## Wirtschaftswissenschaften

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The classic Capital Asset Pricing Model and the portfolio theory suggest that investors hold the market portfolio to diversify idiosyncratic risks. The theory predicts that expected return of assets is positive and that reacts linearly on the overall market. However, in reality, we observe that investors often do not have perfectly diversified portfolios. Empirical studies find that new factors influence the deviation from the theoretical optimal investment. In the first part of this work (Chapter 2) we study such an example, namely the influence of maximum daily returns on subsequent returns. Here we follow ideas of Bali et al. (2011). The goal is to find cross-sectional relations between extremely positive returns and expected average returns. We take account a larger number of markets worldwide. Bali et al. (2011) report with respect to the U.S. market a robust negative relation between MAX (the maximum daily return) and the expected return in the subsequent time. We extent substantially their database to a number of other countries, and also take more recent data into account (until end of 2009). From that we conclude that the relation between MAX and expected returns is not consistent in all countries. Moreover, we test the robustness of the results of Bali et al. (2011) in two time-periods using the same data from CRSP. The results show that the effect of extremely positive returns is not stable over time. Indeed we find a negative cross-sectional relation between the extremely positive returns and the average returns for the first half of the time series, however, we do not find significant effects for the second half. The main results of this chapter serve as a basis for an unpublished working paper Yuan and Rieger (2014b). While in Chapter 2 we have studied factors that prevent optimal diversification, we consider in Chapter 3 and 4 situations where the optimal structure of diversification was previously unknown, namely diversification of options (or structured financial products). Financial derivatives are important additional investment form with respect to diversification. Not only common call and put options, but also structured products enable investors to pursue a multitude of investment strategies to improve the risk-return profile. Since derivatives become more and more important, diversification of portfolios with dimension of derivatives is of particularly practical relevance. We investigate the optimal diversification strategies in connection with underlying stocks for classical rational investors with constant relative risk aversion (CRRA). In particular, we apply Monte Carlo method based on the Black-Scholes model and the Heston model for stochastic volatility to model the stock market processes and the pricing of the derivatives. Afterwards, we compare the benchmark portfolio which consists of derivatives on single assets with derivatives on the index of these assets. First we compute the utility improvement of an investment in the risk-free assets and plain-vanilla options for CRRA investors in various scenarios. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to several kinds of structured products, in particular capital protected notes (CPNs), discount certificates (DCs) and bonus certificates (BCs). We find that the decision of an investor between these two diversification strategies leads to remarkable differences. The difference in the utility improvement is influenced by risk-preferences of investors, stock prices and the properties of the derivatives in the portfolio. The results will be presented in Chapter 3 and are the basis for a yet unpublished working paper Yuan and Rieger (2014a). To check furthermore whether underlyings of structured products influence decisions of investors, we discuss explicitly the utility gain of a stock-based product and an index-based product for an investor whose preferences are described by cumulative prospect theory (CPT) (Chapter 4, compare to Yuan (2014)). The goal is that to investigate the dependence of structured products on their underlying where we put emphasis on the difference between index-products and single-stock-products, in particular with respect to loss-aversion and mental accounting. We consider capital protected notes and discount certificates as examples, and model the stock prices and the index of these stocks via Monte Carlo simulations in the Black-Scholes framework. The results point out that market conditions, particularly the expected returns and volatility of the stocks play a crucial role in determining the preferences of investors for stock-based CPNs and index-based CPNs. A median CPT investor prefers the index-based CPNs if the expected return is higher and the volatility is lower, while he prefers the stock-based CPNs in the other situation. We also show that index-based DCs are robustly more attractive as compared to stock-based DCs for CPT investors.

Bei synthetischen Simulationsgesamtheiten handelt es sich um künstlichernDaten, die zur Nachbildung von realen Phänomenen in Simulationen verwendetrnwerden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Anforderungen und Methoden zur Erzeugung dieser Daten vorgestellt. Anhand von drei Beispielen wird gezeigt, wie erzeugte synthetische Daten in einer Simulation zur Anwendung kommen.

Die Auswirkungen von Rahmenfehlern in Zensen werden bereits seit vielen Jahren untersucht. Eine Methode, um aktuelle Bevölkerungszahlen zu gewinnen, basiert auf Fortschreibung. Wegen Ungenauigkeiten in der Fortschreibung wurden aber auch andere Modelle entwickelt - die capture-recapture-Modelle. Am 29. August 2006 hat die Bundesregierung beschlossen, dass in Deutschland 2011 ein registergestützter Zensus durchgeführt wird. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Dissertation liegt in der Anwendung des capture-recapture-Modelles im deutschen Zensus 2011. Die Dissertation vergleicht den dual system estimator (DSE) und alternative Schätzer (Verallgemeinerter-Regressionsschätzer, Verhältnis-synthetischer Schätzer, Schätzer basierend auf dem Unit-level Modell) für die Schätzung der Anzahl der tatsächlich vorhandenen Personen. Die empirische Untersuchung der Güte der Schätzer basiert auf Monte Carlo Simulationen synthetischer Populationen des Bundeslandes Saarland.