## 510 Mathematik

In this thesis, we consider the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems with an underlying low-rank tensor structure. Due to the exponentially increasing computational complexity in the number of dimensions—the so-called curse of dimensionality—they present a considerable computational challenge and become infeasible even for moderate problem sizes.
Multilinear algebra and tensor numerical methods have a wide range of applications in the fields of data science and scientific computing. Due to the typically large problem sizes in practical settings, efficient methods, which exploit low-rank structures, are essential. In this thesis, we consider an application each in both of these fields.
Tensor completion, or imputation of unknown values in partially known multiway data is an important problem, which appears in statistics, mathematical imaging science and data science. Under the assumption of redundancy in the underlying data, this is a well-defined problem and methods of mathematical optimization can be applied to it.
Due to the fact that tensors of fixed rank form a Riemannian submanifold of the ambient high-dimensional tensor space, Riemannian optimization is a natural framework for these problems, which is both mathematically rigorous and computationally efficient.
We present a novel Riemannian trust-region scheme, which compares favourably with the state of the art on selected application cases and outperforms known methods on some test problems.
Optimization problems governed by partial differential equations form an area of scientific computing which has applications in a variety of areas, ranging from physics to financial mathematics. Due to the inherent high dimensionality of optimization problems arising from discretized differential equations, these problems present computational challenges, especially in the case of three or more dimensions. An even more challenging class of optimization problems has operators of integral instead of differential type in the constraint. These operators are nonlocal, and therefore lead to large, dense discrete systems of equations. We present a novel solution method, based on separation of spatial dimensions and provably low-rank approximation of the nonlocal operator. Our approach allows the solution of multidimensional problems with a complexity which is only slightly larger than linear in the univariate grid size; this improves the state of the art for a particular test problem problem by at least two orders of magnitude.

Industrial companies mainly aim for increasing their profit. That is why they intend to reduce production costs without sacrificing the quality. Furthermore, in the context of the 2020 energy targets, energy efficiency plays a crucial role. Mathematical modeling, simulation and optimization tools can contribute to the achievement of these industrial and environmental goals. For the process of white wine fermentation, there exists a huge potential for saving energy. In this thesis mathematical modeling, simulation and optimization tools are customized to the needs of this biochemical process and applied to it. Two different models are derived that represent the process as it can be observed in real experiments. One model takes the growth, division and death behavior of the single yeast cell into account. This is modeled by a partial integro-differential equation and additional multiple ordinary integro-differential equations showing the development of the other substrates involved. The other model, described by ordinary differential equations, represents the growth and death behavior of the yeast concentration and development of the other substrates involved. The more detailed model is investigated analytically and numerically. Thereby existence and uniqueness of solutions are studied and the process is simulated. These investigations initiate a discussion regarding the value of the additional benefit of this model compared to the simpler one. For optimization, the process is described by the less detailed model. The process is identified by a parameter and state estimation problem. The energy and quality targets are formulated in the objective function of an optimal control or model predictive control problem controlling the fermentation temperature. This means that cooling during the process of wine fermentation is controlled. Parameter and state estimation with nonlinear economic model predictive control is applied in two experiments. For the first experiment, the optimization problems are solved by multiple shooting with a backward differentiation formula method for the discretization of the problem and a sequential quadratic programming method with a line search strategy and a Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno update for the solution of the constrained nonlinear optimization problems. Different rounding strategies are applied to the resulting post-fermentation control profile. Furthermore, a quality assurance test is performed. The outcomes of this experiment are remarkable energy savings and tasty wine. For the next experiment, some modifications are made, and the optimization problems are solved by using direct transcription via orthogonal collocation on finite elements for the discretization and an interior-point filter line-search method for the solution of the constrained nonlinear optimization problems. The second experiment verifies the results of the first experiment. This means that by the use of this novel control strategy energy conservation is ensured and production costs are reduced. From now on tasty white wine can be produced at a lower price and with a clearer conscience at the same time.

In this thesis, we present a new approach for estimating the effects of wind turbines for a local bat population. We build an individual based model (IBM) which simulates the movement behaviour of every single bat of the population with its own preferences, foraging behaviour and other species characteristics. This behaviour is normalized by a Monte-Carlo simulation which gives us the average behaviour of the population. The result is an occurrence map of the considered habitat which tells us how often the bat and therefore the considered bat population frequent every region of this habitat. Hence, it is possible to estimate the crossing rate of the position of an existing or potential wind turbine. We compare this individual based approach with a partial differential equation based method. This second approach produces a lower computational effort but, unfortunately, we lose information about the movement trajectories at the same time. Additionally, the PDE based model only gives us a density profile. Hence, we lose the information how often each bat crosses special points in the habitat in one night. In a next step we predict the average number of fatalities for each wind turbine in the habitat, depending on the type of the wind turbine and the behaviour of the considered bat species. This gives us the extra mortality caused by the wind turbines for the local population. This value is used for a population model and finally we can calculate whether the population still grows or if there already is a decline in population size which leads to the extinction of the population. Using the combination of all these models, we are able to evaluate the conflict of wind turbines and bats and to predict the result of this conflict. Furthermore, it is possible to find better positions for wind turbines such that the local bat population has a better chance to survive. Since bats tend to move in swarm formations under certain circumstances, we introduce swarm simulation using partial integro-differential equations. Thereby, we have a closer look at existence and uniqueness properties of solutions.

In der modernen Survey-Statistik treten immer häufifiger Optimierungsprobleme auf, die es zu lösen gilt. Diese sind oft von hoher Dimension und Simulationsstudien erfordern das mehrmalige Lösen dieser Optimierungsprobleme. Um dies in angemessener Zeit durchführen zu können, sind spezielle Algorithmen und Lösungsansätze erforderlich, welche in dieser Arbeit entwickelt und untersucht werden. Bei den Optimierungsproblemen handelt es sich zum einen um Allokationsprobleme zur Bestimmung optimaler Teilstichprobenumfänge. Hierbei werden neben auf einem Nullstellenproblem basierende, stetige Lösungsmethoden auch ganzzahlige, auf der Greedy-Idee basierende Lösungsmethoden untersucht und die sich ergebenden Optimallösungen miteinander verglichen.Zum anderen beschäftigt sich diese Arbeit mit verschiedenen Kalibrierungsproblemen. Hierzu wird ein alternativer Lösungsansatz zu den bisher praktizierten Methoden vorgestellt. Dieser macht das Lösen eines nichtglatten Nullstellenproblemes erforderlich, was mittels desrnnichtglatten Newton Verfahrens erfolgt. Im Zusammenhang mit nichtglatten Optimierungsalgorithmen spielt die Schrittweitensteuerung eine große Rolle. Hierzu wird ein allgemeiner Ansatz zur nichtmonotonen Schrittweitensteuerung bei Bouligand-differenzierbaren Funktionen betrachtet. Neben der klassischen Kalibrierung wird ferner ein Kalibrierungsproblem zur kohärenten Small Area Schätzung unter relaxierten Nebenbedingungen und zusätzlicher Beschränkung der Variation der Designgewichte betrachtet. Dieses Problem lässt sich in ein hochdimensionales quadratisches Optimierungsproblem umwandeln, welches die Verwendung von Lösern für dünn besetzte Optimierungsprobleme erfordert.Die in dieser Arbeit betrachteten numerischen Probleme können beispielsweise bei Zensen auftreten. In diesem Zusammenhang werden die vorgestellten Ansätze abschließend in Simulationsstudien auf eine mögliche Anwendung auf den Zensus 2011 untersucht, die im Rahmen des Zensus-Stichprobenforschungsprojektes untersucht wurden.