthyosaura, Lissotriton, Neurergus, Ommatotriton, Triturus) since Calotriton was identified as the sister lineage of Triturus. In pre-molecular studies, their respective monophyly had almost always been assumed, mainly because a complex courtship behaviour shared by their respective members. Our nuclear tree is nearly identical to a mito-genomic tree, with all but one node being highly supported. The major difference concerns the position of Calotriton, which is no longer nested within the modern European newts. This has implications for the evolution of courtship behaviour of European newts. Within modern European newts, Ichthyosaura and Lissotriton changed their position compared to the mito-genomic tree. Previous molecular trees based on seemingly large nuclear data sets, but analysed together with mitochondrial data, did not reveal monophyly of modern European newts since taxon sampling and nuclear gene coverage was too poor to obtain conclusive results. We therefore conclude that mitochondrial and nuclear data should be analysed on their own.

Reptiles belong to a taxonomic group characterized by increasing worldwide population declines. However, it has not been until comparatively recent years that public interest in these taxa has increased, and conservation measures are starting to show results. While many factors contribute to these declines, environmental pollution, especially in form of pesticides, has seen a strong increase in the last few decades, and is nowadays considered a main driver for reptile diversity loss. In light of the above, and given that reptiles are extremely underrepresented in ecotoxicological studies regarding the effects of plant protection products, this thesis aims at studying the impacts of pesticide exposure in reptiles, by using the Common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) as model species. In a first approach, I evaluated the risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species within the European Union, as a means to detect species with above average exposure probabilities and to detect especially sensitive reptile orders. While helpful to detect species at risk, a risk evaluation is only the first step towards addressing this problem. It is thus indispensable to identify effects of pesticide exposure in wildlife. For this, the use of enzymatic biomarkers has become a popular method to study sub-individual responses, and gain information regarding the mode of action of chemicals. However, current methodologies are very invasive. Thus, in a second step, I explored the use of buccal swabs as a minimally invasive method to detect changes in enzymatic biomarker activity in reptiles, as an indicator for pesticide uptake and effects at the sub-individual level. Finally, the last part of this thesis focuses on field data regarding pesticide exposure and its effects on reptile wildlife. Here, a method to determine pesticide residues in food items of the Common wall lizard was established, as a means to generate data for future dietary risk assessments. Subsequently, a field study was conducted with the aim to describe actual effects of pesticide exposure on reptile populations at different levels.

The Harmonic Faber Operator
(2018)

P. K. Suetin points out in the beginning of his monograph "Faber
Polynomials and Faber Series" that Faber polynomials play an important
role in modern approximation theory of a complex variable as they
are used in representing analytic functions in simply connected domains,
and many theorems on approximation of analytic functions are proved
with their help [50].
In 1903, the Faber polynomials were firstly discovered by G. Faber. It was Faber's aim to find a generalisation of Taylor
series of holomorphic functions in the open unit disc D
in the following way. As any holomorphic function in D
has a Taylor series representation
f(z)=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} (z\in\D)
converging locally uniformly inside D, for a simply connected
domain G, Faber wanted to determine a system of polynomials (Q_n)
such that each function f being holomorphic in G can be expanded
into a series
f=\sum_{\nu=0}^{\infty}b_{\nu}Q_{\nu}
converging locally uniformly inside G. Having this goal in mind,
Faber considered simply connected domains bounded by an analytic Jordan
curve. He constructed a system of polynomials (F_n)
with this property. These polynomials F_n were named after him
as Faber polynomials. In the preface of [50],
a detailed summary of results concerning Faber polynomials and results
obtained by the aid of them is given.
An important application of Faber polynomials is e.g. the transfer
of known assertions concerning polynomial approximation of functions
belonging to the disc algebra to results of the approximation of functions
being continuous on a compact continuum K which contains at least
two points and has a connected complement and being holomorphic in
the interior of K. In this field, the Faber operator
denoted by T turns out to be a powerful tool (for
an introduction, see e.g. D. Gaier's monograph). It
assigns a polynomial of degree at most n given in the monomial
basis \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}z^{\nu} with a polynomial of degree
at most n given in the basis of Faber polynomials \sum_{\nu=0}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}.
If the Faber operator is continuous with respect to the uniform norms,
it has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping the disc
algebra onto the space of functions being continuous on the whole
compact continuum and holomorphic in its interior. For all f being
element of the disc algebra and all polynomials P, via the obvious
estimate for the uniform norms
||T(f)-T(P)||<= ||T|| ||f-P||,
it can be seen that the original task of approximating F=T(f)
by polynomials is reduced to the polynomial approximation of the function
f. Therefore, the question arises under which conditions the Faber
operator is continuous and surjective. A fundamental result in this
regard was established by J. M. Anderson and J. Clunie who showed
that if the compact continuum is bounded by a rectifiable Jordan curve
with bounded boundary rotation and free from cusps, then the Faber
operator with respect to the uniform norms is a topological isomorphism.
Now, let f be a harmonic function in D.
Similar as above, we find that f has a uniquely determined representation
f=\sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}a_{\nu}p_{\nu}
converging locally uniformly inside D where p_{n}(z)=z^{n}
for n\in\N_{0} and p_{-n}(z)=\overline{z}^{n}
for n\in\N}. One may ask whether there is an analogue for
harmonic functions on simply connected domains G. Indeed, for a
domain G bounded by an analytic Jordan curve, the conjecture that
each function f being harmonic in G has a uniquely determined
representation
f=\sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}b_{\nu}F_{\nu}
where F_{-n}(z)=\overline{F_{n}(z\)} for n\inN,
converging locally uniformly inside G, holds true.
Let now K be a compact continuum containing at least two points
and having a connected complement. A main component of this thesis
will be the examination of the harmonic Faber operator mapping a harmonic
polynomial given in the basis of the harmonic monomials \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}p_{\nu}
to a harmonic polynomial given as \sum_{\nu=-n}^{n}a_{\nu}F_{\nu}.
If this operator, which is based on an idea of J. Müller,
is continuous with respect to the uniform norms, it has a unique continuous
extension to an operator mapping the functions being continuous on
\partial\D onto the continuous functions on K being
harmonic in the interior of K. Harmonic Faber polynomials and the
harmonic Faber operator will be the objects accompanying us throughout
our whole discussion.
After having given an overview about notations and certain tools we
will use in our consideration in the first chapter, we begin our studies
with an introduction to the Faber operator and the harmonic Faber
operator. We start modestly and consider domains bounded by an analytic
Jordan curve. In Section 2, as a first
result, we will show that, for such a domain G, the harmonic Faber
operator has a unique continuous extension to an operator mapping
the space of the harmonic functions in D onto the space
of the harmonic functions in G, and moreover, the harmonic Faber
operator is an isomorphism with respect to the topologies of locally
uniform convergence. In the further sections of this chapter, we illumine
the behaviour of the (harmonic) Faber operator on certain function
spaces.
In the third chapter, we leave the situation of compact continua bounded
by an analytic Jordan curve. Instead we consider closures of domains
bounded by Jordan curves having a Dini continuous curvature. With
the aid of the concept of compact operators and the Fredholm alternative,
we are able to show that the harmonic Faber operator is a topological
isomorphism.
Since, in particular, the main result of the third chapter holds true
for closures K of domains bounded by analytic Jordan curves, we
can make use of it to obtain new results concerning the approximation
of functions being continuous on K and harmonic in the interior
of K by harmonic polynomials. To do so, we develop techniques applied
by L. Frerick and J. Müller in [11] and adjust them to
our setting. So, we can transfer results about the classic Faber operator
to the harmonic Faber operator.
In the last chapter, we will use the theory of harmonic Faber polynomials
to solve certain Dirichlet problems in the complex plane. We pursue
two different approaches: First, with a similar philosophy as in [50],
we develop a procedure to compute the coefficients of a series \sum_{\nu=-\infty}^{\infty}c_{\nu}F_{\nu}
converging uniformly to the solution of a given Dirichlet problem.
Later, we will point out how semi-infinite programming with harmonic
Faber polynomials as ansatz functions can be used to get an approximate
solution of a given Dirichlet problem. We cover both approaches first
from a theoretical point of view before we have a focus on the numerical
implementation of concrete examples. As application of the numerical
computations, we considerably obtain visualisations of the concerned
Dirichlet problems rounding out our discussion about the harmonic
Faber polynomials and the harmonic Faber operator.